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Digentia

(43 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Stream in the ager Sabinus, received the fons Bandusia, passed by the villa of Horatius Flaccus (Hor. Epist. 1,18,104) and entered the Anio on the right side between Mandela and Varia; modern Licenza. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 616.

Argoos Limen

(30 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ἀργῷος λιμήν; Argôios limḗn). Port on  Ilva, named after the resting place of the  Argonauts (Str. 5,2,6; Apoll. Rhod. 4,658), modern Portoferraio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Norba

(197 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae | Latini, Latium Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci, modern Norma. Possibly founded in 492 BC (Liv. 2,34,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,13,5), but more likely in the 4th cent.; laid waste by the Privernates in 327 (Liv. 7,42,8). Loyal to Rome through the Punic Wars, destroyed by Sullan forces in 82/1 BC (App. B Civ. 1,94). Archaeology: Ring walls, adapted to the topography ( opus polygonale) from the 4th cent. BC, 2,662 m long, three gates; two acropoleis, rectangu…

Ficulea

(94 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Town in Latium, north-east of Rome on the via Ficulensis (Liv. 3,52,3), subsequently the via Nomentana [1. 43], localized near Casale di Marco Simone Vecchio. It was originally founded by Aborigines (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,16), then by the Prisci Latini; captured by Tarquinius Priscus (Liv. 1,38,4); municipium (Plin. HN 3,64). Atticus (Cic. Att. 12,34) and Martial (6,27,2) owned estates near F. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topografico-antiquaria della carta dei d…

Interamna

(533 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] [1] Town in Umbria This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Tribus | Umbri, Umbria ( Interamna Nahars, CIL XI 4213; ethnic designation Interamnates Nartes, CIL VI 140). Town in Umbria, modern Terni. The place name refers to its location on the confluence of the Nera (Umbrian Nahar [1], Latin Nar) and the Serra (which had a different course in antiquity). Settlement phases of the 10th-7th cents. are attested in Pentima and in San Pietro in Campo. A 7th cent. settlement in the town's Clai district appears to confirm the …

Vettona

(76 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City in Umbria on a hill on the left side of the Tiberis between Tuder and Perusia, modern Bettona. Municipium of the tribus Clustumina [1. 271]. Walls in opus quadratum (Masonry); necropoleis from the 4th cent. BC until the 2nd cent. AD. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 L. R. Taylor, The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic, 1960. G. Becatti , Nota topografica sulle mura di Bettona, in: SE 8, 1934, 397-400  C. Pietrangeli, s. v. Bettona, EAA 2, 76.

Verrugo

(116 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volsci border city in Latium, which changed owners several times - occupied and fortified by the Romans in 445 BC (Liv. 4,1,4), reconquered by the Volsci in 422, conquered again by the Romans in 409 (Liv. 4,55,8), reconquered by the Volsci in 407 (Liv. 4,58,3). In 394 V. found itself in Roman hands again (Liv. 5,28,6). The place name can be derived from Latin verruca = locus editus asperque = 'high-lying rough place' (Cato in Gell. NA 3,7,6; cf. Diod. Sic. 14,11; a place name occurring from Tridentum to Eryx [1] in Sicily). Location uncertain, po…

Fidentia

(127 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Augural name of a town in the western Aemilia ( regio VIII) on the via Aemilia (It. Ant. 288; It. Burd. 616; Tab. Peut. 4,3) on the crossing of the river Stirone, in the Middle Ages Borgo San Donnino, from 1927 Fidenza (Parma). It was founded as a municipium in the 2nd cent. BC; during the Civil War, it was besieged by Lucullus in 82 BC (Plut. Sulla 17; Vell. Pat. 2,28; Liv. Epit. 88). It later declined to become vicus Fidentiola (It. Ant. 99; 127). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Aimi, Storia di F., 1982 M. Calvani Marini, F., 1977 M. Catarsi, Il territorio fidenti…

Togisonus

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Venetia (Plin. HN 3,121), probably arising from the confluence of the Retron (modern Retrone) and the Astagus (modern Astico) in the area of Vicetia (modern Vicenza) with other rivers to the north of thr Atesis; modern Bacchiglione. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. B. Castiglioni, Abbozzo di una carta dell'antica idrografia nella pianura tra Vicenza e Padova, in: P. Innocenti (ed.), Scritti geografici. FS A. Sestini, vol. 1, 1982, 183-197.

