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Syagrius

(213 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Procos. Africae in 379 AD In AD 379 procos. Africae, in 380-382 praetorian prefect, in 381 cos. The assignment of offices is debatable, since S. [2] became prominent at the same time. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Correspondent of Q. A. Symmachus [4] Eusebius, 4th cent. In AD 369 dishonourably dismissed as a notarius; in 379-381 (?) magister officiorum, in 381 city prefect in Rome, in 382 cos. Correspondent of Q. A. Symmachus [4] Eusebius. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography Clauss, 192 f.  A. Demandt, Die Konsuln der Jahre 381 und 382…

Ex(s)uperantius

(56 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] see  Iulius E. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Praef. praet. Galliarum AD 424/5 Originally from Poitiers; after internal unrest in AD 417, he tried to restore order in Aremorica. In 424/5 praef. praet. Galliarum, he was beaten to death during a mutiny in Arelate. PLRE 2, 448. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Victorius

(100 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Gallo-Roman friend of Sidonius Apollinaris. Although Catholic, from about AD 471 he was in the service of the Arian Visigoth Euricus. There is evidence of his holding the titles dux and comes . He had responsibility super septem civitates in Aquitania I and after the latter was subjugated by the Visigoths from c. 475 also for Augustonemetum (Clermont). V. came to prominence by endowing churches. His autocratic tendencies and his dissipated way of life made him suspect, so that he ran away to Rome, where he was murdered (in 479?) (PLRE 2, 1162-1164, no. 4). Leppin, Hartmut…

Maiorianus

(312 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Iulius M. Emperor in the West in 457-461 AD In AD 457-461 emperor in the West. He served under Aetius [2] in Gaul, retired to his estates and probably served as comes domesticorum at least with Valentinianus III. With Ricimer he brought about the overthrow of Avitus [1]. The East Roman emperor named him military commander and on 28 December 457 he was declared to be Augustus (on the date [1. 180-188]; against a step-by-step appointment [1. 185f.]). He emphasized the support for him in the Senate and military …

Constans

(591 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iulius C. Roman Emperor (Augustus), 337-350 AD Roman Emperor, born c. 320 AD, the youngest son of Constantine [1] and Fausta, elevated to Caesar on 25 December 333 and at about the same time betrothed to Olympias, the daughter of  Ablabius [1]. From 9 September 337 Augustus. At a meeting of the brothers in Pannonia (Julian Or. 1,19a) C. received Italy, Illyricum and Africa (Zon. 13,5). He refused to acknowledge the guardianship of his eldest brother Constantine [2] II [1]. Constan…

Eutychianus

(141 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Rom. officer from Cappadocia, eyewitness of the Persian campaign of AD 363 According to Malalas (p. 332,9ff.) a Roman officer from Cappadocia, who recorded his eyewitness account of Julian's Persian campaign of AD 363 in an annalistic history (FHG 4,6). Both the character and his work may well be fictitious (cf. FGrH II B 226, p. 638f.). PLRE 1, 319 E. (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Praef. praet. AD 396/7 Praef. praet. ( Illyrici?) in AD 396/7.; praef. praet. Orientis between 397 and 399; II in 404/5; cos. in 398. His identification with Typhu…

Chrysaphius

(118 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] (Χρυσάφιος; Chrysáphios). Chrysaphius qui et Ztummas, eunuch. Under  Theodosius II he was praepositus sacri cubiculi as first eunuch also called spatharius. After  Cyrus was overthrown, he supposedly had decisive influence on the emperor, repelling all rivals by unethical means. In AD 449 C. planned to assassinate  Attila. This was uncovered, but he had enough influence to avoid being surrendered to the Huns. In the Nestorian controversy he supported his godfather  Eutyches against the Orthodox party…

Thalassius

(456 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θαλάσσιος; Thalássios). [German version] [1] Follower of Constantius [2] II, 4th cent. AD (Thalassius). Praefectus praetorio Orientis 351-353, from a family of curiales [2] of the East. Little is known about his career, but T. was obviously a loyal follower of Constantius [2] II: in 345, he acted as the emperor's comes in Aquileia; in 351, he held a high office at his court in Cibalae (Zos. 2,48,5); still in the same year, T. - probably a Christian - entered into the office of praetorian prefect of the East (Artemii Passio…

Marinianus

(210 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Jurist, teacher of law in Rome, 4th cent. Jurist from Galatia in Asia Minor, belonging to the group around Symmachus. M was a teacher of law in Rome (Symmachus, Ep. 3,23,2) and in AD 383 vicarius Hispaniae (Cod. Theod. 9,1,14). PLRE I, 559f. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Liebs, Die Jurisprudenz im spätantiken Italien, 1987, 64, 98. [German version] [2] Flavius Avitus M. Consul in AD 423 Attested in AD 422 as praetorian prefect of Italia, Illyria and Africa, and in 423 as consul, perhaps patricius. Along with his wife he contributed to the renov…

Severus

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Σευῆρος; Seuêros). [German version] [1] Platonist, 2nd cent.? Platonist, probably 2nd cent. AD. He wrote a monograph On the soul [1. 80, 299; 2. 409-13, 428 f., 435 f.] and a commentary on Plato’s Timaeus [1. 52, 217 f.; 2. 407-9]. He appears in these works to be an original-minded, somewhat stoicizing interpreter of Aristotle’s doctrine of categories [1. 259; 2. 413 f.; 3. 66, 288 f.], and of Plato’s theories of the soul [1. 299; 3. 56, 278 f.] and of the origin of the world [4. 116-18, 417-21]. His works …

