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Victorius

(100 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Gallo-Roman friend of Sidonius Apollinaris. Although Catholic, from about AD 471 he was in the service of the Arian Visigoth Euricus. There is evidence of his holding the titles dux and comes . He had responsibility super septem civitates in Aquitania I and after the latter was subjugated by the Visigoths from c. 475 also for Augustonemetum (Clermont). V. came to prominence by endowing churches. His autocratic tendencies and his dissipated way of life made him suspect, so that he ran away to Rome, where he was murdered (in 479?) (PLRE 2, 1162-1164, no. 4). Leppin, Hartmut…

Maiorianus

(312 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Iulius M. Emperor in the West in 457-461 AD In AD 457-461 emperor in the West. He served under Aetius [2] in Gaul, retired to his estates and probably served as comes domesticorum at least with Valentinianus III. With Ricimer he brought about the overthrow of Avitus [1]. The East Roman emperor named him military commander and on 28 December 457 he was declared to be Augustus (on the date [1. 180-188]; against a step-by-step appointment [1. 185f.]). He emphasized the support for him in the Senate and military …

Chrysaphius

(118 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] (Χρυσάφιος; Chrysáphios). Chrysaphius qui et Ztummas, eunuch. Under  Theodosius II he was praepositus sacri cubiculi as first eunuch also called spatharius. After  Cyrus was overthrown, he supposedly had decisive influence on the emperor, repelling all rivals by unethical means. In AD 449 C. planned to assassinate  Attila. This was uncovered, but he had enough influence to avoid being surrendered to the Huns. In the Nestorian controversy he supported his godfather  Eutyches against the Orthodox party…

Mavortius

(76 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] [1] Vettius Agorius Basilius M. cos. AD 527, Consul AD 527. M. lived in the Ostrogoth kingdom and played an important role for the transmission of literary texts. He is attested as an editor of Horace and Prudentius. He probably wrote the Iudicium Paridis (Anth. Lat. 1,10), perhaps also the Cento de ecclesiis (Anth. Lat. 1,16). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography PLRE 2, 736f. [German version] [2] see Lollianus [7] see Lollianus [7]

Magnillus

(50 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Belonged to the circle associated with Symmachus, with whom he corresponded (Symmachus, Ep. 5,17-33). Governor of Liguria; in AD 391-393 vicarius in Africa, then indicted and acquitted; attested until 396 but no longer in an office, probably not a Christian. PLRE 1, 533. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Eudoxia

(218 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Εύδοξία; Eudoxía) [German version] [1] Wife of Arcadius, see Aelia [4] Wife of Arcadius, Augusta from AD 400 onwards; see  Aelia [4]. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Licinia E. Wife of Valentinianus III and Augusta Born in AD 422; daughter of  Theodosius II and  Eudocia [1]. From 424 engaged to be married to  Valentinianus III , from 437 married. Two daughters:  Eudocia [2] and  Placidia. 439 Augusta. Promoted the building of churches in Rome. It is hard to judge the extent of her influence on the court but presu…

Phaleas

(215 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] (Φαλέας; Phaléas) of Chalcedon. Greek thinker (5th cent. or 1st half of the 4th cent. BC) who concerned himself with polis structures but should probably not be regarded as one of the Sophists. On the basis of the little information that Aristotle [6] (Pol. 2,7,1266a 39-1267b 21; 1274b 9; cf. Diels/Kranz 39,1) provides in a polemical and perhaps distorted form, P. (neglecting warfare) developed a highly differentiated concept of the polis based on the idea - allegedly formulated by…

Stratiotika, Stratiotikon

(375 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] (στρατιωτικά, pl. = stratiōtiká, στρατιωτικόν, sing. = stratiōtikón). The stratiotika were financial resources available for military purposes in the city of Athens from a fund (the stratiotikon) which was historically closely connected with the development of the festival fund ( theōrikón ). The stratiotikon probably served the flexible management of expenditure in times of war, freeing it from the rigidity of the usual system for distributing tax incomes ( merismós). The stratiotikon may also have served as a counterweight to the theorikon. The first pieces o…

Ravenna Papyri

(115 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Collection, now dispersed but at the time comprising 61 items, of non-literary Latin texts on papyrus from the period AD 433 - c. 700, the predominant majority of which probably belonged to an archive in Ravenna. The RP are an important source for the social, economic and administrative history of Italy in the transition period from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography J.-O. Tjäder, Die nicht-literarischen Papyri Italiens aus der Zeit 445-700, 2 vols., 1955, 1982  Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. FS zum 100j. Bestehen der Papyrus-Sa…

Lupicinus

(144 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Consul 367 AD Assigned to Iulianus [11] as Magister Equitum per Gallias, L. fought against the Alamanni in AD 359 and against the Scots and Picts in 360. L. was imprisoned by Julian as a potential opponent. Iovianus made him mag. equitum per Orientem in 363. In 365/6 in this office he was involved in the suppression of the usurpation of Procopius against Valens. In 367 Consul. Christ. PLRE 1520f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Comes rei militaris per Thracias in 377 AD Product of the schola gentilium, in AD 377 comes rei militaris per Thracias. L. drove t…

