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Pyrasus

(104 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πύρασος; Pýrasos). City in Achaea Phthiotis (Hom. Il. 2,695) on the northeastern edge of the Halmyrus plain, today's Nea Anchialos. Settled from prehistoric times until the present; in the historical era it belonged to Thebes (Str. 9,5,14). Archaeology: large Christian basilica and other buildings. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography F. Hild, E. Hanschmann, s. v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 578 f.  P. Lazaridis, Βυζαντινὰ καὶ μεσαιωνικὰ μνημεῖα Θεσσαλίας: Νέα Ἀγχίαλος Φθιώτιδες Θῆβαι, in: AD 25, 1970, 286 f.  TIB 1, 271  E. Viss…

Ladon

(581 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Λάδων; Ládōn). [German version] [1] Dragon The dragon referred to in Apoll. Rhod. 4,1396, elsewhere referred to only as a ‘serpent’ ( óphis, drákōn), who guards the apples of the Hesperides (as also mentioned on Probus in Verg. G. 1,244); he has a hundred heads and many voices. Mythographers have him either be descended directly (as a chthonic beast) from Gaia (as is Typhon) or from related monsters (Phorcys and Ceto, the parents of Echidna and grandparents of the Lernean Hydra in Hes. Theog. 333-335; Echidna and…

Mantinea

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Achaeans, Achaea | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Arcadians, Arcadia | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Μαντίνεια; Mantíneia). [German version] I. Name and landscape Older form of the name Μαντινέα, Attic and later literary form Μαντίνεια, the tribe was οἱ Μαντινεῖς; hoi Mantineîs. The tribal name is primary, with the town name derived from it. The town lies in the northern part of the large eastern Arcadian plateau, some 12 km north of Tripolis (630 m elevation). The…

Lampeia

(50 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάμπεια). Mountain range, up to 1,793 m high, south of the Erymanthus mountain range, in the north-east of the nomos Elis [1], modern Lambia (Apoll. Rhod. 1,127; Diod. Sic. 4,112,1; Str. 8,3,10; Paus. 8,24,4; Plin. HN 4,20; Stat. Theb. 4,290). Lienau, Cay (Münster) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Peirene

(489 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Danaid (Πειρήνη/ Peirḗnē). One of the Danaids (Danaus), married to Dolichus (Hyg. Fab. 170) or Agaptolemus (Apollod. 2,1,5). Junk, Tim (Kiel) [German version] [2] Eponym of the spring of the same name in Corinthus (Πειρήνη/ Peirḗnē, Πειράνα/ Peirána). Junk, Tim (Kiel) [German version] I. Mythology Eponym} of the spring of the same name in Corinthus. Her parents are named as river gods such as Asopus [2] and Metope [2] (Diod. Sic. 4,72,1) and Achelous [2] (Paus. 2,2,3), sometimes also Oebalus [1] (the 'Great Ehoiai' according to Paus. loc. cit.). She is the mother …

Leros

(352 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λέρος; Léros). Island of the Dodecanese, off the coast of Asia Minor, between Patmos and Kalymnos, 53,5 km2 in extent. Its coast has several bays and coastal plains that extend deep into the interior of the island. According to Str. 10,5,19, L. and its neighbour Calymna were included in the Kalýdnai nḗsoi (Hom. Il. 2,677). The island, which has kept its ancient name until today, was already settled in the early Bronze Age (potsherds near Parthenium). There is a Mycenaean fortress in the north on the Kastro above the bay of Alinda…

Lade

(79 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάδη; Ládē). Island originally off the coast of Miletus, length 3 km, height up to 98 m, today only a hilly ridge about 2 km from the coast because of the alluvial deposits of the Maeander. L. became known through the defeat of the Greeks in the Ionian Rebellion 496 BC: Hdt. 6,7ff.; Thuc. 8,17,3; Arr. Anab. 1,18,4ff.; Str. 14,1,7; Paus. 1,35,6. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. L., RE 12, 381.

Lemnos

(813 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Λῆμνος; Lêmnos). [German version] A. Location Fertile L., which is, however, today almost treeless, is - at 477 km2 - one of the larger Aegean islands. Mainly consisting of slate with volcanic rock deposited in it, the low hill country reaches its highest elevation with the Skopia at 470 m. The rugged coast has bays that cut in deeply. The ancient capital cities were Myrina on the west coast (remains of a…

Magnesia

(1,218 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Blümel, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαγνησία; Magnēsía). [German version] [1] Thessalian coastal region (Ethnicon Μάγνης, Μαγνῆτες/ Mágnēs, Magnêtes; IG IX 2,1228 b16: dat. pl. Μαγνείτεσσι/ Magneítessi 3rd cent. BC). The Thessalian coastal region of Peneius to the Gulf of Pagasae with a narrow peninsula stretching far to the south, which encloses the Gulf of Pagasae in the east and south, filled up completely by the mountains Ossa and Pelion and their foothills. The east coast toward the open sea was without a harbour and feared by sailors; in 480 B…

Midea

(306 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Μίδεια; Mídeia or Μιδέα; Midéa). [German version] [1] City in Argolis This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Mineral Resources City in Argolis, in mythology (cf. Paus. 2,16; 25) one of the most important cities in the region. It had a Mycenaean citadel and palace on a steep hill about 1 km from modern Dendra in the northeast of the Argolian plain. Already abandoned in the Mycenaean period. Tholos tombs with rich finds, several burial chambers. New excavations started in 1983. Th…

