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Ceos

(652 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] [1] One of the Cyclades (Κέως; Kéōs). Northernmost of the western Cyclades (Xen. Hell. 5,4,61: Κέως; Hdt. 8,76; Bacchyl. 6,5; 16: Κέος; Kéos; Liv. 36,15: Cia), modern Kea. Twelve nautical miles off the southern tip of Attica, from which it is separated by the island of Makronisos. C. has an area of 131 km2, is mountainous (Prophitis Elias 567 m), and predominantly consists of crystalline slate. Silver deposits at the Hagios Symeon, where copper slags have also been found [9. 88f.]. On the Kephala promontory at the north-western tip of the island was a late …

Aegiale

(79 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] [1] City on Amorgos (Αἰγιάλη; Aigiálē). One of the poleis of this island was situated in the north of  Amorgos (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἄμοργος; Ámorgos). Remains of the sprawling town were found in the villages of Tholaria and Langada. Known as Giali in popular tradition, the place is today once again called A. (coins: HN 481). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography H. Kaletsch, s. v. A., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 83. [German version] [2] see  Aegialea see  Aegialea

Cerea

(104 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κέρεια; Kéreia). Island of the Cyclades (15 km2, height of more than 200 m) between Naxos and Amorgos, modern Keros (Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21: Cerus). In 425/4, it was a member of the Delian League (tribute of 630 drachmas, [1. vol. 1, 231, 308f., 501; vol. 3, 198]). Excavations uncovered an important early Cycladic settlement. Idol finds in the National Museum in Athens. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 ATL. L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 11, 253 Philippson/Kirsten vol. 4, 146f. E. Karpodini-Demetriade, Die gri…

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Cenaeum

(121 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κήναιον, Kḗnaion; Lat. Cenaeum). The north-western foothills of  Euboea, modern Cape Lihada, a flat alluvial promontory of a Neocene coastal terrace, with a sanctuary of Zeus Kenaios (Scyl. 58). The sanctuary which was probably fortified in Hellenistic times did not have a temple. On C. were the towns of Athenae Diades and Dion. In 427/6 BC, an earthquake caused parts of the peninsula to disappear into the sea (Demetrius of Callatis, FGrH 85 F 6). Sources: H. Hom. 1,219; Thuc. 3,93,…

Anaphe

(234 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀνάφη; Anáphē). Island of the Cyclades (35 km2), east of  Thera (Steph. Byz. s. v. A.), mountainous (Mount Vigla 582 m). Its Greek name has been explained as a derivation from ἀνάπτειν ( anáptein, ‘to flare up’ or ἀναφαίνεσθαι, anaphaínesthai, ‘to appear’), because, when viewed from the ancient settlement of  Thera, A. seems to be lit up by the low sun, giving rise to the legend that  Apollo made the island appear to the  Argonauts, when they were in distress at sea on their return from  Colchis (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1709).…

Casos

(163 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάσος; Kásos). Southernmost island of the Dodecanese, 27 nautical miles from Crete, neighbouring island to Carpathus; with a total area of 66 km2, it is 17 km long and 6 km wide, mountainous, its highest peak Mount Prionas at 600 m. Its population was of Doric origin. Some remains of the ancient town have survived near the modern Polio above the modern Fri. C. was a member of the  Delian League with a tribute of 1,000 drachmas (ATL 1,302f.; 2,80; 3,24; 210). Later, C. became Rhodian, as did Carpathus…

Aegean Sea

(158 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Αἰγαῖον πέλαγος; Aigaîon pélagos). The ‘Aegean Sea’ (AS), first mentioned in Aesch. Ag. 664; Hdt. 2,97; 4,85; 7,55; Ps.-Scyl. 58, extended according to Hdt. 2,113; Str. 10,4,2 from the opening of the Hellespontus to the island of Crete. According to other sources, it extended only as far as the island of Cos (Str. 7,7,4; 2,5,21), or ended west of Sounion (Plin. HN 4,9,19). Str. 2,5,21 reports the AS to be 4,000 stades ( c. 708 km) long and 2,000 stades wide ( c. 354 km). The frequent separation of the Icarian Sea defines the south-eastern extent along the arch…

Cyclades

(600 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κυκλάδες νῆσοι; Kykládes nêsoi, Latin Cyclades, ‘circle islands’). The modern term refers to the southern Aegean group comprising a total of more than 200 islands between the Greek mainland and the Cretan sea with the exception of the islands off the western coast of Asia Minor which essentially concurs with the original ancient concept (Hdt. 5,30). Thucydides (1,4; 2,9,4) considers that Melos and Thera belong to it, Scylax (48; 58) includes Thera, Anaphe and Astypalaea and only exclu…

Arethusa

(416 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Ἀρέθουσα; Aréthousa). Frequent name for springs. [German version] [1] Spring on Homer's Ithaca Spring on Homer's  Ithaca, where the swine of  Eumaeus graze (Hom. Od. 13,408; Plut. Mor. 776 E; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.). To identify A. with the spring of Perapigadi on the modern Ithaka, 5 km south-east of Vathy, is speculative. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A commentary on Homer's Odyssey, 1992, 189 f. A. J. Wace, F. H. Stubbings, A companion to Homer, 1963, 414-416. [German version] [2] Name for the main spring of Chalkis on Euboia The name handed down by numerou…

