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Theogenes

(485 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θεογένης/ Theogénēs). [German version] [1] Athlete from Thasos, 5th cent. BC Famous fighter from the island of Thasos, Olympic champion in 480 BC (against Euthymus of Locri [1. nos. 191; 214; 222]) in fist-fighting [1. no. 201] and in 476 BC in pankration [1. no. 215]. This constellation of victories was first documented for T. on an inscription in Delphi [2. no. 37] dating from the 2nd cent. BC, which attests that the athlete was adored by his home polis for as long as four generations after his death. Pausanias tells of three victories in Delphi, ten in the Isthmia a…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Pythodorus

(519 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος/ Pythódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian, paved the way (in 411BC) for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 Athenian who, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,1-2 (cf. Thuc. 8,67,1), in 411 BC made a motion in the public assembly to elect a further 20 'preliminary counselors' ( próbouloi) to draw up proposals for saving the state. He thus paved the way for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). Diog. Laert. 9,54 (= Diels/Kranz 80 A 1) names him as the prosecutor of Protagoras [1]. P. may be identical with the …

Cleander

(290 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κλέανδρος; Kléandros). [German version] [1] C. of Gela Founded tyrannis in Gela in 505 BC Son of Pantares. C. founded c. 505 BC the tyrannis in  Gela and was assassinated after governing for seven years. C. created the preconditions for the rise of Gela under his brother and successor Hippocrates [4] (Hdt. 7,154; Aristot. Pol. 1316a 37f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography D. Asheri, in: CAH 42, 1988, 758 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 137. [German version] [2] Spartan commander in Byzantium c. 400 BC Spartan commander ( harmostḗs) in Byzantium. After the Greek…

Lycon

(669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Sharples, Robert (London) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Λύκων; Lýkōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, late 5th cent. BC Athenian, supported the rebellion of Pissuthnes against the Great King around 420 BC. Bribed by Tissaphernes, L. fell away from Pissuthnes and received several cities as territory under his rule in recompense (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 15,53). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Prosecutor of Socrates Prosecutor of Socrates (Pl. Ap. 23e; 36a); satirized by comedians (Eupolis fr. 61; 232; Metagenes fr. 10 PCG; schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1169) because of his poverty, foreign origin, …

Alcimenes

(280 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀλκιμένης, Alkiménēs). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: brother of Bellerophontes Brother of Bellerophontes, also Peiren or Deliades, was killed by his brother, providing the reason for the flight to Argus (Apollod. 2,30; Tzetz. Lycophr. 17). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: son of Jason and Medea Son of Jason and Medea, brother of Teisander, both of whom were killed in Corinth by Medea; only Thettalus, A.'s twin brother, escaped. Both of these are buried in the Temenus of Hera and were venerated as heroes (Diod. Sic. 4,54,1; 4,55,1 f.). Gra…

Demosthenes

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δημοσθένης; Dēmosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Prominent Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. Appointed strategos for the first time in 427/6 BC, he entered Aetolia with Western Greek allies so as to be able to attack Boeotia from the west. Through tactical errors D. suffered a severe defeat and fear prevented him from returning to Athens (Thuc. 3,94-98). However, in the Aetolian and Spartan assault on the Athenian stronghold of Naupactus in 426, D., wit…

Phrynichus

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
(Φρύνιχος/ Phrýnichos). [German version] [1] P. from Athens Tragedian, around 500 BC Tragedian. According to Suda φ 762 (TrGF I 3 T 1) he achieved his first victory in 511/508 BC and died on Sicily (T 6). He is said to have been the first person to bring female roles to the stage and to have 'invented' the trochaic tetrameter (T 1), which probably means that he introduced the metre into the tragic genre. He was famous on account of the quality ('sweetness') of his sung parts (Aristoph. Vesp. 219), whose len…

Epicrates

(390 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἐπικράτης; Epikrátēs). [German version] [1] Democratic Athenian c. 400 BC Athenian who fought with the democrats against the oligarchy in 403 BC. In 397 he and  Cephalus advocated collaboration with Persia and a clean, quick break with Sparta, even at the risk of a new war (Hell. Oxy. 10, 1-2 Chambers). After Conon's victory in the Aegean in 394, he accompanied Phormisius to the Persian king as emissary of Athens. On his return he was accused of corruption but acquitted. In 392/1 he went to Sparta as an …

Eratosthenes

(1,581 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἐρατοσθένης; Eratosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, active in the Peloponnesian War An Athenian of rich family. In 411 BC he was serving as a trierarch in the Hellespont, but left his ship in order to support the oligarchs in Athens (Lys. 12,42). After the capitulation of Athens in the Peloponnesian War (404 BC), E. belonged to an action group ─ the five ephors ─ working for an oligarchic coup. After the abolition of the democratic order, E. was on the ruling committee of the Thirty, and after its …

