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Gaurium

(105 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Γαύρειον, Γαύριον; Gaúreion, Gaúrion). The name of a settlement with a deep harbour on the north-western side of the island of Andros in the Cyclades. In the Hellenistic period, G. served as a port and is mentioned in association with various events in wars: Xen. Hell. 1,4,22; Diod. Sic. 13,69,4f.; Liv. 31,45,3ff.; GGM 1,500. Inland at Hagios Petros are the remains of a Hellenistic round tower, probably used to protect the nearby mines. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography J. T. Bent, Aegean Islands, 21966, 291ff. Lauffer, Griechenland, 230 L. Ross, Reisen…

Cythera

(756 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κύθηρα; Kýthēra, Lat. Cythera, the modern Kithira). [German version] A. Geography of the island Off the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese, 30 km long and 18 km wide, C. covers an area of around 262 km2, and is surrounded by several small, uninhabited islands. The coast consists mostly of steep cliffs, indented with small bays from which narrow, steep valleys lead into…

Callas

(43 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάλλας; Kállas). River on the northern coast of Euboea [1] near Histiaea-Oreos, probably identical with the modern Xerias or Xeropotamos (Str. 10,1,4). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 9, 82 Philippson/Kirsten 1, 574f.

Andros

(344 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἄνδρος; Ándros). With an area of about 384 km2, the second largest island of the Cyclades, seven nautical miles off Cape Caphireas (on the southern tip of  Euboea), mountainous (994 m) and abounding in water. The oldest settlement to date on A. has been discovered on its western coast, near Zagora (peak in the geometric period). In antiquity, its main town was located on the southern coast near Palaiopolis, where town walls, dwellings and a temple dating from the 6th/5th cents. BC have b…

Delos

(3,027 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Dark Ages | Commerce | Ionic | Marble | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Δῆλος; Dêlos), also Lesser D. (ἡ μικρὰ Δῆλος; hē mikrà Dêlos). [German version] I. Geography Island at the centre of the Cyclades, separated from Rheneia or Greater Delos (17 km2) by a channel 1 km wide. The small, now uninhabited island is some 6 km long and 1.2 km wide; it covers an area of 3.5 km2. D. is an elongated rocky ridge jutting from the sea, consisting mainly of gnei…

Caphereus

(43 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καφηρεύς, Καφαρεύς; Kaphēreús, Kaphareús). Much feared south-eastern cape of Euboea, modern Kavo Doro. Documentary evidence: Hdt. 8,7,1; Str. 8,6,2; Ptol. 3,14,22; Plin. HN 4,63; Mela 2,107. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 6f.

Caucasa

(47 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καύκασα; Kaúkasa). Port on the northern coast of Chios (Hdt. 5,33,1); its inhabitants are epigraphically referred to as Kaukaseís (SGDI 5654; SEG 19, 575; Apollon Kaukaseus and Artemis Kaukasis in Erythrae, Syll.3 3, 1014a,19f.). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 6, 2292.

Astypalaea

(185 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀστυπάλαια; Astypálaia). Dodecanese island (97 km2; circumference according to Plin. HN 4,23: 88 milia passuum), situated between  Amorgos,  Anaphe and Calymnus. A. consists of two parts, joined only by a 100m wide isthmus. Evidence of early Bronze-Age settlements has been found on the eastern part, especially in the bay of Vathy. Mycenaean chamber tombs have been excavated in the western part and also near Armenochori. The location of the ancient polis was that of the modern capital of Chora.…

Lebinthos

(60 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Λέβινθος; Lébinthos). Island of the Sporades east of Amorgos, modern Lévitha, length 7 km, 15 km2 in size, several bays, surrounded by a series of small islands, uninhabited today. Evidence: Str. 10,5,12; Plin. HN 4,70; Mela 2,111; Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21; Ov. Met. 8,222, Ars am. 2,81. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 4, 155f.

