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Ida

(439 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἴδη, Ἰδαῖον ὄρος; Ídē, Idaîon hóros). [German version] [1] Highest mountain range in Crete Highest mountain range in Crete, modern Psiloritis, with the peak Timios Stavros (2,456 m). Still heavily forested in antiquity (cf. the name I. = ‘wooded mountains’), predominantly with cypresses (Eur. Hipp. 1253; Theophr. Hist. pl. 3,2,6; 4,1,3; Plin. HN 16,142). Used early on for mining metals (FGrH 239,11; Diod. Sic. 5,64,5) and agriculture (Theophr. De ventis, fr. 5,13 Wimmer; [1]). The cave considered the birthpl…

Manliana

(49 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of two road stations in Italy: one on the Via Aemilia Scauri near Populonia (Tab. Peut. 4,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,32; It. Ant. 292,4) and the other on the road from Siena to Chiusi (Tab. Peut. 4,4; Geogr. Rav. 4,36; Ptol. 3,1,49). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)

Praesus

(372 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Πραισός/ Praisós). City in eastern Crete (Scyl. 47) on the peninsula of Sitia, near the modern village of Nea Praisos (Vaveli) between three acropoleis. The location was already settled in the Neolithic Period (cult site in a cave to the north west of the town). Numerous remains from the Minoan and Mycenaean periods survive (megalithic building in the south; tholos tombs in the necropolis north of the town, in use from the 15th-2nd cents. …

Volcanoes

(360 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] There is no Greek or Latin term to be found in ancient literature corresponding to the modern 'volcano'; nevertheless, individual volcanic phenomena are identified, such as lava-flow: Greek ῥύαξ/ rhýax (< ῥέω/ rhéō, 'to flow'; cf. also Theophrastus's Perì rhýakos toû en Sikelíai mentioned in Diog. Laert. 5,49), Lat. Vulcanius amnis ('Vulcanic stream', Claud. Rapt. Pros. 172; from Latin Vulcanius, 'pertaining to Vulcan and his works'), saxa liquefacta 'liquified rocks' (Verg. Aen. 3,576) or massa ardens 'blazing mass' (Iuv. 10,130). For the Roman god see Volcanus. I…

Nedinum

(144 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Liburnia (Tab. Peut. 5,4; ILS 1989), modern-day Nadin/Croatia, on the road from Iader to  Burnum. The Roman town was built in the time of Augustus on an earlier indigenous settlement. As a Roman colonia and as municipium to the tribus Claudia, N. was part of the regio X of Italy (Plin. HN. 3,130).There is documentary evidence for the following officials: II viri, aediles and an officialis Naeditarum (CIL III 2860-2876). The town's aristocracy came from the indigenous families. The preservation of social structures and cultic observances i…

Aborigines

(286 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] In Roman tradition the name given to the earliest inhabitants of  Latium (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,10; Lydus, Mag. 1,10). The etymology of the name is uncertain: Lycoph. 1253 hints at a derivation from Βορείγονοι ( Boreígonoi;  Aeneas [1] was prophesied that he would settle ἐν τόποις Βορειγόνων; en tópois Boreigónōn); others -- on the presumption that the A. pursued a nomadic way of life -- formulate an onomastic development from Aberrigenes ( aberrare) to A. (Paul. Fest. 19; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,10; Auctor de origine gentis Romanae 4,2). The origin of the A. is equa…

Mochlos

(123 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μόχλος). Small island  situated on the north-east coast of Crete and south-east of the Gulf of Mirabello. In Antiquity the island was probably connected to the mainland by an isthmus. Costly finds from the Minoan necropolis indicate considerable prosperity. Mochlos was also important in Roman (remains of walls and towers) and Byzantine times. Roman containers for holding fish lie beneath the surface of the water close to the mainland. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Beister, s.v. M., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 439  J.W. Myers et al., Aerial Atlas …

Lycastus

(200 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λύκαστος; Lýkastos). [German version] [1] City in Crete City in Crete (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.; Plin. HN 4,59; Mela 2,113), about 11 km south of Knossos, modern Kanli Kastelli. In Hom. Il. 2,647 participant in the Trojan War. Autonomous in phases but mostly dependent on Knossos and belonging to its territory. In 184 BC, conquered by Gortyn (Pol. 22,19) until revised by Roman arbitration [1]. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 A. Chaniotis, Die Verträge zw. kret. Poleis in der hell. Zeit, 1996, 281-285, no. 40. I. F. Sanders, Roman Crete, 1992, 154. [German version] [2] River River f…

Eresus

(357 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Ἔρεσος; Éresos). City on the west coast of Lesbos (Str. 13,2,4; Plin. HN 5,139; Ptol. 5,2,29; Mela 2,101), 4 km south of today's town of Eresos near Skala Eresou. Few archaeological remains: ring wall of the acropolis, port facilities from the 5th/4th cents. BC, relics of the Hellenistic city wall, Roman cisterns; early Christian churches from the 5th cent., i.a. a basilica of St.…