Phoenix

(1,747 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Φοῖνιξ/ Phoînix, Latin Phoenix). Persons P. [1-4], the mythical P. bird [5], the date palm P. [6], geographical locations P. [7-9]. [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus, son of Agenor [1] and Telephassa (Apollod. 3,2-4), brother of Europe [2],  Cadmus [1] and Cilix, according to others also their father (Hom. Il. 14, 321); other children: Phineus (Apoll. Rhod. 2, 178), Carne (Antoninus Liberalis 40). Eponym of the Phoenicians and the Poeni ( Poeni; cf. Phoenicians, Poeni). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Amyntor Son of Amyn…

Migonium

(38 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μιγώνιον; Migṓnion). A locality on the Laconian coast south of Gythium, with a sanctuary of Aphrodite Migonitis (Paus. 3,22,1f.). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography V. Pirenne-Delforge, L'Aphrodite grecque (Kernos Suppl. 4), 1994, 212f.

Peneius

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πηνειός; Pēneiós). The large main river of Thessaly, copious in flow throughout the year. With its many tributaries - in Pelasgiotis flowing from the north and in Thessaliotis primarily from the south - it irrigates almost all of Thessaly (Thessalia). Rising in the Pindus [1] some 5 km to the east of Metsovo, the P. flows through the two great plains of Thessaly in the north and, after a stretch of 227 km through the  Tempe Valley, into the Thermaic Gulf. References: Hom. Il. 2,755; Hdt. 7,128f. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography L. Darmez…

Cyclades

(600 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κυκλάδες νῆσοι; Kykládes nêsoi, Latin Cyclades, ‘circle islands’). The modern term refers to the southern Aegean group comprising a total of more than 200 islands between the Greek mainland and the Cretan sea with the exception of the islands off the western coast of Asia Minor which essentially concurs with the original ancient concept (Hdt. 5,30). Thucydides (1,4; 2,9,4) considers that Melos and Thera belong to it, Scylax (48; 58) includes Thera, Anaphe and Astypalaea and only exclu…

Cronion

(53 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κρόνιον). A hill with pine growth (123 m) above the Altis in  Olympia with a Cronos cult only attested in literature (priesthood of the Βασίλαι/ Basílai): Xen. Hell. 7,4,14; Pind. Ol. 1,111; 5,17; 6,64; 9,3; Paus. 5,21,2; 6,19,1; 20,1f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,34,3. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Malea

(388 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] [1] South-east cape of the Peloponnese (Μαλέα ἄκρα/ Maléa ákra, Μάλεια/ Máleia, Μαλέαι/ Maléai, ἀκρωτήριον Μαλέας/ akrōtḗrion Maléas, Μαλειάων ὄρος/ Maleiáōn óros, cf. Hom. Od. 3,287; 19,187; modern Κάβο Μαλιάς, Ἅγιος Ἄγγελος). The south-east cape of the Peloponnese, feared in antiquity and in modern times, southern foothill of the Parnon (cf. the proverb passed on by Str. 8,6,20 ‘if you sail around M. forget those at home’ [1. 262ff.]). The main difficulty for ancient navigation lay in the gusty, oft…

Carpathos

(465 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κάρπαθος; Kárpathos, Lat. Carpathus). With an area of c. 332 km2the second largest island of the Dodecanes between Crete and Rhodes, with a coastal length of about 160 km (in the south the peak of Kali Limni with a height of 1220 m). The statement in Diod. Sic. (5,54,4,) that C. (the name is pre-Greek, Hom. Il. 2,676 refers to the island as Κράπαθος, Krápathos) once belonged to the kingdom of the  Minos is confirmed by archaeological finds. In the modern Karpathos on the south-eastern coast, Minoan-influenced pottery was found in a Mycenaea…

Tricaranum

(45 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Τρικάρανον; Trikáranon). Mountain ridge on the north-eastern Peloponnesus (Xen. Hell. 7,2,1; 7,2,5 f.; 7,2,11 ff.; 7,4,11; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.), modern Koutsi, east of Phlius (highest elevation is Hagios Elias: 730 m). Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. T., RE 6 A, 144 f.  Pritchett 2, 103-105.

Messapeae

(63 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μεσσαπέαι; Messapéai). Region around the sanctuary of Zeus Messapeus, south west of Sparta, possibly on the hill of Agios Georgios east of Lele on the road to Gythium or near modern Katzarou or Antochori (Paus. 3,20,3; Theop. FGrH 115 F 245). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography D. Musti, M. Torelli (ed.), Pausania, vol. 3: La Laconia, 1991, 254f.

Phylace

(188 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Φυλάκη; Phylákē). [German version] [1] City of Achaea Phthiotis City, mentioned in Homer and other early verse as well as passages dependent on them, belonging to Achaea Phthiotis in the Halmyrus plain. P. was the home of Protesilaus; as late as Pind. I.1,83f. P. is mentioned with a sanctuary of Protesilaus. Later P. was evidently absorbed in Thebae Phthiotides (Heraclides fr. 3,3 identifies P. with it), which continued the cultural and mythological tradition of P. A more precise location at Thebae is not possible. Sources: Hom. Il. 2,695; 13,696; 15,335; Str. 9,5,8; 9,5,14. Kramolisc…
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