Ceos

(652 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] [1] One of the Cyclades (Κέως; Kéōs). Northernmost of the western Cyclades (Xen. Hell. 5,4,61: Κέως; Hdt. 8,76; Bacchyl. 6,5; 16: Κέος; Kéos; Liv. 36,15: Cia), modern Kea. Twelve nautical miles off the southern tip of Attica, from which it is separated by the island of Makronisos. C. has an area of 131 km2, is mountainous (Prophitis Elias 567 m), and predominantly consists of crystalline slate. Silver deposits at the Hagios Symeon, where copper slags have also been found [9. 88f.]. On the Kephala promontory at the north-western tip of the island was a late …

Aegiale

(79 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] [1] City on Amorgos (Αἰγιάλη; Aigiálē). One of the poleis of this island was situated in the north of  Amorgos (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἄμοργος; Ámorgos). Remains of the sprawling town were found in the villages of Tholaria and Langada. Known as Giali in popular tradition, the place is today once again called A. (coins: HN 481). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography H. Kaletsch, s. v. A., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 83. [German version] [2] see  Aegialea see  Aegialea

Cerea

(104 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κέρεια; Kéreia). Island of the Cyclades (15 km2, height of more than 200 m) between Naxos and Amorgos, modern Keros (Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21: Cerus). In 425/4, it was a member of the Delian League (tribute of 630 drachmas, [1. vol. 1, 231, 308f., 501; vol. 3, 198]). Excavations uncovered an important early Cycladic settlement. Idol finds in the National Museum in Athens. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 ATL. L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 11, 253 Philippson/Kirsten vol. 4, 146f. E. Karpodini-Demetriade, Die gri…

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Cenaeum

(121 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κήναιον, Kḗnaion; Lat. Cenaeum). The north-western foothills of  Euboea, modern Cape Lihada, a flat alluvial promontory of a Neocene coastal terrace, with a sanctuary of Zeus Kenaios (Scyl. 58). The sanctuary which was probably fortified in Hellenistic times did not have a temple. On C. were the towns of Athenae Diades and Dion. In 427/6 BC, an earthquake caused parts of the peninsula to disappear into the sea (Demetrius of Callatis, FGrH 85 F 6). Sources: H. Hom. 1,219; Thuc. 3,93,…

Minoa

(355 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Μινώα/ Minṓa). [German version] [1] Region on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf According to Ptol. 3,14,32 a harbour, according to Str. 8,6,1 a phroûrion (‘fortification’), according to Paus. 3,23,11 foothills on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf, the modern island of Monemvasia with medieval and modern fortifications. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M.D. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 55f.  A.J.B. Wace, F.W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907-1908, 176ff.  H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Pre-Historic Laconia 2, in:…

Histiaea

(427 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ἱστίαια; Histíaia). City on the north coast of Euboea, still not identified, probably to be found near Xirochori, a settlement of Thessalian Hellopii and Perrhaebi. The territory of H. originally covered the entire north of Euboea (Dem. Or. 23,213) and was known for its wine (Hom. Il. 2,537). The temple of Artemis Proseoa in Artemisium was its main sanctuary. After the naval battle at Cape Artemisium, the Persians occupied and plunde…

Chalcis

(736 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Χαλκίς; Chalkís). [German version] [1] Settlement in Euboea on the Euripus This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Dark Ages | Ionic | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources | Boeotia, Boeotians In Euboea on the Euripus; by its especially strategic position the most important town on the island. It remains uncertain whether the name C. derives from the or…

Aegila

(153 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Αἰγιλία, Αἰγιαλία; Aigilía, Aigialía). Island in the southern  Aegean Sea; Plin. HN 4,57; Plut. Cleom. 31), with an area of 22 km2. In Byzantine times called Antikythera, under Venetian rule Cerigotto. The seemingly sole ancient settlement was located near Palaiokastro in the north-east of the island. To the north of A., an ancient shipwreck was discovered in AD 1900, where the ‘Youth of A.’ and other bronze and marble statues have been found (nowadays at the National Museum in Athens). Amongst the f…

Cynthus

(35 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κύνθος; Kýnthos, Latin Cynthus). Name of a mountain 113 m high on  Delos with a sanctuary to Zeus (Cynthius) and Athena (Cynthia). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography G. Gruben, Die Tempel der Griechen, 41986, 146f.

Canethus

(60 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάνηθος; Kánēthos). Hill on the mainland, which at the time of Alexander the Great was integrated into the fortifications of the town of Chalcis, modern Kara Baba; the site had previously served as a necropolis. Documentary evidence: Str. 9,2,8; 10,1,8; Theophr. Hist. pl. 8,8,5; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,77. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 409, 602.
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