Meno

(805 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μένων; Ménōn). [German version] [1] Recipient of Athenian citizenship according to Demosthenes For his support for the Athenians in their attack on Eion [1] on the Strymon, M. of Pharsalus was, according to Demosthenes (Or. 13,23), awarded atéleia or (Or. 23,199) Athenian citizenship [1. 20-23]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Military official under Cyrus the younger, ca. 400 BC M. of Pharsalus, was, like his ancestors, closely connected to the Thessalian dynasty of the Aleuadai (M. was the erṓmenos, ‘beloved’, of Aristippus) and bound by paternal hosp…

Aristophanes

(5,353 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστοφάνης; Aristophánēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Son of  Nicophemus, a confidant of  Conon. Repeatedly chorēgós and trierarch. In 393 BC he was supposed to win  Dionysius I of Syracuse on Conon's order as an ally for Athens using a marriage alliance with  Evagoras of Salamis. When Athens sent Evagoras 10 triremes against the Persians in 390/89, A. helped in financing them and participated as a delegate. Returning from this unsuccessful campaign, A. and his father were executed by means of the apagoge and their fortune was confisc…

Aeneas

(1,657 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [3] Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Αἰνέας; Ainéas). From Stymphalus. Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Xen. Hell. 7,3,1). Whether identical to  Aeneas [2] Tacticus, cannot be clarified.  Thebae Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Whitehead, Aineias the Tactician, 1990, 10-13 A. Winterling, Polisbegriff und Stasistheorie des Aeneas Tacticus, in: Historia 40, 1991, 191-229, 201. [German version] [1] Myth Mythical figure from Trojan war (Αἰνείας, Αἰνέας [Aineías, Ainéas]; Latin Aeneas). Thraco-Illyrian name [17. 311 f.]. Hecke…

Diotimus

(622 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Διότιμος; Diótimos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Corcyra 433/2 BC Athenian, son of Strombichides, from Euonymon (his family is known into the 3rd cent.). Strategos in Corcyra in 433/32 BC (Thuc. 1,45,2; IG I3 364,9); 439-32 nauarchos at Neapolis (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 98); he may have led a legation to Susa (Str. 1,3,1). Perhaps identical with D. in Ath. 10,436e. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Fraser/Matthews (1) Davies, 4386. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos c. 390 BC Athenian strategos. Commander of the Athenian mercenary force near Corinth in 390/…

Euthydemus

(540 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Cassin, Barbara (Paris) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Εὐθύδημος; Euthýdemos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 418/7 BC Athenian strategos of 418/17 BC. He took part in the Sicilian campaign, during which in 414/13 both he and Menander became commanders to serve alongside Nicias. They were defeated before  Demosthenes [1] even arrived. They failed in their attempt to force their departure out of Syracuse's great harbour (Thuc. 7,16,1; 69,4; Diod. Sic. 13,13,2-4; Plut. Nicias 20). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Kagan, The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition, 1981. [German version] [2] E. I. Greek ki…

Philocrates

(338 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλοκράτης; Philokrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian who advised the Athenians at the negotiations in 392/1 BC to reject a peace treaty with Sparta (Dem. Or. 23,116f.). As stratēgós, P. in the summer of 390 BC commanded ten ships that were sent to Cyprus to help Evagoras [1] but were captured by the Spartan Nauarch Teleutias (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography P. Funke, Homónoia und Arché, 1980, 95; 144f.; 150. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Pythodorus from the de…

Demaenetus

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Δημαίνετος; Dēmaínetos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Asclepius in Elis Epithet of  Asclepius in Elis, from the name of the cult founder (Paus. 6,21,4). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] From Parrhasia, allegedly transformed into a wolf D. from Parrhasia, a town in Arcadia. He is said to have been transformed into a wolf after he ate the flesh of a boy whom the Arcadians had sacrificed to Jupiter Lycaeus. After 10 years he became human again and was victorious in boxing at Olympia (Scopas FGrH 413 F 1; Varro in Aug. Civ. 18,17). In Paus. 6,8,2 he is called Damarchos. Bloch, René (Ber…

Taxes

(6,422 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Römer, Malte (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) | Pack, Edgar (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia Income needed to finance tasks of state and general social functions (administration, the military, irrigation, prestige buildings, the court, cults, etc.) did not come from an all-embracing system of taxation levied on individuals, transactions or property, but on a general duty of service and labour on the part of subjects. Under the oikos economy (3rd millennium BC), the palace’s income came predominantly from the domestic operation of the institutional economies of temple and palace. In the tribute-based economy da…

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Diphilus

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος; Díphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian operator of a silver mine c. 330 BC Athenian operator of a silver mine. In 330 BC, he was charged by Lycurgus with illegally mining the mesokrineís (pillars), which served both as markers to separate the various leases within the mine but also as safety props, and sentenced to death. His assets of 160 talents were confiscated and distributed amongst the citizens (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843D).  Mining Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237 M. H. Hansen, Demography…
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