Deliciae

(381 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] (Also delicia, esp. on inscriptions [2]; but cf. [1. 2437]; see also Plut. Anton. 59,4, delicium, delicati). Children, mostly of unfree origin, who lived in rich households for the entertainment of their owners, particularly during the Imperial period. They were brought up in the paedagogium. The pupulus in Catull. 56,5 might be understood as an early example. They were esp. valued for their garrulitas, their impertinent loquacity (Suet. Aug. 83; Sen. De constantia sapientis 11,3; Stat. Silv. 2,1,45). Beautiful, beardless, long-haired boys (…

Agricola

(107 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Cognomen e.g. of the Atilii, Calpurnii, Iulii, Virii. [German version] [1] AD 418 praef. praetorio II in Gallia [1] AD 418 praef. praetorio II in Gallia [1], 421 cos. (PLRE 2, 36 f.) Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Son of the emperor  Avitus, 5th cent. AD Son of the emperor  Avitus (AD 455/6), brother of Ecdicius and Papianilla. He probably held a high office ( vir inlustris), later he became a clergyman; he was correspondent of his brother-in-law  Sidonius Apollinaris (epist. 1,2; 2,12; PLRE 2, 37 A. 2). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 R. v. Haehling, Religio…

Gratianus

(770 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Father of the emperors Valens and Valentinianus The father of emperors  Valens and  Valentinianus. Born near Cibalae. A man of low origins who rose in the military: between AD 305 and 316 he was protector domesticus in Salona, in about 321 tribunus in Illyricum, later comes in Africa and Britain. In 350/1 he was as a private person host to the usurper  Magnentius and was punished with confiscation of his property. His sons arranged for an honourable memorial. PLRE 1, 400f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Flavius G. West-Rom. emperor AD 367-383 Roman emp…

Syagrius

(213 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Procos. Africae in 379 AD In AD 379 procos. Africae, in 380-382 praetorian prefect, in 381 cos. The assignment of offices is debatable, since S. [2] became prominent at the same time. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Correspondent of Q. A. Symmachus [4] Eusebius, 4th cent. In AD 369 dishonourably dismissed as a notarius; in 379-381 (?) magister officiorum, in 381 city prefect in Rome, in 382 cos. Correspondent of Q. A. Symmachus [4] Eusebius. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography Clauss, 192 f.  A. Demandt, Die Konsuln der Jahre 381 und 382…

Ex(s)uperantius

(56 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] see  Iulius E. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Praef. praet. Galliarum AD 424/5 Originally from Poitiers; after internal unrest in AD 417, he tried to restore order in Aremorica. In 424/5 praef. praet. Galliarum, he was beaten to death during a mutiny in Arelate. PLRE 2, 448. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Phaleas

(184 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] (Φαλέας) von Kalchedon. Griech. Denker (5. Jh. oder 1. H. des 4. Jh.v.Chr.), der sich mit Polis- Strukturen befaßte, aber wohl nicht zu den Sophisten (Sophistik) zu zählen ist. Nach den wenigen Informationen, die Aristoteles [6] (pol. 2,7,1266a 39-1267b 21; 1274b 9; vgl. Diels/Kranz 39,1) polemisch und vielleicht verfremdet gibt, entwickelte Ph. (unter Vernachlässigung des Kriegswesens) ein ausdifferenziertes Konzept der Polis, dem der - angeblich von ihm als erstem formulierte -…

Hesperius

(70 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] Decimius Hilarianus H., Sohn des Ausonius; gehört zu denjenigen Familienangehörigen, die von der Nähe des Ausonius zu Kaiser Gratianus [2] profitieren: 376/7 n.Chr. proconsul Africae, von 377 bis 380 als Praetorianerpraefekt im Westen mit Amtsbereichen wechselnden Zuschnitts bezeugt. Korrespondent des Symmachus (epist. 1,75-88). Epist. 19/20 Mondin (= 16/18 Prete) des Ausonius sind an ihn gerichtet. Wohl Christ [1]. PLRE 1,427f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 v. Haehling, 298f.

Ex(s)uperantius

(54 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] [1] s. Iulius Einleitung s. Iulius E. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [English version] [2] Praef. praet. Galliarum 424/5 n. Chr. Stammte aus Poitiers, versuchte nach inneren Unruhen 417 n.Chr. in der Aremorica die Ordnung wiederherzustellen. 424/5 praef. praet. Galliarum, während einer Meuterei in Arelate erschlagen. PLRE 2, 448. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Magnillus

(46 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] Gehört in das Umfeld des Symmachus, mit dem er korrespondierte (Symm. epist. 5,17-33). Statthalter von Ligurien; 391-393 n.Chr. vicarius in Africa, danach angeklagt, freigesprochen; bis 396 bezeugt, aber nicht mehr in einem Amt, wohl kein Christ. PLRE 1, 533. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Deliciae

(352 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[English version] (Auch delicia, bes. auf Inschr. [2]; vgl. aber [1. 2437]; s. auch Plut. Anton. 59,4, delicium, delicati). Kinder zumeist unfreier Herkunft, die vor allem während der Kaiserzeit - der pupulus von Catull. 56,5 dürfte indessen schon in diesem Sinne zu verstehen sein - in reichen Haushalten zur Unterhaltung ihrer Besitzer lebten und im paedagogium aufgezogen wurden. Bes. ihre garrulitas, kecke Geschwätzigkeit, wurde geschätzt (Suet. Aug. 83; Sen. de constantia sapientis 11,3; Stat. silv. 2,1,45). Bevorzugt wurden schöne, bartlose und langh…
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