Aedepsus

(158 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Αἰδηψός; Aidēpsós). The spa of A. on  Euboea, famous even in antiquity because of its hot (78°C) mineral springs, sacred to  Heracles, was located about 3 km north of the modern resort of Loutra Aidepsou, location of the polis of A. A. was initially part of the polis of  Histiaea which, in its prime, dominated the entire north of the island. The earthquake of 427 BC caused the springs to run dry for three days (FGrH 85 Demetrius of Callatis fr. 6). As early as in the 3rd cent. BC,…

Carpathos

(465 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κάρπαθος; Kárpathos, Lat. Carpathus). With an area of c. 332 km2the second largest island of the Dodecanes between Crete and Rhodes, with a coastal length of about 160 km (in the south the peak of Kali Limni with a height of 1220 m). The statement in Diod. Sic. (5,54,4,) that C. (the name is pre-Greek, Hom. Il. 2,676 refers to the island as Κράπαθος, Krápathos) once belonged to the kingdom of the  Minos is confirmed by archaeological finds. In the modern Karpathos on the south-eastern coast, Minoan-influenced pottery was found in a Mycenaea…

Amarynthus

(128 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀμάρυνθος; Amárynthos). The town A. on the island  Euboea belonged as deme to  Eretria. A. lay c. 10 km east of modern Eretria on the Palaiochoria or Palaiokastro hill (formerly Kato Vatheia) on the coast. The place was already important in the neolithic period and remained continuously inhabited up into the Byzantine period. The name has pre-Greek origins. The sanctuary of  Artemis Amarysia lay in A.; her festival was lavishly celebrated annually (Str. 10,1,10; Liv. 35,38,3) and extended all the way to  Attica to the deme of  Athmonon (modern Marusi). Kalcyk, Hansjör…

Geraestus

(290 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Γεραιστός; Geraistós). [German version] [1] Southernmost tip of Euboea In antiquity, G. was the name for the southernmost tip of Euboea: Hdt. 8,7,1; 9,105; Str. 10,1,2; Plin. HN 4,63; GGM I, 500; Scyl. 58. Called Cape Tzeraso in the Middle Ages, it became an anchorage for Genoan and Venetian ships (remnants of fortifications). Today Cape Mandelo. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 111ff. Lauffer, Griechenland, 231. [German version] [2] Harbour on the southern coast of Euboea The only safe harbour on the dreaded sou…

Minoa

(355 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Μινώα/ Minṓa). [German version] [1] Region on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf According to Ptol. 3,14,32 a harbour, according to Str. 8,6,1 a phroûrion (‘fortification’), according to Paus. 3,23,11 foothills on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf, the modern island of Monemvasia with medieval and modern fortifications. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M.D. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 55f.  A.J.B. Wace, F.W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907-1908, 176ff.  H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Pre-Historic Laconia 2, in:…

Histiaea

(427 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ἱστίαια; Histíaia). City on the north coast of Euboea, still not identified, probably to be found near Xirochori, a settlement of Thessalian Hellopii and Perrhaebi. The territory of H. originally covered the entire north of Euboea (Dem. Or. 23,213) and was known for its wine (Hom. Il. 2,537). The temple of Artemis Proseoa in Artemisium was its main sanctuary. After the naval battle at Cape Artemisium, the Persians occupied and plunde…

Chalcis

(736 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Χαλκίς; Chalkís). [German version] [1] Settlement in Euboea on the Euripus This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Dark Ages | Ionic | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources | Boeotia, Boeotians In Euboea on the Euripus; by its especially strategic position the most important town on the island. It remains uncertain whether the name C. derives from the or…

Aegila

(153 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Αἰγιλία, Αἰγιαλία; Aigilía, Aigialía). Island in the southern  Aegean Sea; Plin. HN 4,57; Plut. Cleom. 31), with an area of 22 km2. In Byzantine times called Antikythera, under Venetian rule Cerigotto. The seemingly sole ancient settlement was located near Palaiokastro in the north-east of the island. To the north of A., an ancient shipwreck was discovered in AD 1900, where the ‘Youth of A.’ and other bronze and marble statues have been found (nowadays at the National Museum in Athens). Amongst the f…

Imbros

(157 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἴμβρος; Ímbros, modern Turkish Imroz adası). Island in the northern Sporades at the southern exit of the Hellespont, 30 km long, 13 km wide, 225 square km in area, hill country rising to 597 m. The city of I., modern Kastro, was to the east of the north coast; remains of the city walls. Pelasgi or Tyrrheni are named as original inhabitants. Probably owing to Miltiades, I. became Athenian around 500 BC and remained so into the Imperial period (Hdt. 6,41; 104; Thuc. 7,57,2; Xen. Hell. 5,1,31). I. appears …

Dia

(455 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Δῖα, Δία; Dîa, Día). [German version] [1] Female equivalent of Zeus The female equivalent of  Zeus, as Diwiya on the Linear B inscriptions from Pylos and Knossos, with her own sanctuary, just as  Poseidon also has his female counterpart in the Mycenaean pantheon [1]. In the post-Mycenaean period the three heroines who can be linked with the Mycenaean goddess by name, are all linked with Zeus, but the individual derivation is problematical. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Heroine in the local cults of Phlius and Sicyon The heroine is most likely D. in the local cult…
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