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Echepolus

(78 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχέπωλος; Echépōlos, ‘Horse owner’). [German version] [1] Pelopid Pelopid, son of an Anchises from Sicyon. He gave Agamemnon the mare Aithe and thus bought his release from the journey to Troy (Hom. Il. 23,296 with schol.) Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, Hermes ES 14, 1960, 261. [German version] [2] Trojan A Trojan who was killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 4,458). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 558-560.

Damnameneus

(32 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαμναμενεύς; Damnameneús). One of the  Daktyloi Idaioi who invented the technique of forging iron (Phoronis fr. 2,3 EpGF = fr. 2,3 PEG I; Str. 10,3,22). Bloch, René (Berne)

Deipylus

(111 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηίπυλος; Dēípylos). Son of the Thracian king  Polymestor and of  Ilione, the eldest daughter of Priam. She exchanged him with her youngest brother  Polydorus, whose upbringing had been entrusted her by their father Priam. Her intention was to prevent the death of her brother should the outcome of the war be unfavourable. After the fall of Troy Polymestor allowed himself to be persuaded by Agamemnon to kill the last of the sons of Priam. Thus he unwittingly became the murderer of …

Baucis

(234 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βαῦκις; Baûkis). ‘The tender one’ [1. 193]; B. is the old Phrygian woman who together with her husband Philemon gives shelter to the gods Jupiter and Mercury when they enter her simple hut in the disguise of tired wanderers. As punishment for refusing the two gods hospitality in the rest of the region, the entire area is destroyed by a flood. Only the hut of Philemon and B. is spared and transformed into a magnificent temple, where the two are granted their wish to become priests.…

Chariclo

(109 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χαρικλώ; Chariklṓ). [German version] [1] Wife of Chiron Naiad; wife of  Chiron; daughter of Apollo, Perseus or Oceanus; mother of Carystus (Hes. Cat. fr. 42; Schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,182 Drachmann). Always depicted near to Chiron, also i.a. as a member of Peleus' and Thetis' marriage procession. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Nymph Nymph; wife of Eueres. According to Pherecydes, being a favourite of Athena she obtains for her son  Teiresias, blinded by Athena, a staff and the gift of understanding the songs of birds (Apollod. 3,70; Callim. H. 5,59). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliograp…

Echion

(146 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχίων/ Echíōn, ‘Snake man’, from ἡ ἔχις/ échis, ‘the Snake’). [German version] [1] One of the five 'Spartoi', men who grew from dragon teeth One of the five ‘Spartoi’, the men who grew from the dragon teeth sown by  Cadmus into the Theban earth. He married Cadmus' daughter Agave and was the father of Pentheus (Paus. 9,5,3f.; Apollod. 3,26; 36; Hyg. Fab. 178,6; 184,1; Ov. Met. 3,126; cf. Hor. Carm. 4,4,64: Thebae Echioniae). Aeneas killed the Rutulian Onites, a son of E. and Peridia (Verg. Aen. 12,514f.). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography R. Rocca, s.v. E., EV 2, 164f. [German version] [2] Son…

Dascylus

(133 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δάσκυλος; Dáskylos). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalus and Anthemoisia Son of Tantalus and Anthemoisia, father of Lycus, king of the Mariandyni in Bithynia (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,724; 752). D. or his son Lycus amiably received  Heracles as a guest during his travels when he was searching for Hippolyte's belt. In return, Hercules helped them to subjugate the neighbouring peoples (Apoll. Rhod. 2,775-791; Apollod. 2,100). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Son of Lycus Son of Lycus, grandson of D. [1]. His father offered him to the  Argonauts as a travel guide.…

Diotima

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Διοτίμα; Diotíma). In the introduction of his discourse on Eros in Plato's Symposium (201d), Socrates claims that he would only pass on what he had learned from D., a wise priestess from Mantinea, who allegedly obtained for Athens a ten-year moratorium of the plague from the gods. The dialogue of the Symposium is thus interrupted. The D.-interlude consists of two parts: the first explains the nature of Eros, the second his power. In his epilogue, Socrates indicates his conviction that these teachings are correct. It is impossible…

Electryone

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠλεκτρυώνη; Ēlektryṓnē). [German version] [1] Patronymic of Alcmene Patronymic of Alcmene, the daughter of  Electryon (Hes. Sc. 16; 35; 86). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Heroine on Rhodes (also Ἀλεκτρώνα; Alektrṓna). Heroine on Rhodes, daughter of Helios and Rhodus (Diod. Sic. 5,56; Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,24; Syll.3 338-340). She is depicted on coins from Rhodes. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] see Electra [3]  Electra [3] Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography S. Grunauer-Von Hoerschelmann, s.v. E., LIMC 3.1, 719f.

Elatus

(231 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔλατος; Élatos, ‘spruce man’). Name of several mythical figures. [German version] [1] Centaur Centaur, pierced by Hercules' poisoned arrow, which simultaneously wounded  Chiron (Apollod. 2,85). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Prince of the Lapiths in Larisa Prince of the Lapiths in Larisa. He was the father of the Argonaut Polyphemus (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,40-41; Apollod. 1,113) and of  Caeneus/Caenis (Hyg. Fab. 14,2.4; 173,3; 242,3; Ov. Met. 12,189; 497). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Met. B. 12-13, 1982, 63. [German version] [3] Eponymu…

