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(1,262 words)

Author(s): Polleichtner, Wolfgang (Würzburg) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(Πίστις). [English version] A. Religion P. ist personifiziert die griech. Göttin der Treue und des Glaubens. Abgesehen von Thgn. 1137 (2. H. 6. Jh. v.Chr.) kommt P. als Gottheit erst sehr spät und selten vor. Sie besaß einen Kult, von dem wir zumindest für Athen bei Diogenianos 2,80 ein Heiligtum fassen können. P. wurde von den Römern mit Fides gleichgesetzt. Erst im Christentum bezeichnet der Begriff der p. den Glauben an die geoffenbarte Wahrheit (s.u. E.). Polleichtner, Wolfgang (Würzburg) [English version] B. Philosophie Laut Parmenides wohnt den Meinungen der sterbliche…


(1,359 words)

Author(s): Polleichtner, Wolfgang (Würzburg) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(Πίστις/ Pístis). [German version] A. Religion P. is the personification of the Greek goddess of loyalty and faith. Except for Thgn. 1137 (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC), P. rarely appears as a deity, and only very late. She had a cult of which at least a shrine in Athens can be identified in Diogenianus 2,80. P. was regarded by the Romans as equivalent to Fides . It was not until Christianity that the term pistis came to mean a belief in revealed truth (see section E below). Polleichtner, Wolfgang (Würzburg) [German version] B. Philosophy According to Parmenides, πίστις ἀληθῆς ( pístis alēthês, …


(1,317 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Werner (Graz) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(ἀλήθεια/ alḗtheia; Latin veritas). [German version] I. Philosophy It was in a didactic poem by Parmenides (about 500 BC) that alḗtheia was first elevated from an element of colloquial language to a central philosophical term. In that poem, the goddess teaches the poet to distinguish the truth (ἀληθείη/ alētheíē) from the mere illusion of human opinions (δόξαι/ dóxai) (28 B 1 and 8 DK). Only that which is (or 'being') is true, for what is not can be neither thought nor expressed (28 B 2, 3 and 8 DK); and that which is (being) is a single entity. Parme…


(423 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(The Roman personification of 'hope'). [German version] I. Roman Unlike the Greek Elpis, Spes ('Hope') had a cult and temples. In the 1st Punic War, A. Atilius [I 14] Calatinus dedicated a temple to Spes on the Forum Holitorium in Rome (Cic. Leg. 2,28; Tac. Ann. 2,49). The building burned down on several occasions (Liv. 25,7,6; Cass. Dio 50,10,3); there was a rededication under Germanicus in AD 17; the remains of the temple are visible in the church of St. Nicola in Carcere. According to Liv. 2,51,2 and …


(949 words)

Author(s): Tieleman, Teun (Leeuwarden) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(πνεῦμα/ pneûma; Lat. spiritus). [German version] A. General The primary meaning of pneuma (< πνέω/ pnéō, 'blow, waft ') is wind or breath. In scientific and philosophical literature, the term gradually acquired a more technical meaning. In the Hellenistic and subsequent periods, pneuma is a central idea in a number of important medical and natural-philosophical (including theological) systems. Tieleman, Teun (Leeuwarden) [German version] B. Historical overview As early as the 5th and 4th cents. BC, pneuma is used as an explanatory principle for physiological processes…


(498 words)

Author(s): Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Breath or spirit ('breath', 'spirit'). Büchli, Jörg (Zürich) [German version] I. Graeco-Roman The Latin word spiritus (denominative from spirare 'blow', 'breathe') describes any stream of air, also the breathing in and out of life-giving air, and hence even life itself. Thus in Cicero (Rosc. Am. 72) spiritus is what is common to all living beings. Unlike Greek pneûma , spiritus has a more anthropological/moral accentuation and it also describes self-reliance, positively as courage, self-confidence, pride, enthusiasm, negatively as arro…


(878 words)

Author(s): Tieleman, Teun (Leeuwarden) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(πνεῦμα, lat. spiritus). [English version] A. Generelles Die primäre Bed. von “p.” (< πνέω, “blasen, wehen”) ist Wind oder Atem. In der wiss. und philos. Lit. gewinnt der Terminus allmählich eine mehr technische Bed. Im Hell. und später ist das P. ein zentrales Konzept in einigen wichtigen medizinischen und naturphilos. (einschließlich theologischen) Systemen. Tieleman, Teun (Leeuwarden) [English version] B. Historischer Überblick Bereits bei Autoren des 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. erscheint das p. als Erklärungsprinzip physiologischer Vorgänge. Ein früher Zeuge ist der V…


(1,654 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
[German version] I. Religion F. is the cultically venerated personification of faith and veracity [1]. According to Varro (Ling. 5,74), she had been adopted in Rome from the Sabini; her cult is still in evidence at the end of the 2nd cent. AD (Tert. Apol. 24,5). F. is depicted as a woman, her head adorned with a garland or veil, dressed in a   chitṓn and péplos [2]. She appears frequently in poetry, but rarely in prose. She was considered to be a very ancient deity (Sil. Pun. 1,329f.; 2,484ff.) and therefore referred to as cana (Verg. Aen. 1,292). According to Agathocles Perì Kyzíkou (Fest. 328 L…