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Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans firmly represented a moderate position (in 192: Liv. 35,4,41; 35,45,2-5) [1. 73-75, 102]. As strategos he completed with M'. Acilius [I 10] Glabrio (who later confiscated a piec…

Aristoteles

(5,596 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Et al.
(Ἀριστοτέλης; Aristotélēs). [German version] [1] Athenian oligarch Athenian oligarch who, in 404 BC, was banned from Athens and sent to Sparta by  Lysander (Xen. Hell. 2,2,118). Later, he was one of the 30 Tyrants in Athens (Xen. Hell. 2,3,2;  Triakonta), who sent him to Sparta with the request for a Spartan occupational force (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13). Traill, PAA, 174765. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)…

Epicrates

(390 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἐπικράτης; Epikrátēs). [German version] [1] Democratic Athenian c. 400 BC Athenian who fought with the democrats against the oligarchy in …

Medon

(479 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Μέδων/ Médōn). [German version] [1] Son of Oileus and Rhene Illegitimate son of Oileus and Rhene, who led Philoctetes' men to Troy after the latter had to be left on Lemnos (Hom. Il. 2,726ff.). He had killed a member of his stepmother Eriopis' family and thus had to leave his home and flee to Phylace (Thessaly; ibid. 13,695ff.). He is killed by Aeneas (ibid. 15,332). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias (Hermes ES 14), 1960, 113; 122f.; 162f. F. Prinz, Gründungsmythen und Sagenchronologie (Zetemata 72), 1979, 59f. [German version] [2] Herold in the palace…

Myttones

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μυττόνης/ Myttónēs, Pol.; Μοττόνης/ Mottónēs, Syll.3 585,87; Muttines, Liv.). Senior Carthaginian officer of Libyo-Phoenician origin from Hippo [5], whom Hannibal [4] sent to Sicily in 212 BC to support Epicydes [2] and Hanno [9]. He fought with success there against the Romans, but in 210, after being slighted by Hanno, he betrayed Acragas to M. Valerius Laevinus (Pol. 9,22,4; Liv. 25,40,5-13; 26,21,14f.; 40,3-8; [1. 369f., 378; 2. 317f., 335]). In reward, M. won Roman citizenship as M. Valerius Mottones (Syll.3 585,86f.; Liv. 27,5,6…

Demotikon

(201 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Modern word formation to describe a name component of a full Greek citizen: apart from the person's name (e.g., Δημοσθένης/ Dēmosthénēs) and the father's name (genitive, e.g., Δημοσθένους/ Dēmosthénous), the demotikon indicates origin from a  

Theaedetus

(120 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεαίδητος; Theaídētos) from Rhodes, father of Astymedes [1. 1552], significant moderately Rome-friendly statesman [2. 185, 188]; in the peace treaty of Apamea [2] (Antiochus [5] III) with Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso in 189 BC he and Philophron had achieved i.a. the apportionment of Lycia (Lycii) to Rhodes (Pol. 22,5,2; [1. 85; 3. 182]). T. was about 80 years old when he travelled to Rome as naúarchos in the spring of 167 to effect a new alliance, but died there (Pol. 30,5,1-10; 30,21 f.; Liv. 45,25,7-10; [1. 1…

Ethnikon

(167 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Modern term, from ἐθνικός/ ethnikós, ‘belonging to an éthnos’; ethnic). Scholarly term in epigraphy for the designation of origin of a person mentioned outside his native polis or region. The ethnikon (cf. Str. 14,2,18) identifies affiliation with the inhabitants of a particular polis (e.g., Korínthios) or a particular region (e.g., Boiōtós, Sikeliṓtēs). The phenomenon is well at…

Hasdrubal

(991 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( zrbl = ‘Help is Bl’; Ἀσδρούβας/ Asdroúbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian field marshal in the 1st Punic War, 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian field marshal in the First Punic War. Together with  Bostar [1] he was defeated near Adys by the Roman invasion troops of consul M.  Atilius [I 21] Regulus in 256 BC, under  Xanthippus he probably took part in the victory near Tynes in 255 (Pol. 1,30; 32; Diod. Sic. 23,11) [1. 48, 264 and 132, 751] and from 251 he was active i.a. in Sicily with 140 elephants, until he suffer…

