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Cenabum

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Capital of the  Carnutes on the Loire, more likely Orléans than Gien (Caes. B Gall. 7; 8), derived from Genabum/C.; Celtic root gen, ‘mouth’, ‘river mouth’. C. was the starting point of the uprising of 52 BC under the command of  Vercingetorix; subsequently, Caesar ordered C. to be laid waste. Having suffered badly in the crises of the 3rd cent. AD, C. lost its name. From then on, it became capital of the civitas Aurelianorum. In AD 451, it was besieged by Attila. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Debal, Les Gaulois en…

Herculis portus

(121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Ports of this name existed 1. on the Ligurian coast (in Ptol. 3,1,2 different from Monaco, maybe the bay of Villafranca east of Nice), 2. at Monte Argentario west of  Cosa (Str. 5,2,8; Rut. Namat. 1,293; Tab. Peut. 4,4; modern Port'Ercole), 3. on the west Bruttian coast near Cape Vaticano (Str. 6,1,5; Plin. HN 3,73), and 4. on the south coast of Sardinia (Ptol. 3,3,3). The best-known is 5. Herculis Monoeci portus, already mentioned in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 57 (Str. 4,5,6; Plin. HN 3,47;…

Letrini

(97 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λετρῖνοι; Letrînoi). Village on the road from Elis to Olympia with a sanctuary of Artemis Alpheiaia, to the north of Alpheius [1], localized near modern Pirgos or further west, near the village of Agios Ioannis. In Pausanias' time it only consisted of few remaining houses. References: Paus. 6,22,8-11; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30; 4,2,16; Lycophr. Alexandra 54. The local form of the name is found on inscriptions and in Xen. Hell. 4,2,16 in MSS Λεδρῖνοι ( Ledrínoi). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide 1, EAA2, 447f. E. Meyer, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 11, 876.

Augustodunum

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce Augustan foundation at the junction of the basins of the Loire, the Saône and the Rhône, modern Autun. Built as a replacement for  Bibracte as the capital of the Haedui, A. became a lively centre of Romanization. Marked by insurgencies in the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Ann. 3,43), A. was distinguished by its great prosperity up to the end of the 3rd cent (cf. archaeological finds). Despite its decline after the capitulation…

Lechaeum

(172 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Λέχαιον; Léchaion). Harbour of Corinth [1] on the Corinthian Gulf, 3 km north of the city, connected with it by a double wall in the classical period ( c. 450 BC) [1]. The inner harbour basin, which is silted up today to a large extent, is still recognizable, also an outer harbour, few other remains, e.g. a large early Christian basilica [2]. Xen. Hell. 4,4,12 mentions ship sheds, and sanctuaries of Poseidon (Paus. 2,2,3; Callim. H. 4,271) and of Aphro…

Gabali

(85 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Gallic tribe in Aquitania, south of the Arverni, north of the Ruteni, on the north-western foot of the Cevennes. Source references: Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 64,6; 75,2; Γαβαλεῖς ( Gabaleîs): Str. 4,2,2; Gabales: Plin. HN 4,109; civitas Gabalum of Aquitania I: notitia Galliarum 12,8, modern Gévaudan, Lozère. The Gabali were miners (silver mines) and bred cattle (cheese: Plin. HN 11,240). Main town: Anderitum (Ptol. 2,7,11; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,13,2; 7,6,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography D. Fabrié, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 48 (Lozère), 1989.

Liger

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] River in Gaul, modern Loire; rises on the Cebenna mons . Strabo (4,1,1; 14; 4,2,1-3; 3,4; 4,3; 5,2) erroneously assumes its course as parallel to that of the Garumna, Ptolemy (2,2) describes it more correctly. Authors of antiquity assert that the river is open to shipping for about 2,000 stadia (about 370 km, more today) and that it served as a trade route between Britannia, Massilia and Italy. Further sources: Caes. B Gall. 3,9; 7,5; 55; 59; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,1; 6; 11f; 14; Cass. Dio 39,40; 44,42 (Λίγρος; Lígros); Auson. Mos. 461. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Ca…

Gortys

(239 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Γόρτυς; Górtys). Settlement in Arcadia near the modern Atsicholo between Dimitsana and Karytaina, where the valley widens on the right bank of the Gortynius, a tributary of the  Alpheius [1]. G. comprised a fortified acropolis which controlled the northern access to the plain of Megalopolis, and north-east of the acropolis a terrace towering over the gorge of the Gortynius. According to Paus. 8,27,4, it was one of a number of settlements whose inhabitants came from  Cynuria. G. became part of the territory of Megalopolis, but retained its status as a kómē [1]. In the …

Lasion

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λασιών; Lasiṓn). City at the edge of the Pholoe tableland in the Elian mountainous country, in the upper valley of the Ladon [3], remains near modern Kumani. L. was disputed between Elis and Arcadia. Evidence: Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; 4,2,16; 7,4,12f.; Diod. Sic. 14,17,8; 15,77,1-4; Str. 8,3,5; 7,5. Inscription: SEG 11, 1172f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 1989.

