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Helorus

(294 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Ἕλωρος; Hélōros). [German version] [1] Ally of the Trojan Telephus Son of the river god Ister and brother of Actaeus; as an ally of the Trojan  Telephus, he fell in the battle of the Mysians against the Achaeans (Philostr. Heroicus 23,13f.,157). Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) Bibliography A. Bettini, s.v. Aktaios II, LIMC 1.1, 470f. [German version] [2] River in eastern Sicily River in eastern Sicily, modern Tellaro. It has its origin near Palazzolo and flows into the mare Ionium 20 km north of the southern tip of the island. Often mentioned because of the battl…

Petra

(874 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Πέτρα/ Pétra, 'rock') [German version] [1] Capital of the Nabataean Empire This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Limes | Rome | Rome | Egypt Capital of the Nabataean kingdom (Nabataei) in Edom, about 80 km to the south of the Dead Sea in the Wādı̄ Mūsā (in modern Jordan). The city is first mentioned by Diodorus [18] under the name Pétra (Diod. Sic. 19, 95-98) as the Nabataei's place of refuge and assembly ('High place, rock'). The inscriptionally documented Semitic name of P. is Raqmu. Although the surrounding are…

Panormus

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Πάνορμος; Pánormos). [German version] [1] Harbour on the coast of Karia Harbour on the coast of Karia (Stadiasmus maris magni 285; 287; 294 with contradictory details) between Miletus [2] and Myndus, located at a distance of 80 stadia (14.8 km) from them, therefore near (Aşağı) Gölköy, which is the location also assumed for Caryanda, near the natural harbour of the Türkbükü bay or further to the west at the Ağaçbaşı-Limanı bay (Paşa Limanı). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. P. (1), RE 18,3, 654  G.E. Bean, J.M. Cook, The Halicarnassus Peninsula, in: ABSA 50,…

Naxos

(1,805 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] [1] Island and city in the Cyclades This item can be found on the following maps: Ionic | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Νάξος, Náxos, Latin Naxus). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Geography City and island of the same name, the latter, with an area of just 420 km2, the largest of the Cyclades. A significant topographical  characteristic is a chain of mountains dividing the island from north to south (highest peak the Zia at 1004 m, also the highest poi…

Labdalum

(95 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Λάβδαλον; Lábdalon). Site at the northern rim of the Epipolai-Plateau of Syracusae, where a fortress was built by the Athenians in 414 BC. This was taken from them by Gylippus shortly after his arrival (Thuc. 6,97,5; 98,2; 7,3,4). Fabricius located it east of Scala Greca, above the descent of the antique roadway Syracusae - Megara from the plateau. Before him, it was thought to lie more to the west. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Fabricius, Das ant. Syrakus (Klio-Beih. 28), 1932, 19f. H.-D. Drögemüller, Syrakus, 1968, 15f., fi…

Phintias

(496 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Wehgartner, Irma (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] Town on the southern coast of Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Φιντιάς; Phintiás). Town on the southern coast of Sicily, modern Licata, founded in c. 280 BC by P., the tyrant of Acragas and settled by the residents of Gela driven out by the Mamertini (Diod. Sic. 22,2,2; 22,7,1); the inhabitants of P. therefore also continued to call themselves Gelṓioi (Γελῷοι, IG XIV 256-261; [1. 711 no. 588f.]). In 249 BC a Roman fleet was defeated at P. by the Carthaginians in connection with the 1st Punic War (Diod. Sic. 24,1,7…

Segesta

(657 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Mennella, Giovanni (Genoa) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages (Σέγεστα/ Ségesta, Ἔγεστα/ É gesta, Αἵγεστα/ Haígesta). City (elevation 318 m) of the Elymi, like Entella and Eryx [1] in the west of Sicily (with map), 10 km to the southwest of Castellammare; the acropolis towers over the city to the northwest on Monte Bàrbaro (431 m). In traditional rivalry with Selinus [4] (earliest verifiable conflict 580/576 BC; Diod. Sic. 5,9), S. opposed Greek occup…

Morgetes

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] People (named after their king Morges) originally settled in Lower Italy, who migrated from there (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 9: M. driven by the Oenotri; otherwise F 2) to Sicily (Strab. 6,2,4), where the city of Morgantina has preserved their name (Antiochus l.c.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μοργέντιον/ Morgéntion). Murgantia, the name of a city of the Samnites, is probably also related (Liv. 10,17,3; 11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Devoto, Gli antichi Italici, 31967  J. Bérard, La colonisation grecque, 21957  R. Peroni, Enotri, Ausoni,…

Casmenae

(415 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Κασμέναι; Kasménai). Town in Sicily, founded by Syracuse in 644 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3); its fortified position and the lack of its own mint indicate its status as a dependent ‘military colony’. In 554/3 BC, Camarina, supported by several Siculan communities, attempted to free itself from Syracusan dependency. In the ensuing war, in which C. supported Syracuse, the town was destroyed (Dion. Hal. Epist. ad Pompeium 5,5 = FGrH 556 Philistus F 5 with the reading of 1. 2361). The remains of an inscription on a bronze…

Mazara

(125 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] Town on the Sicilian south coast 20 km southeast of Marsala at the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Mazara del Vallo, probably a Phoenician foundation. After the foundation of Selinus, the Mazara river was the border to Motya (later Lilybaeum) and Segesta and was therefore much disputed. In 409 BC, the town was conquered by Hannibal [1] on the march to Selinus (Diod. Sic. 13,54,6), and early in the First Punic War it was destroyed by the Romans (23,9,4) but continued to…

