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(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Talarius ludus

(331 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (from Latin talus, 'ankle', 'dice'). The four secure written records about the TL allow no final conclusion as to whether it was a Roman game of dice (thus [7. 1842]) or a type of staged presentation in which the performers wore a toga that reached down to their ankles. For Cicero (Cic. Att. 1,16,3; Cic. Off. 1,150), the TL was immoral and the lowest profession next to 'salve vendors' and 'dancers' (Entertainers); Quintilianus (Inst. 11,3,58) emphasises its frolicsomeness and implies song as an accompaniment…


(81 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (Τέρπνος; Terpnós). Famous citharode. When Nero became emperor in 54 AD, he summoned T., listened to him daily and used him as inspiration for his own music (Suet. Nero 20,1); towards the end of his reign (67) Nero was allowed to 'defeat' T. at the Períodos (Cass. Dio 8-10; Philostr. VA 5,7-8). Vespasian in contrast honoured T. with 200,000 HS on the occasion of the restoration of the Roman Theatrum Marcelli (Suet. Vesp. 19). Harmon, Roger (Basle)


(720 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (πυρρίχη/ pyrrhíchē, Latin pyrrhica). A widespread and well-documented ancient weapon dance. Its early date is suggested by the tales of its origin (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,72,7), linking the pyrrhiche with the Curetes (Str. 10,4,16) and with Athena's dances at her own birth (Lucian, Dialogi deorum 13 Macleod) and at the victory over the Titans (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. ibid.); other explanations derive the pyrrhiche from Achilles' dance before the funeral pyre ( pyrá) of Patroclus (Aristot. fr. 519 Rose), from Pyrrhus' dance of victory (Archil. fr. 190 Ber…


(194 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (Σακάδας; Sakádas). Poet and famous aulos player from Argos. He participated in the second organisation ( katástasis) of music in Sparta (Plut. Mor. 1134bc) and won the Pythian agṓn (Pythia [2]) three times in a row from 586 BC in Delphi, when solo performances of the aulos were introduced there (Paus. 10,7,3-5; 6,14,10; cf. Musical instruments V.B.1.). His winning piece, which described Apollo's fight with the dragon in five parts, became known as the ‘Pythian nomos’ (Nomos [3]; ibid. 2,22,8; [1]). S. also wrote elegiac verses (Plut. Mor. 1134a), a nomos for choir in …


(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…
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