Florentinus

(324 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Gaulish correspondent of Symmachus Came from a Gaulish family; correspondent of Symmachus (Epist. 4,50-57), probably a pagan. In AD 379 he probably held the notary's office. It is doubtful whether he is identical with the homonymous comes sacrarum largitionum [1. 100-103]; in 395 quaestor sacri cubiculi; from 395 to 397, thus for an unusually long time, attested as praefectus urbi Romae, proved successful during a famine. Claudian [2] dedicated the second book of De raptu Proserpinae to him (praef. 50). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 Delmaire. PLRE…

Marcianus

(1,758 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Greek geographer from Heraclea, between AD 200 and 530, Marcianus I Greek [1] (Μαρκιανός; Markianós). Geographer from Heraclea [7] between AD 200 (he used the geographer Protagoras) and 530 (he is often quoted by Steph. Byz.), possibly after 400 (GGM 1, CXXX; [2. 272; 3. 997; 6. 156f.]) or even closer to Steph. Byz. [1. 46]. Personal information about him is not available. Only 21 quotes from his Epitome of the eleven books of the Geōgraphía by Artemidorus [3] of Ephesus have been handed down by Steph. Byz. and one as Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,859 (GGM 1,…

Didymus

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Δίδυμος; Dídymos). [1] of Alexandria Important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC [German version] A. Philological activity The most important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC. The biographical entry in the Suda (δ 872) tells us that he was still alive in the reign of Augustus, and mentions a nickname ‘Chalkenteros’ (Χαλκέντερος, ‘Brazen-guts’, cf. the Suda ι 399, χ 29). To his strong constitution he attributed an untiring assiduity that extended to different branches of p…

Bonifatius

(349 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Defended Marseille against Athaulf 413 AD B. distinguished himself in AD 413 in the defence of Marseilles against Athaulf ( Ataulfus), attested as tribune in Africa from AD 416/17, perhaps praepositus limitis; from AD 423 comes Africae. As he acted independently, he was suspected time and again of disloyalty to  Valentinianus III, and this led to military conflicts in 427-429; publicly confirmed by the emperor as comes in 429. At the same time B. was accused of having invited the Vandals into the country so as to defend his own position; he …

Mavortius

(76 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] [1] Vettius Agorius Basilius M. cos. AD 527, Consul AD 527. M. lived in the Ostrogoth kingdom and played an important role for the transmission of literary texts. He is attested as an editor of Horace and Prudentius. He probably wrote the Iudicium Paridis (Anth. Lat. 1,10), perhaps also the Cento de ecclesiis (Anth. Lat. 1,16). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography PLRE 2, 736f. [German version] [2] see Lollianus [7] see Lollianus [7]

Aelia

(294 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Second wife of Sulla Second wife of Sulla (Plut. Sull. 6,20). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Galla Wife of one Postumus (Augustan period) Wife of one Postumus = ? C. Propertius Postumus, Prop. 3,12,38; related to members of the senatorial Aelii of the Augustan period [1; 2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Paetina, second wife of  Claudius Ae. Paetina. Probably daughter of Sex. Aelius Catus; second wife of  Claudius, who separated from her (Suet. Claud. 26,2). They had a daughter  Antonia [5].  Narcissus …

Symmachus

(1,389 words)

Author(s): Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Lehnardt, Andreas | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] I. Greek (Σύμμαχος/ Sýmmachos). [German version] [I 1] Author of a commentary on Aristophanes, 1st half of the 2nd cent. No later than the first half of the 2nd cent. AD (citation in Herodian. 2,945-946 Lentz); author of a commentary on Aristophanes [3], frequently used in Late Antiquity and Byzantine scholia literature ( subscriptio Schol. Aristoph. Av.; Nub.; Pax). It remains unclear whether S. also commented on comedies which do not survive [2. 1138 f.]. Of the 41 (factual) explanations attributed to S. by name in the Aristophane…

Caecilianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Carthage, from AD 311/12 In 311/312 (according to [1] around 309/310), C. was ordained bishop of Carthage by Felix of Apthugni. A council of 70 bishops under the leadership of the Numidian primate Secundus of Tigisi declared C.'s election invalid and accused Felix of traditio. In his place, Maiorinus was elected at first, with (313)  Donatus following shortly afterwards. Emperor Constantine declared his support for C. (cf. especially Constantine's letter in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). The dispute with…

Cerialis

(149 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
Roman cognomen (also Caerialis, Caerealis) of Latin origin, derived from the adjectival Cerealis (‘belonging to Ceres’); current from the Julian-Claudian era onwards (Schulze, 486f.; ThlL, Onom. 2,344f.).   Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinianus I, 4th cent. AD Brother of  Iustina, the wife of  Valentinianus I (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). Tribunus stabuli (Amm. Marc. 30,5,19). In AD 375 he helped his nephew  Valentinianus II to the throne (Amm. Marc. 30,10,5). PLRE 1,197. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Dux Libyarum 405 AD In AD 4…

Nepotianus

(177 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Son of Flavius N. (cos. AD 336) Son of the half-sister of Constantinus [1], Eutropia [2], and Flavius N. ( cos. AD 336). As a member of the Constaninian dynasty, he rose up in Rome against Magnentius. He defeated the army of the latter's praef. praet., Anicius (or Anicetus), in Italy and claimed to be the ruler for a while (June 350), until Magnentius's magister officiorum, Marcellinus [5], defeated him. Magnentius's retribution against N.'s supporters was bloody. PLRE 1,624, No. 5. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Father of the Emperor Nepos,…
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