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(173 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] [1] Roman castle This item can be found on the following maps: | Limes The place today known as Gonio, south of Batumi (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 6,1; Absarros: Plin. HN 6,4; Absaros: ILS 2660; Tab. Peut. 10,5; Procop. Goth. 4,2; 13; Agath. 6,1-11, Chron. pasch. I p. 61; II p. 435). Strongly fortified Roman castle at the mouth of the Apsarus [2]; five cohorts at the time of Arrian, in ruins by the time of Procopius; probably renovated in the 7th cent. The condition today: reconstructed Byzantine-Gen…


(47 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] M. III, king of Iberia [1] in Caucasia, sent an embassy by Constantius [2] II in 360/61 to recruit him to the Roman side against the Persians (Amm. Marc. 21,6,8). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography W. Enßlin, s.v. M., RE 15, 1028 PLRE 1, 598.


(117 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Georgian 'ruler fortress' (Kartlis Cḫovreba p. 17; 33 et passim) [1]. Rock-cut city (9.5 ha) in Iberia [1], about 20 km to the east of Gori on the northern bank of the Cyrus [5] (1st millennium BC to 18th cent. AD). In the Roman Imperial period U. was expanded into a city with ditches and clay-brick walls on a stone foundation; the cave sites were partly inspired by the Hellenistic rock-cut architecture of Asia Minor. A system of streets with drainage channels and cisterns survives. The city was significant in the Georgian Middle Ages. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jen…


(114 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Γυηνός; Gyēnós). Town in the  Colchis (Ps.-Scyl. 81). Now linked with the ancient settlement (6th cent. BC ─ 6th cent. AD) near Očamčire on the Georgian Pontus coast, discovered in 1935/6 during the construction of the harbour. The ancient finding points to three man-made hills surrounded by ditches with remains of wooden architecture with a pounded clay floor; apart from Colchic ceramics, fragments of ancient Ionian and Attic red-figured ceramics as well as black-glazed ceramics were found. Worthy of mention as the latest building is a hall church with pastophoria ( o…


(100 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] In Procopius (Pers. 1,12,4ff.), king of Caucasian Iberia who asked Justin I for help against the introduction of the fire cult demanded by Kavad I and who fled from the Persians to the Lazian mountainous countryside. Toumanoff [1] considers him to be the legendary Vaḫtang Gorgasal of Georgian and Armenian tradition although this is rejected by Martin-Hisard [2]. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography 1 C. Toumanoff, Studies in Christian C…


(66 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Caucasian people on the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea around the Coraxes estuary (known today as Kodori) south of the  Abasci (Plin. 6,14; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 11,3; Procop. Goth. 4,3; Agath. 2,15; 4,15; Geogr. Rav. 1,17).  Dioscurias/Sebastopolis was situated within the area settled by the A. A king of the A.,  Iulianus, received the insignia from Hadrian. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)


(95 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Γουραῖος; Gouraîos, Arr. Anab. 4,25,7; Γαροίας; Garoías, Arr. Ind. 4,11, according to Megasthenes; Old Indo-Aryan Gaurı̄). River (modern Panǧkorā) whose source is in the ‘Indian Caucasus’ (Hindukush) and which flows into the Cophen (modern Kābul) in a deep gorge that  Alexander [4] the Great crossed on his campaign. In the G. area lived the Guraîoi (Γουραῖοι, Arr. Anab. 4,23,1; 25,6), who raised cattle and whose land, according to Ptolemy, was called Gōryaîa (Γωρυαία, 7,1,42) with the town of Gôrya (Γωρύα, 7,1,43), perhaps modern Ǧalālābād. Plontke-Lüning, Anneg…


(182 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Ὀρθοκορυβάντιοι; Orthokorybántioi). Ancient Greek designation for the Saka tigra χ audā (Persian for 'peaked-capped Sakas', Massagetans) in Hdt. 3,92. The O. were nomads in the region south-east of Lake Aral between Oxus (Amu Darjā; Araxes [2]) and Iaxartes (Syr Darjā) [2]. West of them, the Saka haumavarkā ('intoxicated revelling Sakas') settled. In 530 BC, Cyrus [2] II fell in a battle in the war against the peaked-capped Sakas, who were then brought to submission by Darius [1] I in 519 BC. Their king Skunxa is depicted at…

Vakhtang Gorgasal

(108 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Georgian 'wolf's head'). King of Caucasian Iberia (Iberia [1]), second half of the 5th/beginning of the 6th cent. AD, whose Life (Kartlis Cxovreba, 139-244) [1; 2], written down in the 11th cent., portrays him as a champion of national identity and Christianity. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography 1 R. Thomson, Rewriting Caucasian History, 1996, 153-251 (Eng. transl.) 2 G. Pätsch, Das Leben Kartlis. Eine Chronik aus Georgien, 300-1200, 1985 (Ger. transl.). B. Martin-Hisard, Le roi V. G., in: Temps, mémoire, tradition au Moyen âge, 1983, 207-242 M…


