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Nora

(375 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Town on the Capo di Pula on the south coast of Sardinia This item can be found on the following maps: Sardinia et Corsica | Theatre | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Νώρα; Nṓra). Town on the Capo di Pula on the south coast of Sardinia, approx. 20 km south of Cagliari. N. is regarded as the oldest town on the island (Paus. 10,17,5; Solin. 4,1; on its location cf. Itin. Anton. 85,2f.; Tab. Peut. 4,1). After a pre-colonial phase (cf. Phoenician inscriptions CIS I 144 c. 800 BC; [1. 1]), N. was founded by the Phoenicians in the mid 7th cent. BC. The Phoenician …

Mithridatium

(123 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Μιθριδάτιον; Mithridátion). Hellenistic fortress at the point where the Alaca Çayı breaks through the basin of Alaca towards the north, modern Gerdekkaya (north east Galatia; formerly usually erroneously identified with Kerkenes Dağı). Two rock tombs of the 3rd cent. BC; outer settlement until well into the Byzantine period. Fortress of the Trocmi, given by Pompey in 65/4 BC, with the surrounding territory, to Brogitarus (Str. 12,5,2); ori…

Bi­thynia

(1,312 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Βιθυνία; Bithynía). [German version] A. Geographical location Region and kingdom in north-western Asia Minor, with a Thracian population. Its core territory (Str. 12,3,2f.; 12,3,7; 4,1-10; [2; 3. 190ff.]) lies between the  Bosporus [1] and the area around the lower  Sangarius, from the Black Sea Coast to the Gulf of Cius, Lake Ascania and the Kapıorman Dağları range. The northern coastal region up to the Kales formed the original territory of  Thyni(a)s, inhabited by the related tribe of the  Thyni, …

Tolistobogii

(362 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Τολιστοβόγιοι/ Tolistobógioi). Celtic tribe (Syll.3 591: Tolistoágioi) which, together with the Trocmi and led by Leonnorius, passed through Thracia in 279/8 BC and into Byzantium where Nicomedes [2] recruited them as allies [1.236-252]). After 275/4 BC the T. took possession of northwest Phrygia. Until 189 BC Gordium was their municipal centre and their territory extended from the Axylos in the south to the Bolu basin, and eastwards over the Ankara-Haymana region (Galatia; [2]). At th…

Tolastochora

(57 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Τολαστοχόρα; Tolastochóra). Town in Galatia (Ptol. 5,4,7; Tab. Peut. 9,5) at a crossing over the former southern main tributary of the Sangarius from Lake Ak (River Gökpınar) at modern Gökpınar in the southwestern border region of the Tolistobogii. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 236.

Diocaesarea

(118 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Διοκαισάρεια; Diokaisáreia). [German version] [1] Temple settlement Temple settlement around the Zeus sanctuary of Olba in Cilicia Tracheia, which became an independent town under Tiberius and later a diocese (suffragan of Seleucia on the Calycadnus). Archaeological finds: generous extension of the settlement with city walls, colonnade street, aqueduct, theatre, temple of Tyche; during the early Byzantine period the temple of Zeus was converted into a three-aisled colonnaded basilica. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. D. [German version] [2] …

Tectosages

(783 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Τεκτόσαγες/ Tektósages). [German version] I. Overview Sub-tribe of the Volcae, a Celtic group of peoples, referred to as Volcae T., who probably originated in the low mountain ranges from Thuringia to northeastern Bavaria ( circum Hercyniam silvam, Caes. B Gall. 6,24,1-4) ([1. 172-179]; differing: [4]). In the 4th cent. BC, the majority group of the Volcae were caught in a migration-dynamic in which a part of them, dominated by the T., moved across the Danube region into southeastern Europe. Another group of the T. adopted strong…

Cratea

(128 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Κράτεια, Κράτια). City in Bithynia, known today as Gerede, newly founded as Flaviopolis in the Flavian period (end of the 1st cent. AD). It was the main city of the South Paphlagonian border area in the Gerede Basin and was annexed to Galatia in c. 275/4 BC, and in 179, annexed to Paphlagonia (Land of Gaizatorix; Str. 12,3,41). In 6/5 BC, it became  Bithynia et Pontus and was part of Paphlagonia under Diocletianus (late 3rd cent. AD), later part of Honoria. Documented as a diocese since AD 342/3. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibl…

Prusa, Prusa ad Olympum

(588 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Προῦσα, Προῦσα πρὸς Ὀλύμπῳ τῷ ὄρει/ Proûsa, Proûsa pròs Olýmpōi tôi órei). City in Bithynia, on the northern slopes of Olympus [13] in Mysia (Str. 12,4,3), modern Bursa. A Prusias who is supposed to have fought Croesus  (Str. ibidem), the Bithynian king Prusias [1] I (Arr. FGrH 156 F 29) and Hannibal [4] (Plin. HN 5,148; [1. 1103 f.] accordingly dates the foundation to 188 or 187 BC) have been named as founders. Coins show the official tradition of foundation by Prusias I, who created it as…

Blucium

(71 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Βλούκιον; Bloúkion, Blucium). Residential castle of Deiotarus I (Str. 12,5,2; Cic. Deiot. 17). Archaeological finds: necropolis, settlements near Karalar [1; 2]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 R. O. Arık, Karalar Hafriyatı, in: TTAD 2, 1934, 103-167 2 T. Saatçı, in: Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi 1986 Yıllığı, 30-33; 1987 Yıllığı, 19-22. S. Mitchell, Blucium and Peium, in: AS 24, 1974, 61-75 K. Strobel, Die Galater, 2, 1997.