Numicus

(144 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (also Numicius). Minor river in Latium Vetus, where Aeneas [1] was said to have landed; the place was named Troy and consecrated to Sol Indiges. According to CIL XIV 2065, the N. was in territorio Lavinas (‘in the territory of Lavinium’). There was a heroon of Aeneas there (Serv. Aen. 7,150). The Iuturna, whose waters were taken to Rome and used in sacrifices to Vesta (Serv. Aen. 12,139), rose nearby. Anna Perenna was described as nympha Numici (Ov. Fast. 3,653). Identification of the N. is not certain: it may be the Fosso di Pratica di Mare (Pomezia, pro…

Nepete

(126 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae (Νέπητα; Népēta). Etruscan town east of Sutrium on the via Amerina (Tab. Peut. 5,3), modern Nepi (Province Viterbo). In 383 (Liv. 6,21,4) or 373 BC (Vell. Pat. 1,14,2), it became a colonia Latina, later municipium, possibly tribus Stellatina; ethnikon Nepesinus. Cults: Diana, Ceres, Augustales. N. was located on a wedge-shaped terrace between two gorges. Settlement and necropolis date to the 8th cent. BC. Chamber tombs with dromos, tuff walls from the beg…

Hispellum

(128 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae Town in Umbria on a rise of Monte Subasio, modern Spello. Settled since the 7th cent. BC, connected to the via Flaminia, municipium, Tribus Lemonia, Colonia Iulia (possibly since the Second Triumvirate).The source of the  Clitumnus lay in the territory of H. (Plin. Ep. 8,8,6). Under Constantinus the town was Colonia Flavia Constans with a temple of the Gens Flavia and had the privilege of celebrating annually an Umbrian festival (ILS 705 of 333/337). Archaeology: remains o…

Abellinum

(169 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town of the  Hirpini in  Campania, on the border of southern Samnium ( Samnites), close to the modern Cività. A colonia under Sulla, Augustus, and Severus Alexander, it rose to   civitas , tribus Galeria. A. is situated on a terrace on the left bank of the Sabato river, west of Atripalda. Two wall circuits are preserved ( opus quadratum, 3rd cent. BC, opus reticulatum with towers and moats of the Augustan colony), also baths, houses, an amphitheatre south of the town outside the walls; aqueduct to …

Italia [I-II]

(5,411 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Mastrocinque, Attilio (Verona) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. The name and its development The name I. acquired its modern meaning during the Augustan period; it originally described the kingdom of the Oenotrian ruler Italus, comprising the Bruttian peninsula from Sila to Scylletium (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 5; according to Hecat. FGrH 1 F 41,51-53, Medma, Locris, Caulonia, and Krotalla were in I.). Hellanicus links I. with the term vitulus (‘calf’) and the legend of the calf of  Geryoneus which had run away from Hercules (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,35); Timaeus associates the name wit…

Treba

(69 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City of the Aequi in the Colles Simbruini (modern Simbruini Mountains) in the valley of the upper Anio; modern Trevini nel Lazio, 821 m elevation; municipium of Regio I (Plin. HN 3,64), tribus Aniensis; ethnicon Trebani (ILS 6264;  cf.  Ptol. 3,1,62; Frontin.  Aq. 93,3: T. Augusta). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Quilici Gigli, Appunti di topografia per la storia di Trevi nel Lazio, in: MEFRA 99, 1987, 129-69.

Furfo

(83 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Vicus of the Vestini ( regio IV) on the upper reaches of the Aternus (Pescara), in the territorium of Peltuinum (CIL IX 3524), and near the church of Santa Maria di Furfona, 15 km south-east of L'Aquila; administered by two aediles. Cult of Jupiter Liber (58 BC; CIL I2, 756). Located on the road between Prifernum and Peltuinum, later named via Claudia Nova. Inscriptions: CIL IX p. 333, 3513-3568. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 442 Ruggiero 3, 1922, 353, s.v. F.

