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Caphereus

(43 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καφηρεύς, Καφαρεύς; Kaphēreús, Kaphareús). Much feared south-eastern cape of Euboea, modern Kavo Doro. Documentary evidence: Hdt. 8,7,1; Str. 8,6,2; Ptol. 3,14,22; Plin. HN 4,63; Mela 2,107. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 6f.

Caucasa

(47 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καύκασα; Kaúkasa). Port on the northern coast of Chios (Hdt. 5,33,1); its inhabitants are epigraphically referred to as Kaukaseís (SGDI 5654; SEG 19, 575; Apollon Kaukaseus and Artemis Kaukasis in Erythrae, Syll.3 3, 1014a,19f.). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 6, 2292.

Astypalaea

(185 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀστυπάλαια; Astypálaia). Dodecanese island (97 km2; circumference according to Plin. HN 4,23: 88 milia passuum), situated between  Amorgos,  Anaphe and Calymnus. A. consists of two parts, joined only by a 100m wide isthmus. Evidence of early Bronze-Age settlements has been found on the eastern part, especially in the bay of Vathy. Mycenaean chamber tombs have been excavated in the western part and also near Armenochori. The location of the ancient polis was that of the modern capital of Chora.…

Lebinthos

(60 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Λέβινθος; Lébinthos). Island of the Sporades east of Amorgos, modern Lévitha, length 7 km, 15 km2 in size, several bays, surrounded by a series of small islands, uninhabited today. Evidence: Str. 10,5,12; Plin. HN 4,70; Mela 2,111; Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21; Ov. Met. 8,222, Ars am. 2,81. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 4, 155f.

Aegiale

(79 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] [1] City on Amorgos (Αἰγιάλη; Aigiálē). One of the poleis of this island was situated in the north of  Amorgos (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἄμοργος; Ámorgos). Remains of the sprawling town were found in the villages of Tholaria and Langada. Known as Giali in popular tradition, the place is today once again called A. (coins: HN 481). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography H. Kaletsch, s. v. A., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 83. [German version] [2] see  Aegialea see  Aegialea

Cenaeum

(121 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κήναιον, Kḗnaion; Lat. Cenaeum). The north-western foothills of  Euboea, modern Cape Lihada, a flat alluvial promontory of a Neocene coastal terrace, with a sanctuary of Zeus Kenaios (Scyl. 58). The sanctuary which was probably fortified in Hellenistic times did not have a temple. On C. were the towns of Athenae Diades and Dion. In 427/6 BC, an earthquake caused parts of the peninsula to disappear into the sea (Demetrius of Callatis, FGrH 85 F 6). Sources: H. Hom. 1,219; Thuc. 3,93,…

Anaphe

(234 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀνάφη; Anáphē). Island of the Cyclades (35 km2), east of  Thera (Steph. Byz. s. v. A.), mountainous (Mount Vigla 582 m). Its Greek name has been explained as a derivation from ἀνάπτειν ( anáptein, ‘to flare up’ or ἀναφαίνεσθαι, anaphaínesthai, ‘to appear’), because, when viewed from the ancient settlement of  Thera, A. seems to be lit up by the low sun, giving rise to the legend that  Apollo made the island appear to the  Argonauts, when they were in distress at sea on their return from  Colchis (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1709).…

Casos

(163 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάσος; Kásos). Southernmost island of the Dodecanese, 27 nautical miles from Crete, neighbouring island to Carpathus; with a total area of 66 km2, it is 17 km long and 6 km wide, mountainous, its highest peak Mount Prionas at 600 m. Its population was of Doric origin. Some remains of the ancient town have survived near the modern Polio above the modern Fri. C. was a member of the  Delian League with a tribute of 1,000 drachmas (ATL 1,302f.; 2,80; 3,24; 210). Later, C. became Rhodian, as did Carpathus…

Aegean Sea

(158 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Αἰγαῖον πέλαγος; Aigaîon pélagos). The ‘Aegean Sea’ (AS), first mentioned in Aesch. Ag. 664; Hdt. 2,97; 4,85; 7,55; Ps.-Scyl. 58, extended according to Hdt. 2,113; Str. 10,4,2 from the opening of the Hellespontus to the island of Crete. According to other sources, it extended only as far as the island of Cos (Str. 7,7,4; 2,5,21), or ended west of Sounion (Plin. HN 4,9,19). Str. 2,5,21 reports the AS to be 4,000 stades ( c. 708 km) long and 2,000 stades wide ( c. 354 km). The frequent separation of the Icarian Sea defines the south-eastern extent along the arch…

Calaurea

(207 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καλαύρεια; Kalaúreia). Island in the south of the Saronic Gulf off the coast of the Argive Acte (21 km2, up to a height of 283 m), modern Poros. Grave finds have verified that the island was already inhabited in Mycenaean times [1. 297ff.]. The ancient town with its famous  Poseidon sanctuary (right of asylum) -- partially extant and excavated -- was situated in the interior of the island. The earliest finds from the sanctuary date back to the geometric period; the temple was built at the end of …

