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(265 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Werner (Graz)
[German version] (τὰ Τριόκαλα/ tà Triókala, Latin Triocala). Sicanian (Sicani) inland city (Philistus FGrH 556 F 66: Τρίκαλον/ Tríkalon or Τρίκαλα/ Tríkala; Ptol. 3,4,14: Τρίοκλα/ Tríokla) and strategically favourably situated fortress (Diod. Sic. 36,7,3 with etymological derivation of the place name) in the west of Sicilia (Cic. Verr. 2,5,10), presumably near modern Caltabellotta (949 m elevation; archaeological finds from a great variety of periods, hardly studied). In the second of the Punic Wars the city was allied …


(1,317 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Werner (Graz) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(ἀλήθεια/ alḗtheia; Latin veritas). [German version] I. Philosophy It was in a didactic poem by Parmenides (about 500 BC) that alḗtheia was first elevated from an element of colloquial language to a central philosophical term. In that poem, the goddess teaches the poet to distinguish the truth (ἀληθείη/ alētheíē) from the mere illusion of human opinions (δόξαι/ dóxai) (28 B 1 and 8 DK). Only that which is (or 'being') is true, for what is not can be neither thought nor expressed (28 B 2, 3 and 8 DK); and that which is (being) is a single entity. Parme…


(1,210 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Werner (Graz)
(ἐπιθυμία; epithymía). [German version] A. Definition In Homer ἔρος ( éros) is used as a very general expression for desire; later the word also had, above and beyond its sexual core meaning, a usage that was so wide that it was often merely a synonym for ἐπιθυμία ( epithymía) (B.) [1]. Prodicus differentiated between desire in general and ἔρως ( érōs) by means of a difference in intensity as he defined érōs as double desire (84 B 7 DK; similar to Xen. Mem. 3,9,7); from the point of view of the object, the intention was that ἔρως be distinguished from desire in ge…


(376 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Werner (Graz)
[German version] (ἡ διόπτρα; hē dióptra). Surveyor's instrument for measuring angles and distances or the lateral width of distant objects (e.g. the apparent distance of stars from one another and the height of walls and mountains). The applications included the construction of aqueducts, house-building or fire-telegraphy (cf. Pol. 8,37,2; 9,19,8f.). At the beginning of his work entitled D., which covers the theory and practice of surveying and mapping (πραγματεία διοπτρική), Hero of Alexandria (1st cent. AD?) documented in detail the construction and…