Lorium

(67 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the via Aurelia, 12 miles outside Rome (It. Ant. 290; Tab. Peut. 5,5), modern La Bottaccia near Castel di Guido. Antoninus Pius died here in his villa (SHA Antoninus Pius 1,8; 12,6). Marcus [2] Aurelius also stayed here (Fronto, Ad Marcum 2,15; 3,20; 5,7). An episcopal see in the 5th cent. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography F. Castagnoli (ed.), La via Aurelia, 1968.

Rufrae, Rufrium

(129 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Settlement in Samnium (cf. Rufrani vicani, ILS 80; 5759), conquered by the Romans early in the 2nd Samnite War in 326 BC (Liv. 8,25,4: Rufrium; Sil. Pun. 8,568), subsequently named castellum Campaniae (Serv. Aen. 7,739) and tribus Teretina (CIL X 4836), on the Via Latina. R. is situated on the middle reaches of the Volturnus in the region of San Felice a Ruvo, west of Presenzano (province of Caserta); remains of a small Roman theatre and statues of Augustus and Agrippa have been found there. Cato praises oil presses from R. (Cato Agr. 22,4; 135,2: ad Rufri Maceriam). …

Minio

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in southern Etruria, modern Mignone, the border between Tarquinia and Caere (Serv. Aen. 10,183; Munio, Rut. Namat. 1,279). Crossed by the Via Aurelia at the confluence of the Graviscae and the Centumcellae. Etruscan fortifications at a Bronze Age settlement above Stazione di Monte Romano, Luni sul Mignone. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 1, 308; 2, 332 L. Banti, Il mondo degli Etruschi, 1969, 61f. BTCGI 9, 287-291.

Fossa

(651 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] F. Augusta Navigable  canal between the Padus and the harbour of Ravenna (Plin. HN 3,119); under Augustus diverted via the Padusa, a marshy branch of the Po. Statio on the via Popilia, later Augusta; traces in the Valle Mezzano in the drained Laguna di Comacchio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, Un insediamento a carratere industriale. Relazione preliminare degli scavi sull'argine d'Agosta 1971-1973, in: Boll. annuale. Centro di ... Musei Ferraresi 3, 1973, 174-179. [German version] [2] F. Claudia Navigable  canal, built by Claudius be…

Aternus

(63 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Samnium (CIL IX 3337-8), flanked by the via Claudia Nova from Amiternum to its confluence with the Tirinus, and by the via Claudia Valeria (CIL IX 5973) to Ostia Aternus (port of the Vestini, vicus and mansio at the junction with the coastal road along the Adriatic, modern Pescara). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Bibl. Top. 13, 1994, 477-488.

Flavinium

(40 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in the regio VII (Etruria) at the southern foot of the  Soracte (Verg. Aen. 7,696; Serv. Aen. ad 1; Sil. 8,490) where according to Sil. 13,85 the Capenas (modern Gramiccia?) caused floods. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Blera, Bieda

(225 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan city near Tarquinii, in the hills of tufa rock between Ricanale (in the north) and Biedano (in the south); now Blera (Bieda in the Middle Ages; in the province of Viterbo). Roman municipium of the tribus Arnensis, Augustales (CIL XI p. 507). Stopping-place on the via Clodia with the bridges della Rocca and del Diavolo. Necropolis of tumuli and burial mounds from the 7th cent. BC. Heyday in the 6th and 5th cents. BC. Ancient Bieda is situated on a narrow, high plateau with s…

Aquae

(2,365 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
I. Italy [German version] A. Albulae Sulphurous sources of the Lago della Soforata on the right bank of the  Anio, 16 km from Rome; cult site. The springs are cold and have healing properties;  Nero had them canalized into the Domus Aurea. Large Roman   villa near Bagni della Regina. CIL XIV 3908-18. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Angae In Bruttium between Consentia and Vibo Valentia, today Terme Caronte of Lamezia Terme. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Apollinares Thermal springs between Careiae and  Tarquinii (It. Ant. 300); unidentified (…