Cimolos

(180 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κίμωλος; Kímolōs). Island of the Cyclades (35 km2) north-east of Melos, mountainous (Palaiokastro 398 m), composed of the same volcanic tuff as Melos. ‘Cimolian earth’ (cimolite), a grease-dissolving soapy clay, was used for washing and for the production of porcelain. Another Cimolian export article were figs. The ancient town was situated in the south-west near the modern Hellenika. Some graves in the necropolis even date back to pre-Mycenaean times; finds range from the 2nd millenni…

Budorum

(80 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Βούδορον; Boúdoron). Settlement on  Salamis, important Athenian base during the Peloponnesian War. In 429 BC,  Cnemus laid siege to the fortress to no avail. From his base in B.,  Nicias captured the Megarian fortress of Minoa and Nisaea in 427 BC. Remains of walls were found south-west of the monastery of Phaneromeni (founded in 1661). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography P. W. Haider, s.v. Salamis, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 596.

Gyarus

(163 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Γύαρος; Gýaros). Island 17 km2 in size, uninhabited today (micaceous slate) of the north-western Cyclades, modern Jura or Gioura. On the eastern side there are traces of old terrace cultures, and close to a spring and an old mole are the remains of the ancient town of G. that minted its own copper coins in the 3rd cent. BC; at the time of Strabo G. was still only a poor fishing village, in the Imperial period it was a feared place of exile (Tac. Ann. 3,68; 4,30; Plut. Mor. 602c.; Ju…

Coela

(66 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κοῖλα; Koîla). The south-east coast of  Euboea (Hdt. 8,13f.; Dion. Chrys. 7,2; 7; Eur. Tro. 84; 90; Ptol. 3,15,25) that was feared because of its storms. In Str. 10,1,2; Val. Max. 1,8,10; Liv. 31,47,1; Oros. 6,15,11, C. is the southern part of the straits of Euboea up to Euripos. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 7ff.

Amorgos

(349 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀμοργός; Amorgós). Easternmost island of the  Cyclades (121 km2), mountainous (Krikelon 821 m). The three ancient main towns of the island were all located on its north-western coast:  Aegiale, Minoa (near the modern main port of Katapola, and modern Chora, officially A.), and Arcesine. The island was densely populated in the prehistoric period, and supposedly served as a trade post from the 3rd millennium onwards. Rich grave finds from the early Cycladic period show close links with Cer…

Abantes

(63 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἄβαντες; Ábantes). A. is the name given even by Homer (Il. 2,536 ff.; 4,464) to the inhabitants of the island of  Euboea, also known as Abantis (Str. 10,1,3; Paus. 5,22,3). In historical times, the name A. only survives in the phyle Abantis of the town of  Chalcis (CIL XII 9,946). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. A., in: LdA 1,61.

Oliaros

(85 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ὠλίαρος; Ōlíaros). Largest (38 km2) of the islands grouped around Paros, modern Antiparos (Str. 10,5,3; Mela 2,111). The Saliangos reef was the site of the earliest known late Neolithic settlement in the Cyclades. Early Cycladic graves have come to light on the neighbouring island of Diplo. The stalactite caves on O. were much frequented in ancient times already. In other respects the history of O. is closely connected with Paros. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography H. Kaletsch, s.v. Antiparos, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 121.

Gaurium

(105 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Γαύρειον, Γαύριον; Gaúreion, Gaúrion). The name of a settlement with a deep harbour on the north-western side of the island of Andros in the Cyclades. In the Hellenistic period, G. served as a port and is mentioned in association with various events in wars: Xen. Hell. 1,4,22; Diod. Sic. 13,69,4f.; Liv. 31,45,3ff.; GGM 1,500. Inland at Hagios Petros are the remains of a Hellenistic round tower, probably used to protect the nearby mines. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography J. T. Bent, Aegean Islands, 21966, 291ff. Lauffer, Griechenland, 230 L. Ross, Reisen…

Callas

(43 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάλλας; Kállas). River on the northern coast of Euboea [1] near Histiaea-Oreos, probably identical with the modern Xerias or Xeropotamos (Str. 10,1,4). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 9, 82 Philippson/Kirsten 1, 574f.

Andros

(344 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἄνδρος; Ándros). With an area of about 384 km2, the second largest island of the Cyclades, seven nautical miles off Cape Caphireas (on the southern tip of  Euboea), mountainous (994 m) and abounding in water. The oldest settlement to date on A. has been discovered on its western coast, near Zagora (peak in the geometric period). In antiquity, its main town was located on the southern coast near Palaiopolis, where town walls, dwellings and a temple dating from the 6th/5th cents. BC have b…
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