(336 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Asia Minor | Limes | Limes | Pompeius (Τιγρανόκερτα/ Tigranókerta, Latin Tigranocerta and - certae, Armenian T( i) granakert; mentioned in Str. 11,12,4; 16,1,23; Tac. Ann. 15,4 f.; Plin. HN 6,9,26; App. Mith. 10,67; Plut. Lucullus 11 f.; 26; 29; Tab. Peut. 11,3; Eutr. 6,9,1; Buzandaran Patmutiwnk (BP) 4,24; 5,27 [1]). A new capital of Armenia (in addition to Artaxata), founded after 80 BC by Tigranes [2] II (95-55 BC) in the Armenian province of Arzane…


(121 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Κυταιίς; Kytaiís, Apoll. Rhod. 2,1267; Κύταια; Kýtaia, schol. ad Lycoph. Alexandra 1312; Κόταϊς; Kótaïs (τὸ φρούριον), Procop. Goth. 4,14,49; 4,14,51 Agathias 2,19,1). City in  Colchis, on the headwaters of the modern Kutaisi on the middle Rioni ( Phasis) in Georgia. Archaeological finds indicate the existence of a settlement with acropolis from the 7th cent. BC; fragments of Greek pottery indicate contacts between inland Colchis and the Mediterranean region from the 7th/6th cents. BC. In the…


(113 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Ζάλισσα/ Zálissa). Town in Iberia [1], mentioned only in Ptol. 5,10,2, identified with Dzalisa in Muxranital, about 45 km to the northwest of Tbilisi in Georgia. In the northwest of the area, there is a citadel, in the plain the site of the 2nd cent. BC to 8th cent. AD town (approximately 70 ha), among other things remains of a palace with a mosaic of Dionysus (3rd cent. AD; [1]) and three-roomed thermal baths (serial type), a further thermal bath with a natatio (Piscina [2]), streets, water conduits and sewers survive. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography 1 M…

Portae Caspiae

(85 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Plin. HN 6,30; Πύλαι Κάσπιαι/ Pýlai Káspiai: Hecat. FGrH 1 F 286; Str. 11,5,4; 11,12,5; Θύραι Κάσπιαι/ Thýrai Káspiai: Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,4,4). The modern Sirdara Pass in the Elburs mountains (Caspii montes), between Media and Parthia, 60 km to the northeast of Teheran. At the same time the name was also used for the road from Darband to the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography M. Schottky, Parther, Meder und Hyrkanier, in: AMI 24, 1991, 61-135, esp. 123.


(157 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Γέῤῥος; Gérrhos). [German version] [1] River in the north Pontus River in the north Pontus between  Borysthenes and  Maeotis, the border between the monarchic and nomadic Scythians, identified as modern Moločnaja voda (Ptol. 3,5,4; Plin. HN 4,84, Gerrhus). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) [German version] [2] Region around modern Nicopol/Ukraine Region around modern Nicopol/Ukraine, in the 5th/4th cents. BC centre of the monarchic Scythians and seat of their rulers, who were buried in large kurgans ( Funerary architecture) (Hdt. 4,71). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) …

Georgia, Georgians

(674 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Schyboll, Achim (Schliengen)
(Georgian Sakartvelo, Persian Gurǧistān, Arabic al-Kurǧ or Ǧurzān, Turkish Gürcistan, Russian Gruzija). [German version] I. Geographical location Land in west and central Caucasia south of the main range of the Great  Caucasus. It is divided into two parts by the Liḫi-(Surami) mountain range that runs north-south from the Great to the Small Caucasus:  Colchis in the west, a humid and unhealthy region until the drainage projects of the early 20th cent. which also includes the river system of the Rioni/  Phasis …


(183 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Burchard, Christoph (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Northern tributary of the Phasis (Ἵππος/ Híppos Str. 11,2,17; Steph. Byz. s.v. Αἶα; Hippos Plin. HN 6,13; Ἵππις/ Híppis in Mocheresis Procop. Goth. 4,1,6); northern tributary of the  Phasis in  Colchis, the modern Cʿḫeniscqali (‘horse water’) in West Georgia. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography E. Kiessling, s.v. H., RE 8, 1915-1918. …

Lazica, Lazice

(281 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Procop. Pers. 1,1,28 i.a., Agathias 2,18,4, i.a.: Λαζική; Lazikḗ). Term for Colchis in early Byzantine sources after the Kartvelian tribe of the Lazae, who were located in the interior south of the river Phasis in the 1st cent. AD and in the 4th cent. acquired the hegemony over Colchis and the tribes of the Abasci, Apsilae, Misimiani, Scymni and Svani. The capital was Archaeopolis (Procop. Pers. 2,29,18), which is identified with the ruined town near modern Nokalakevi on the Techuri (Glaucus?) in wes…


(118 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σάσπειρες/ Sáspeires: Hdt. 1,104; 110; 3,94; 4,37; 40; 7,79; Σάπειρες/ Sápeires: Apoll. Rhod. 2,395; Ἑσπερῖται/ Hesperȋtai: Xen. An. 7,8,25; Str. 14,1,39; Latin Sapires: Amm. Marc. 22,8,21). East Kartvelian tribe, according to Herodotus between the Colchians and the Medes, and belonging to the eighteenth satrapy together with the Matienians and the Alarodians (3,18); documented probably from the 3rd century BC onward; on the upper reaches of the Acampsis/Çoruh, it can be identified with the city of Sp…
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