Caieta

(191 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Port on the Tyrrhenian Sea, located in the foothills of the same name which form the western end of the sinus Caietanus or Formianus; modern Gaeta (province of Latina). It was reputedly named after either  Aeetes, the father of Medea (Lycoph. 1274), or the wet-nurse of  Aeneas [1], who was supposedly buried there (Verg. Aen. 7,1-7), or after the shoals in its bay (Laconian καιέτας, Str. 5,3,6); temple of Apollo (Liv. 40,2,4). In Roman times, it was a health resort, same as Formiae (four miles away), with villae and attached mausolea. C. was also the location of the villae of S…

Tarus

(52 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), modern Taro (126 km long). It rises in the Ligurian Appenninus and flows through Forum Novum; it was crossed by the Via Aemilia  (where the Ad Tarum road station was: It. Burd. 616,14) and into the Padus at Parma [1]. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Frigidus

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left tributary of the river Sontius in East Venetia, modern Vipacco/Wippach, also a station on the via Gemina, 36 miles east of Aquileia (It. Ant. 18), modern Aidussina/Haidenschaft. Here, Theodosius defeated the usurper Eugenius in AD 394 (Claud. De III consulatu Honorii 99). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Gallunianum

(66 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Praedium (estate) in Etruria, then a centre of settlement with ecclesia, modern Galognano near Siena, mentioned in inscriptions on liturgical silver objects (6th cent. AD, now in the Pinacoteca of Siena). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography O. von Hessen, W. Kurze, C. A. Mastrelli, Il tesoro ecclesiastico di Galognano, 1977 M. M. Mango, Silver from Early Byzantium, 1986, 250-254 S. A. Boyd, M. M. Mango, Ecclesiastical Silver Plate, 1992, 134.

Sabinum

(239 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Country estate of the poet Horace (Horatius [7], cf. Hor. Carm. 2,18,14; Hor. Epist. 1,16), probably a gift from Maecenas [2] (Hor. Sat. 2,3,305 ff.). It was located in the territory of the Sabini on the stream Digentia (Hor. Epist. 1,18,104; present-day Licenza), a right tributary of the Anio, north of Varia (present-day Vicovaro) from where the estate obtained agrarian products (Hor. Carm. 1,20,1; 22,9; 2,18,14; 3,1,47; 4,22; Hor. Sat. 2,7,118), above the village of Mandela (Hor…

Buxentum

(133 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Coloniae Town in Lucania, modern Policastro Bussentino (Salerno province) at the Gulf of Policastro. It succeeded the Greek settlement of Pyxus (coins minted in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC: HN 83), was newly founded under Micythus of Messene in 471 BC (Diod. Sic. 11,59,4; Str. 6,1,1), and subsequently left to the Lucani. Roman colonia in 194 BC, renewed in 186 BC (Liv. 32,29,4; 34,45,2; 39,22,4), in 89 BC municipium of the tribus Pomptina. Bishop's seat in AD 592. Both the river, which d…

Rapinium

(29 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small site fit for landing ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 498,6 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Centumcellae and Graviscae, modern Bagni Sant'Agostino. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Minturnae

(434 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | | Coloniae | Coloniae Chief town of the Aurunci (Ausones), 97 miles from Rome, on both banks, connected by a ford, of the lower Liris, which formed the border between Latium and Campania, in a broad coastal plain on the Gulf of Formiae (modern Gulf of Gaeta) to the east of where the via Appia emerges from the narrow strip of land between the Aurunci mountains and the sea. M. and its port facilities were the trading centre of the region. M. is first menti…

Corbio

(179 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Ancient city in Latium Ancient city in Latium on the north-eastern foothills of mons Albanus, perhaps today's Roccapriora. It became involved in the Roman wars with the  Aequi: conquered by Cincinnatus in 458 BC (victory at mons Algidus), taken back by the Aequi, then destroyed by consul C. Horatius Pulvillus in 457 (Liv. 3,30). Near C., T. Quinctius Capitolinus defeated the Aequi in 446. Archaeological monuments: a few remnants, Imperial Roman villa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topographico-antiquaria della carta…

