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Theodosius

(3,100 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεοδόσιος/ Theodósios). [German version] [I 1] Greek mathematician and astronomer, 2nd/1st cent. BC Greek mathematician and astronomer. Folkerts, Menso (Munich) [German version] I. Life and works According to Str. 12,4,9, T. was one of the most important men in Bithynia; the birthplace Tripoli given in the Suda (s. v. Θ.) may relate to another T. As Strabo also names T.’ sons as important mathematicians, T. must belong in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, or, at the latest, the 1st half of the 1st. …

Theages

(136 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] (Θεάγης; Theágēs). Pseudepigraphical author of a work in the style of Pythagoras, Περὶ ἀρετῆς ( Perì aretês, 'On Virtue', two frr. in Stob. 3,76-81 and 81-84 Hense), 1st cent. BC/2nd cent. AD. A T. is mentioned in Iambl. VP 257 and 261 (based on Apollonius [14] of Tyana), not as a Pythagorean, however, but as one of the Thousand of Croton who took part in the democratic revolution against the Pythagoreans, although he was very close to the latter ( ibid. 255). He is also missing in Iamblichus' catalogue of Pythagoreans. The two surviving fragments are strongl…

Cronius

(349 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κρόνιος; Krónios). [German version] [1] Platonist Platonist (Syranus, In Aristot. Metaph. 109,11) of the Pythagorizing tendency, mostly called a Pythagorean, (perhaps older) contemporary and friend (Porph. De anthro nympharum 21) of  Numenius, about the mid 2nd cent. AD. As a rule C. is only mentioned with him but frequently before him and generally shares his opinion. C. was read in the school of Plotin (Porph. Vita Pythagorica 14); he composed hypomnemata (ibid., probably no commentaries on whole w…

Callicratidas

(431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Καλλικρατίδας; Kallikratídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch, 407/6 BC Spartan nauarch (naval commander) in 407/6 BC, was only able to relieve  Lysander of his command in the spring of 406 and was confronted through the latter's intrigues with extremely serious problems while preparing his operations. However, he was as unimpressed by these as by the affront he suffered from Cyrus the Younger. C. secured the finances for his warfare and took the initiative. After relocating his naval base from Ep…

Diotogenes

(117 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford)
[German version] Name uncertain, missing in Iamblichus' Pythagorean catalogue (v. P. 267), also in Photius' catalogue of Stobaeus' philosophical sources (Bibl. c. 167,114a-b). Author of pseudo-Pythagorean treatises on kingship and piety, fragments of which can be found in Stobaeus. The date of their composition is a matter of dispute. There is no indication in the treatise on kingship which would indicate a reference to the Principate; nor is there an attempt to legitimize monarchy as part of the …

Theano

(496 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Θεανώ/ Theanṓ). [German version] [1] Priestess of Athena in Troy Priestess of Athena in Troy, daughter of Thracian King Cisseus and of Teleclia, daughter of Ilus [1] (Hom. Il. 6,298-300; 11,223-224; schol. Eur. Hec. 3; Lucian. Imagines 19), since Euripides, sister of Hecabe as well (Eur. Hec. 3 and schol.; schol. A Hom. Il. 16,718; cf. Verg. Aen. 7,320). Mother of many children with Antenor [1] (the so-called Antenorids). As a priestess of Athena, she was of crucial importance for the Greeks in the battl…
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