Omphalium

(222 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ὀμφάλιον/ Omphálion). [German version] [1] Plain in Crete Plain (Diod. Sic. 5,70) on Crete in the area of Knossos on the river Triton (modern Platyperama; Callim. H. 1,42ff.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geographie von Griechenland, vol. 2, 1868, 570  M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae, vol. 1, 1935, 45f. [German version] [2] Place in Thessalia Place in Thessalia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.) near modern Lutra Smokovu, possibly the sanctuary of Omphale. The Dolopian cities of Angeae and Ctimenae fought over its possession [1]. Kramolisch,…

Polyrrhenia

(290 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Πολυρρηνία/ Polyrrhēnía). City in north-western Crete (Ptol. 3,17,10; Str. 10,4,13; Scyl. 47: Πολύρρηνα/ Polýrrhēna; Plin. HN 4,59: Polyrhenum) south of the Bay of Kissamos in an exposed position on a steep hill on the site of a village still called P. today. P. is one of the oldest Doric settlements in Crete (the place name is pre-Greek with its own dialect [1]). At the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, P., through the mediation of Sparta, entered into an a…

Lycormas

(58 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Λυκόρμας; Lykórmas). Earlier name of the river Evenus [3] in Aetolia (Str. 7,7,8; 10,2,5). The L. plays a part in the story of the rape of Marpessa [1], the daughter of Evenus by Alcippe (Hom. Il. 9,555ff.; Ov. Met. 2,245; Bacchyl. 15,34). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography B. Snell, Bakchylides' Marpessa-Gedicht, in: Hermes 80, 1952, 156-163.

Therapnae

(329 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Tausend, Sabine | Fell, Martin (Münster)
(Θεράπναι/ Therápnai). [German version] [1] City in Crete City in Crete, probably in the central north (presumably between Eleutherna and Cydonia; [cf. 1. 198]), reckoned one of the island's more important towns (Mela 2,113; Plin. HN 4,59). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P. Faure, La Crète aux cents villes, in: Κρητικὰ Χρονικά 13, 1959, 171-217. [German version] [2] Place in Laconia This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta Cult site in Laconia (Laconica) on the left bank of the Eurotas, c. 2 km to the southeast of Sparta on a foothill of the Parnon…

Lindus

(796 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Theatre | Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Persian Wars | Delian League | Education / Culture (Λίνδος; Líndos). [German version] A. Topography Town on the eastern coast of Rhodes in an exposed topographical situation, with an acropolis rising steeply (116m) from the sea and a natural twin harbour. The territory of L. extended to more than half of the island. L. held land in Asia Minor (Physcus). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] B. History Together with Ialysus and Camirus, L. formed the triad…

Mentores

(58 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tribe of the northern Adriatic (Dalmatia), in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 62 neighbours but in Plin. HN 1,139 part of the Liburni (together with the Himani, Encheleae, Peucetti). The M. were later ruled by the Iapodes. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Alföldy, Bevölkerung u. Ges. der röm. Prov. Dalmatia, 1965 J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969.

Nesti

(36 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νέστοι/ Néstoi). Tribe, probably Thracian or Illyrian, of the north-eastern Adriatic, with territory between the Nestus and the Naro (Ps.-Scyl. 23f.; Apoll. Rhod. 4,1215: Νεσταῖοι/ Nestaîoi). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography J.J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 7.

Lappa

(167 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete | Macedonia, Macedones | Pompeius (Λάππα; Láppa). Town in western Crete (Str. 10,4,3) near the modern village of Argyropolis. Involved in the internal Cretan conflicts of the Lyttian War in 220 BC (Pol. 4,53-55). L. concluded an alliance with Gortyn around 200 BC, acknowledging the supremacy of its eastern neighbour [1. no. 31, p. 265-267]. In 183 BC, L. was one of the 30 Cretan towns to unite in a coalition with Eumenes II [2. 179]. In 67 BC, L. was destroyed by the Romans. Under Augustus, L. received the privileged status of a ci…

Mare Tyrrhenum

(151 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] The Tyrrhenian Sea, the western part of the Mediterranean Sea ( Mare Nostrum), bordered by the Italian west coast, the Sicilian north coast and by Corsica and Sardinia. The name goes back to the Greek name of the Etruscans (Τυρσανοί/ Tyrsanoí; Τυρσηνικὸν πέλαγος/ Tyrsēnikòn pélagòs in Thuc. 4,24). The Romans spoke of the Tuscum mare (Varro, Rust. 3,9,17; Cic. Orat. 3,19,69; Liv. 5,33,8) or, in contrast to the mare superum (Adriatic), of the mare inferum (Cic. Att. 9,5,1). Before Roman rule was established in the Punic Wars, the Mare Tyrrhenum was freque…

Oaxus

(203 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὄαξος/ Óaxos, Ἄξος/ Áxos). Mountain town in northern central Crete bordering on the region of Tylissus, c. 30 km to the south of Heraklion and called Axos in later sources (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄ.). O. was situated on the northern foothills of the Ida mountain range, on a steep acropolis with few archaeological remains (walls). Already inhabited in late Minoan times, O. had developed since the 8/7 cents. BC into a significant town whose building fabric is preserved today only in a rudimentary form. …

Knossos

(691 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Writing | Christianity | Coloniae | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Crete | Apollo | Linear B | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources (Κνωσός; Knōsós; in later practice the spelling is Κνωσσός/ Knōssós; Latin usually Gnosos or Gnosus). City in central Crete, about 5 km south-east of Heraklion on the western bank of the river Caeratus; settlement already too…
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