Nomentum

(155 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Latini, Latium (or Numentum). Latin town founded by Alba Longa (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,53; Verg. Aen. 6,773; 7,706) in Sabine territory on the left bank of the Tiber on the Via Nomentana (Tab. Peut. 5,5), 14 miles north east of Rome, modern Mentana. Member of the Latin League (Latini, with map). N. received the civitas Romana, under a dictator, in 338 BC (Liv. 8,14,3). Martial praised N., especially the merits of its vineyards (Mart. 2,38; 10,48; 13,119; Columella 3,2f.; Plin. HN 14,23; 48) and …

Tarracina

(210 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | | Coloniae Originally Anxur (Liv. 4,59,4), a city of the Ausoni and the Volsci on a rocky promontory on the coast of Latium Adiectum, modern Terracina (Latina). Conquered in 406 BC by the Romans who established a colonia maritima ( Coloniae C.) there in 329 BC. T. was linked to Rome in 312 BC by a stretch of the via Appia ( decumanus maximus). Municipium of the tribus Oufentina. The city wall survives, as does the 'Forum Aemilianum' (paved by Aulus Aemilius, modern P…

Mandela

(70 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Pagus (‘district) in the land of the Sabini (Hor. Epist. 1,18,105) at the confluence of Digentia and Anio, later Massa Mandelana (CIL XIV 3482), modern Mandela near Vicovaro. Near M. Chalcolithic tomb chambers and a Roman villa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Lugli, La villa sabina di Orazio, in: Monumenti antichi, pubblicati dall' Accademia dei Lincei 31, 1926, 457-598 C. F. Giuliani, in: Tibur 2, 1966, 67-77.

Aventia

(23 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in the  Apuani region in Etruria (Tabula Peutingeriana), possibly that known today as the Avenza. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Suessa Pometia

(139 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Latium, not located. Colony of Alba Longa, occupied by the Volsci, destroyed by Tarquinius Superbus (Liv. 1,53,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,50; Tac. Hist. 3,72); conquered again by the Romans in 495 BC (Liv. 2,17,1; 2,25,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,29). According to [1; 2], SP refers to the pre-Volscan phase of Satricum (10th-6th cent. BC), according to [3; 4], it is identical to Apiolae or can be located in a pre-Roman city discovered at Cisterna di Latina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 C. M. Stibbe, …

Aesis

(78 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River, forming the border between  Picenum and the  Senones (Liv. 5,35), later taken as Umbrian ( Umbria), modern Esino. From its source on the territory of Sentinum, it runs to the Adriatic, where its mouth is bridged by the   via Flaminia at the   statio ad Aesim (modern Falconara Marittima) (large cistern: three parallel water chambers). The A. valley was known for its excellent cheeses (Plin. 3,112; 11,241). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Q. Maule, SE 59, 1993, 87-102.

Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Ostia

(807 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Tribus | Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Oracles | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones (cf. map). City at the mouth of the Tiber, 16 miles from Rome, of the tribus Voturia ( tribus Palatina for freedmen), later regio I (Italia), connected to Rome by the via Ostiensis. According to Liv. 1,33,9, the colony was founded by Ancus Marcius [I 3] when, having deprived Veii of the silva Mesia, he extended his rule to the coast and set up salt refineries there (cf. CIL XIV 433…

Bovillae

(146 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium, colony of Alba Longa, ancestral seat of the gens Iulia, 11 miles south-east of Rome in Frattocchie near the via Appia, which had been extended to B. in 294 BC. B. became a municipium under Sulla. In 52 BC, it was the location of the dispute between Clodius and Milo. In memory of the obsequies of Augustus, Tiberius erected a memorial to the gens Iulia in B. (Tac. Ann. 2,41). Monuments: remains of quadratic town walls made from tufa ( lapis peperinus) near Due Santi, and also of the arcades of a circus and a theatre. Villa of Domitianus. Aqueducts and three cister…