Pamphilidas

(62 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παμφιλίδας/ Pamphilídas) from Rhodes. A cautious admiral, and willing to seek peace, in the war against Antiochus [5] III. (Pol. 21,7,6-7; 21,10,5; cf. Liv. 37,2,9; 37,19,1). He was in action on the Carian coast in 190 BC, together with Eudamus [2], and played a leading role in the naval victory over Hannibal [4] off Side (Liv. 37,22,3; 37,24,9).…

Xenocles

(633 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ξενοκλῆς; Xenoklês). [German version] [1] See Little-Master cups See Little-Master cups. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Attic tragic poet, end of 5th cent. BC Attic tragic poet, end of the 5th cent. BC, son of Carcinus [3] (family tree: TrGF I 21, p. 129), frequently mocked in comedy (TrGF I 33 T 1-7); successful at the Dionysia in 415 (DID C 14) with Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae and the satyr play Athamas. There is evidence of the further titles Licymnius (one surviving verse, F 2) and possibly Myes (Μύες, Mice) (but cf. TrGF I 21 T 3 d-e). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [3] Spartiate who accompanied Agesilaus [2] II Spartiate who accompanied Agesilaus [2] II on his campaign in Asia Minor and commanded the cavalry in a battle against the satrap Tissaphernes. On Agesilaus's return march to Greece in 394 BC he was suppos…

Abantidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀβαντίδας; Abantídas). Son of Paseas and related through marriage to the family of  Aratus [2] (tyrant of Sicyon 264-252 BC); having come to power due to the murder of the tyrant Cleinias, he was killed by Deinias and the otherwise unknown dialectician Aristoteles (Plut. Arat. 2,2; 3,4; Paus. 2,8,2) [1. 394]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967.

Demaratus

(514 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος; Dēmáratos). [German version] [1] Corinthian aristocrat 7th cent. BC Corinthian aristocrat, member of the  Bacchiadae family. D. made his fortune as a merchant around the middle of the 7th cent. BC…

Dasius

(188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Messapic name in Lat. form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Respected bearers of that name in Apulia (in particular from Arpi and Sala) were still anti-Roman during the Second Punic War. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] Commander of Clastidium against Hannibal D. from Brundisium, in 218 BC commander of the allied occupation forces of  Clastidium with large Roman stores which he betrayed to Hannibal a…

Hampsicora

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] High-ranking Sardinian, who in 215 BC, along with his son Hostus, acted as organizer and military leader of the revolt by Sardinian tribes against the Roman rulership. H. received only insufficient Carthaginian assistance through  Hasdrubal [4] and killed himself after a devastating defeat against T.  Manlius Torquatus (Liv. 23,32,7-10; 40,3-41,6). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography Huss, 348f.

Telemnastus

(70 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τηλέμναστος; Tēlémnastos) from Gortyn. Cretan mercenary leader, who supported Philopoemen against Nabis in 192 BC (IG IV2 244,3 f.; Pol. 33,16,1; 33,16,6). In the third Macedonian War T. was the ambassador of Perseus [2] taking his request to Antiochus [6] IV for diplomatic or military aid in the spring of 168 BC (Pol. 29,4,8-10; Liv. 44,24,1-7; cf. [1. 167 f.]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, 1974.…

Nicostratus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Νικόστρατος; Nikóstratos). [German version] [1] Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen [1]. According to  Hom. Il. 3,175 and Hom. Od. 4,12, Menelaus and Helen had only a daughter (Hermione, cf. Eur. Andr. 898; Lycoph. 851), but in another tradition they also had a son (Hes. Fr. 175,2 M.-W.; Soph. El. 539). Later authors tried to resolve this discrepancy by making N. the son of a slave (Paus. 2,18,6). In Amyclae, N. and Megapenthes [2] were portrayed on horseback, as a counterpart to the two sons of the Dioscuri (ibid. 3,18,13); according to a Rhodian myth N. and Megapenthes [2]…
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