Netum

(172 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νέητον, Νεαίτιον/ Néēton, Neaítion; Latin Netum). City of the Siculi in the southeastern part of Sicilia (Plin. HN 3,91: Netini; Ptol. 3,4,13), modern-day Noto Antica, located on the upper course of the Asinaro on a steep, heart-shaped bluff (420 m high), 16 km to the northwest of Noto. At the beginning of the 1st Punic War in 263 BC N. was awarded by Rome to the kingdom of Syracuse (Diod. 23,4,1: Νεαιτῖνοι; StV 3, No. 479). As part of the Roman province, N. was one of the favoured municipalities ( civitates foederatae) and expressly exempted from providing grain shipments ( cu…

Catane

(544 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Natural catastrophes (Κατάνη; Katánē, Lat. Catina). City on the east coast of Sicily on the fertile plain south of the volcano Mount  Etna [1], modern Catania; it was founded in 729 BC by Chalcidians who had some years previously settled in Naxos. In the 2nd half of the 6th cent., the lawgiver  Charondas was active in C; the town was visited by  Ibycus and  Xenophanes;  Stesichorus died there. In the 1st half of…

Stiela

(147 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Στίελ(λ)α; Stíel(l)a). Fortified city in Sicilia of unknown location (Sophron fr. [1.67]; Philistus FGrH 556 F 20), in the vicinity of Megara according to Steph. Byz. s.v. Στύελλα (corrected to Στιελα based on coins) [3]. In view of the legends STA/STI/ STIA, S. is to be attributed with two series of coins (5th/4th cent. BC) ([2]; a single coin was found in excavations: Francavilla di Sicilia west of Taormina [3]). The relationship with coins from Catane and Leontini suggests that S. was located there ([4; 5]: near Portiere Stella in the plain of Catania). Falco, Giulia (…

Cossura

(91 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κόσσουρα, Κόσ(σ)ουρος; Kóssoura, Kós(s)ouros, Lat. Cossura, Cossyra). Vulcanic island between Sicily and Africa, modern Pantelleria, before the Punic Wars under Carthaginian rule, in the First Punic War temporarily, after 217 BC finally conquered by Rome and attached to the province of Sicilia. The partially Phoenician inscriptions of coins demonstrate that the population was Punic for a considerable time later. Remains from the Prehistoric to Byzantine periods. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Tusa, La Sicilia nella preistoria, 1983, 274ff. Id., At…

Elymi

(292 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔλυμοι; Élymoi). Pre-Greek tribe in western Sicily, thought by Thucydides (6,2,3; cf. Str. 13,1,53) to be descendants of Trojan refugees ( Elymus); according to Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 79b), they were forced out of southern Italy by the Oinotroi. They were generally allied with the Phoenicians and hostile towards the Greeks. Following their Hellenization in the 5th cent. BC, they are no longer mentioned as a tribe. The names of their towns ( Eryx, Segesta,  Entella) point to Ligurian…

Motyca

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυκα, Μότουκα; Mótyka, Mόtouka). City of the Siculi in the southeast of Sicily (Ptol. 3,4,14), modern Módica to the south of Ragusa. Finds from as early as the prehistorical period. Ancient inscriptions from the area (IG XIV 243-253). The ager Mutycensis was the ager decumanus of the Roman province of Sicilia (Cic. Verr. 2,3,101; 120), the Mutycenses were stipendiarii (Plin. HN 3,91). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. M., RE 16, 407  BTCGI 10, 169-177  Morgantina Studies, 5 vols., 1981-1996.

Phocaeae

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φωκαῖαι/ Phokaîai). Unidentified quarter (χωρίον/ chōríon) of the city of Leontini. Some aristocrats from Leontini, who had gone away and settled in Syracuse (Syracusae) but then left again because of  conflicts, withdrew to Ph. and the nearby fortress of Bricinniae in 422 BC. Many of the democrats previously driven out of Leontini also soon gathered here in order to take up the fight with Syracuse (Thuc. 5,4,4). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 218.

Gaulus

(225 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Γαῦλος, Γαῦδος; Gaûlos, Gaûdos). North-western island of the Malta group (modern Gozo), first mentioned by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 341; cf. Str. 6,2,11; Diod. Sic. 5,12,4: located in the open sea with good harbours; Procop. Vand. 1,14; Plin. HN 3,92). Name probably Phoenician: γαῦλος/ gaûlos, ‘round cargo boat’. In the 8th cent. it was colonized by Phoenicians, later in Carthaginian, Greek, and after 220 BC Roman possession. Inland there was a settlement of the same name. Coins with Greek and Punic legends (HN 883). In Ggantij…

Ecnomum

(149 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (ἔκνομον; éknomon). Massif in southern Sicily near the mouth of the Salso above Licata. The discovery of remnants from archaic times (chthonic sanctuary, necropolis) in Mollarella and newer studies about the mountain [1], which was bordered by a subsidiary of the ancient Himeras and was located towards the sea, suggest [2] the location of E. west of Monte S. Angelo (Poliscia plateau) and not on its eastern foothills as was previously thought. References: Diod. Sic. 19,108 (fortress…

Himera

(487 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Colonization (Ἱμέρα; Himéra). The settlers understood the non-Greek place name as ἡμέρα ( hēméra, ‘day’) and made the cock their coat-of-arms (coins), also alluded to by Pind. Ol. 12,13. Apart from  Mylae, H. was the only ancient Greek colony on the north coast of Sicily, pushed way up towards Phoenician territory, founded, starting from Zancle  - 240 years before its destruction in 409, in other words in 649 BC (Diod. Sic. 1…
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