Iulium Carnicum

(105 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Venetic | Coloniae Venetic, later Celtic ( Carni) settlement centre, probably constituted as a Roman vicus after the attack of the  Iapodes in 52 BC. Municipium since Augustus, colonia since Claudius. Location: on the road from Aquileia to Aguntum. Local Belenus cult. After its destruction, most likely by  Alaricus [2], the inhabitants moved to the hill of San Pietro, modern Zuglio. Archaeology: forum with porticus, capitolium, in the south a basilica; thermae; aqueduct; early Christian cemetery basilica. Uggeri, Giova…

Leucosia

(238 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Λευκωσία; Leukōsía). [German version] [3] Island on the Lucanian coast (Mela 2,7,121; Plin. HN 3,83: Leucothea) on the Punta della Licosa, modern Isola Piana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Brugnoli, s.v. L., EV 3, 1987, 196f. BTCGI 9, 1991, 5; 14, 1996, 505f. [German version] [1] One of the three post-Homeric Sirens One of the three post-Homeric Sirens, who no longer - as with Homer - appear in a group but as individuals: L. reaches south-west Italy through colonization. Consequently her suicide (she plunges into the sea) is local…

Clitumnus

(167 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small river in Umbria, tributary of the Tiberis, modern Timia. The sources of the C. (between Spoletium and Fulginiae below Trebiae) were made famous by Plin. Ep. 8,8; Caligula and Honorius visited them; they were surrounded by chapels for the god of the same name and other oracle deities, taken care of by the citizens of Hispellum; sacraria of a statio of the via Flaminia (It. Burd. 613); villae in the surrounding area. In S. Salvatore de Piscina (6th cent. AD) reused stones and inscriptions have been used in buildings (CIL II 4963). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography…

Falesia

(75 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Harbour on the Etruscan coast opposite Ilva (modern Elba), 12 miles south of Populonia (It. Ant. 501; Faleria, Rut. Namat. 1,371, should be corrected to Falesia [2]). In the Middle Ages Porto di Felesa [1], modern Piombino (Livorno). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 G. Targioni Tozzetti, Relazione d'alcuni viaggi fatti in diverse parti della Toscana 4, 1751, 250 2 R. Gelsomino, Nota a Rut. Nam. 1,371, in: Rivista di Cultura Classica e Medioevale 15, 1973, 35-47.

Martis, ad

(117 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
Various stations derived their names from a cult site of Mars ad ( fanum) Martis. [German version] [1] Station on the road through the Alpes Cottiae Station on the road through the Alpes Cottiae above Segusio at the confluence of the Bardonecchia and the Dora Riparia, modern Oulx. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Station in Etruria Station in Etruria near Pescia on the Via Cassia between Pistoriae and Luca. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [3] Station in Umbria Station in Umbria on the Via Flaminia, 74 miles from Rome, between Narnia and Mevania ( Vicus Martis …

Mons Circeius

(149 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Cape on the Tyrrhenian Sea, said by the sources to have been an island connected to the mainland by silting (Theophr. C. plant. 5,8,3; Plin. HN 2,201), modern Circeo (513 m high). The MC has been identified with the island of Circe (Hom. Od. 12,9; Hes. Theog. 1011f.). In the Roman period, Circe and Athena were venerated here (CIL X 6422; Strab. 5,3,6). The grave mound of Elpenor was displayed (Ps.-Scyl. 8). Nearby: villa of Domitian. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography T. Ashby, Monte Circeo, in: MEFRA 25, 1905, 147-209  G. Lugli, Circeii, 1928  R. Righi, La villa di…

Soracte

(178 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Limestone ridge (691m), present-day Soratte to the northwest of Sant’Oreste, cut off from the Appennines in South Etruria in the territory of the Falisci to the right of the Tiber between the via Flaminia in the west and the via Tiberina in the east. It dominates the Campagna Romana and is visible from Rome (Hor. Carm. 1,9). Apollo (Verg. Aen. 11,785; Sil. Pun. 5,175; 7,662; 8,492; sanctus Soranus Apollo: ILS 3034). The Manes and Dis Pater Soranus were worshipped as a cult. At its base lies Feronia with a sanctuary to the Sabine goddess of the sam…

Salpinates

(31 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Community in Etruria, probably near modern Orvieto; allies of the Volsinii against Rome in 392/1, but without success (Liv. 5,31,5; 32,2). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 339.
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