Ratomagus

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce Capital of the Veliocasses, present-day Rouen, linked by the Sequana (Seine) and Autura (Eure) to the Liger (Loire) and inner Gaul (Gallia/Gaul), an important harbour for exports to Britannia in the 2nd cent. AD (Amm. Marc. 15,11,12; It. Ant. 382,3; 384,1; Ptol. 2,8,8: Ῥατόμαγος; Tab. Peut. 2,2 f.; CIL XIII 3475: Ratumagus vicus; Notitia Galliarum 2,2: civitas Rotomagensium; Not. Dign. Occ. 37,10; 37,21: Rotomagus). Originally, the Veliocasses fell within the area of Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 2…

Corone

(262 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κορώνη; Korone). City on the west coast of the Messenian Gulf, modern Petalidi, c. 30 km south west of Kalamata, at the foot of Mount Mathia (modern Lykodimo) with numerous ancient remains, including parts of the city wall. After Messenia had been freed from Spartan rule by the Boeotians under Epaminondas, a new Boeotian city was allegedly founded (it is impossible to decide conclusively whether there was an older C. [1]); after 184 BC member of the …

Croceae

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Marble (Κροκέαι). Place in South Laconia (modern Κροκεές, Krokeés), famous because of the green porphyry ( lapis Lacedaemonius) quarried about 3 km to the south-east and highly prized in the Roman Imperial period. Attestation: Paus. 3,21,4; Str. 8,5,7; Plin. HN. 36,55; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κrokea. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 203-207 M. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 54f. C. Le Roy, Lakonika, in: BCH 85, 1961, 206-215 G. A. Pik…

Glanum

(333 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul Town in Gallia Narbonensis (modern Saint-Rémy-de-Provence) in the region of the  Salluvii. Located on the great trade route running east-west that connected Italy with Spain (later the via Domitia), G.'s importance was also due to its location at the end of the north-south road which provided G. control over the direct access to the Crau plain. A Celtic-Ligurian sanctuary that was dedicated to the god Glan and the   Matres [1] was located in the vicinity of a mineral spring. The res…

Coccygium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοκκύγιον ὄρος; Kokkýgion ŕos). ‘Cuckoo mountain’, another name for the mountain Thornax, west of  Hermion(e) on the Argolid headland, with sanctuaries of Zeus and Apollo; today's Hagios Elias. References: Paus. 2,36,1f.; schol. Theoc. 15,64. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Foley, The Argolid 800-600 B.C., 1988, 184.

Divio

(84 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Dibio). An important centre where trade routes crossed at the confluence of the Saône and the Ouche, on the boundary between the civitates of the Lingones and the Aedui, now Dijon. The castrum Divionense described by Gregory of Tours in his History of the Franks 3,19 was built in the 3rd cent. near the road from Lyons to the Rhine frontier. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Frézouls, Les villes antiques de la France II, 1, 1988, 179-274 C. Rolley, s.v. D., PE, 278.

Carnutes

(79 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe living in Gallia Lugdunensis between the Seine and the Loire, neighbours of the Senones (Str. 4,2,3; 4,3,4; Tib. 1,7,12; Ptol. 2,8,10). After fierce resistance, they were conquered by Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 2-8 passim; Plin. HN 4,107; Carnuti foederati). Their most important towns were Cenabum and Autricum. It was a Carnutan tradition for their  druids to annually hold court in a sacred location. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Provost, Le Val de Loire dans l'Antiquité, 1993.

Aremorica

(43 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Caesar (B. Gall. 5,53,6; 7,75,4; 8,31,4) means by A. (from the Celtic are-mori, along the sea) the coastal territories of the tribes between  Liger and  Sequana. According to Plin. HN 4,105,  Aquitania was formerly called A. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Lutecia Parisiorum

(272 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Oppidum (Caes. B Gall. 6,3,4; 7,57f.; Λουκοτοκία; Loukotokía, Str. 4,3,5; Παρισίων Λουκοτεκία; Parisíōn Loukotekía, Ptol. 2,8,13; Luticia, It. Ant. 366,5f.; Luteci, Tab. Peut. 2,4). Settlement founded in c. 250-200 BC on an island in the Sequana (Seine), where a north-south trading route crosses the river, modern Paris. The river afforded natural protection while the nearby hill of Sainte-Geneviève enabled direct sur…

Cenchreae

(357 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κεγχρεαί; Kenchreaí). [German version] [1] Settlement en route from Argos to Tegea This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Macedonia, Macedones Settlement en route from Argos to Tegea with graves of Argives fallen in the battle at the nearby Hysiae (according to Pausanias in 669/8 BC). C. was on the northern slope of Mount Ctenias opposite Hysiae on the southern side. Not exactly localizable, possibly near the modern Sta Nera, c. 3 km north-east of Achladokambos. The ‘Pyramid of C.’ at the exit of the valley further towards the north-east above t…

Sicyon

(827 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Lafond
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars (Σικυών; Sikyṓn). [German version] I. Site Port on the Gulf of Corinth, 26 km to the west of Corinth. Its territory was confined to the east by the river Nemea [2] (border with Corinth), to the west by the river Sythas (border with Pellene) (Paus. 7,27,12). S. was famous as early as Antiquity for the fertility of the valley and for the highlands of Neogene marl. In the Archaic and Classic…
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