Axylos

(61 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Axylos terra). Treeless grass steppe south of the upper  Sangarius between Emir Daǧları and  Tatta (Tuz Gölü) -- an area characterized by pasture farming in the border zone of Phrygia and Galatia with Lycaonia, (Liv. 38,18,4), cf. Str. 12,6,1). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Strobel, Galatien und seine Grenzregionen, in: Asia Minor Studies 12, 1994, 29-65, here: 54ff., 59.

Mocis(s)us

(86 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μωκισ(σ)ός/ Mṓkis(s)ós, also Mocesus, Iustinianupolis). Town in Cappadocia, which was rebuilt around 520 AD by Iustinianus I as a mountain stronghold (Procop. Aed. 5,4,15); present-day Viranşehir, to the south of Aksaray. It was probably relocated again at the end of the 7th cent. and was still a metropolitan seat in the 14th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography A. Berger, Survey in Viranşehir (M.), in: Araştırma sonuçları toplantısı 13, 1996, 109-126; 14, 1997, 27-41; 15, 1998, 227-237  Hild/Restle, 238f.  W. Ruge, s.v. M., RE 15, 2514f.

Camulianae

(75 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Καμουλιαναί; Kamoulianaí, Kamuliana). Settlement on the road from Caesarea/Mazaka to Tavium in Cappadocia, possibly the modern Kermer. Its name is not of Celtic origin (different view in [1. 197f.]); as a place of pilgrimage (image of Christ, translation to Constantinople in AD 574), it became a town under the name of Iustinianopolis; documented as a diocese from AD 553 into the 13th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 Hild/Restle. W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 10, 1844.

Nymphaeum

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
I. Sanctuary [German version] A. Etymology and definition The word νυμφαῖον/ nymphaîon is first attested in the 4th cent. BC, on Delos (IG XI,2,144, A l. 91). It originally designated a sanctuary of the nymphs. A nymphaeum is first attested in Itanus on Crete in the 3rd cent. BC together with a water reservoir (ILS 9458). The Latinised form nymphaeum is first found in Pomponius Mela (first half of the 1st cent. AD, Mela 2,3), for a nymph sanctuary in Chersonessus. Conversely, Plinius (HN 35,151) used the word nymphaeum to describe a well with a statue in it (Corinth). The modern t…

Prusias

(948 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Προυσίας/ Prousías). [German version] [1] P. I, the Lame King of Bithynia from 230 BC Son of Ziaelas and king of Bithynia c. 230-182 BC. P. gave support to Rhodes after the earthquake of 227 (Pol. 5,90,1) and in alliance with it fought Byzantium, but was unable to keep his conquest (Pol. 4,47-52). In 216 he destroyed the Celtic Aegosages (Pol. 5,111; [1. 43]). Characteristics of his policy were friendship with Macedonia and enmity with Pergamum. In the first of the Macedonian Wars [A] he fought by agreement with Phi…

Nicomedia

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Natural catastrophes | Pergamum | Pompeius | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Νικομήδεια/ Nikomḗdeia, Latin Nicomedia). [German version] I. From the foundation to the death of Nicomedes IV Town at the northeast end of the gulf of Astacus or N., modern İzmit or Kocaeli. Founded and named by Nicomedes [2] I in 264/3 BC as the capital of the Bithynian kingdom (Memnon FGrH 434 F 12; Arr. FGr…

Argaeus

(103 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Son of Ptolemy I (Ἀργαῖος; Argaîos). Son of Ptolemy I (and of Eurydice?); murdered by Ptolemy II (because of a conspiracy?) after 282 BC. PP 6, 14489. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography C. Habicht, Argaeus, Ptolemy II. and Alexander's corpse, AHB 2,4, 1988, 88-89. [German version] [2] Volcanic massif in Cappadocia (Ἀργαῖος, also Ἀργαῖον ὄρος; Argaîon oros). Erciyes Daǧı, highest volcanic massif in  Cappadocia (3917 m) south of Kayseri. Volcanic peak of the same name (modern Hasan Daǧı) in south-west Cappadocia (3268 m). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography…

Archelais

(102 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town in south-western  Cappadocia; the modern Aksaray. Founded after 36 BC by the last Cappadocian king  Archelaus [7] in place of the old centre Garsau(i)ra (as κωμόπολις, komópolis: Str. 12,2,6 with 14,2,29). Elevated by the emperor  Claudius to the status of Colonia Claudia Archelais; from the 4th cent. AD governed as a colonia or civitas Colonia. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography D. French, Latin Inscr. from Aksaray (Colonia Archelais in Cappadocia), in: ZPE 27, 1977, 247-249 F. Hild, M. Restle, Kapp…

Mariandyni

(262 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μαριανδυνοί; Mariandynoí). Originally a Plāïc-speaking (Paphlagonian) population in northern Anatolia, overlayered by groups of Thracian descent. Area of settlement: to the east of the watershed between the lower Sangarius and Hypius [1], to the south of the coastal area Thyni(a)s (up to Kales), to the west of the Caucones in the area of the lower Billaeus and the Paphlagonian area on the middle Ladon, to the north of Abant and Köroğlu Dağları (Str. 8,3,17; 12,3,4). Subjugated by …

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …
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