Clementia

(124 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of clemency (ThlL, Onom. II, 487). Pliny (HN 2,14) names C. in a series of deified abstractions. The C. of Caesar [1; 2] was famous: the senate had a joint temple built for the Divus Iulius and the deified C. in which Caesar and the goddess were depicted extending their hands to each other (Plut. Caes. 57,4; App. B Civ. 2,106; Cass. Dio 44,6,4). On the golden shield of Augustus C. is one of the four virtues attributed to him (R. Gest. div. Aug. 34). C. is the central theme in Seneca's speculum regum ( De clementia). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 M. Treu, Zur C…

Erigone

(248 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριγόνη; Ērigónē). Name of two similar figures of Attic mythology: [German version] [1] Suicide, daughter of Icarius, welcomer of Dionysus Daughter of  Icarius, who had given Dionysus a hospitable reception and, for this, had received as a present the knowledge of making wine. When Icarius, on behalf of Dionysus, tried to introduce viticulture, he was killed by the farmers who thought they had been poisoned after they had drunk unblended wine. E. was led to her father's body by the dog Maera and thereupon hanged h…

Daunus

(175 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαῦνος; Daûnos). [German version] [1] Eponymous hero of the Daunians Hero who gave his name to the Daunians ( Daunia); son of  Lycaon. Of Illyrian origin (Fest. p. 69), he immigrated to Italy together with his brothers Iapyx and Peuketios. There they expelled the native Ausonians and founded three kingdoms: Messapia, Peuketia and Daunia, which together are called  Iapygia (Nik. fr. 47 = Anton. lib. 31). When  Diomedes comes to Italy, D. receives him kindly and is supported by him against the Messapians. …

Eeriboea

(70 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠερίβοια; Ēeríboia). [German version] [1] Stepmother of the Aloads Stepmother of the  Aloads, who kept Ares prisoner. However, E. told Hermes the location of the prison (Hom. Il. 5,389f.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Spouse of Telamon, mother of Ajax (also Eriboea/Periboea). The daughter of Alcathous, spouse of Telamon and mother of  Ajax [1] (Pind. Isthm. 6,45; Soph. Aj. 569; Paus. 1,42,2; Apollod. 3,162). Bloch, René (Berne)

Discordia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] The Latin equivalent of the Greek  Eris. In contrast with  Concordia, D. was never more than a literary personification, and not a cult goddess. Ennius (Ann. 225f.) has D. break down the gates of war (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,460f.). According to Hyg. Fab. praef. 1, D. is a daughter of the ‘night’ ( Nox) and of  Erebos. In Virgil (Aen. 6,280), she stands guard at the entrance to the Orcus; in Aen. 8,702 she appears ─ in a torn cloak ─ on Aeneas' shield amidst the tumult of the battle of Ac…

Euryganea

(52 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυγάνη, -εια; Eurygánē, -eia). In the  Oidipódeia of the Cyclic Epics the second wife of  Oedipus, after  Iocaste (Epicaste) commits suicide upon discovery of her incest. From her come the children that are elsewhere ascribed to Jocasta (Oedipodea, argumentum; fr. 2 PEG I; Apollod. 3,55). Bloch, René (Berne)

Echemus

(153 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔχεμος; Échemos). [German version] [1] King of Tegea in Arcadia King of Tegea in Arcadia, son of Aeropos, married to Leda's daughter Timandra who left him (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 31-35; 176,3-4; Paus. 8,5,1; Apollod. 3,126). E. won in an Olympic wrestling match (Pind. Ol. 10,66). Due to his victory in single combat against Heracles' son Hyllus, E. is said to have checked the advance of the Heraclids into the Peloponnese by 50 (Diod. Sic. 4,58,3-5) or 100 years (Hdt. 9,26). A relief fragment shows E. as an heroic fighter [1]. Paus. 8,53,10 describes the grave of E. in Tegea. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibli…

Damasistratus

(26 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαμασίστρατος; Damasístratos). King of Plataeae who buried  Laius after he had been killed by Oedipus (Paus. 10,5,4; Apollod. 3,52). Bloch, René (Berne)

Elpis

(205 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλπίς; Elpís, from ἔλπομαι/ἐλπίζω; élpomai/elpízō, ‘expect, hope’). As a term and a character a vox media, which in its fundamentally neutral quality (‘expectation’) alternates between ‘hope’ (positive or false) and ─ less often ─ ‘apprehension’ (Pl. Leg. 644c; Hom. Od. 16,101; 19,84; Semonides fr. 1,6-7 IEG 2; Pind. Fr. 214). In Hes. Op. 90-105, the personified E. remains in  Pandora's box, while the other evil spirits (κακά; kaká) escape (cf. Babr. 58; [1; 2; 3]). According to Thgn. 1135-1146, E. was the only benevolent power to remain on eart…

Echetlus, Echetlaeus

(88 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετλος, Ἐχετλαῖος; Échetlos, Echetlaîos). A man of peasant demeanour who in the battle of Marathon killed many Persians with his plough ( echétlē, ‘plough handle’) and subsequently disappeared. Because of an oracle, the Athenians worshipped him as the Hero Echetlaeus. On the painting of the battle of Marathon in the Stoa Poikile, he was depicted with a plough in his hand (Paus. 1,15,3; 32,5) Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography M. H. Jameson, The Hero Echetlaeus, in: TAPhA 82, 1951, 49-61 J. G. Szilágyi, s.v. Echetlos, LIMC 3.1, 677-678.

Charops

(182 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χάροψ; Chárops). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet by which Heracles was worshipped in Boeotia near the sanctuary of Zeus on Mount Laphystion. It was there that, in Boeotian tradition, he fetched Cerberus from the underworld (Paus. 9,34,5). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Grandfather of Orpheus Thracian; father of Oeagrus, grandfather of Orpheus. After the death of the Thracian King  Lycurgus, Dionysus appointed C. as one of his followers and initiated him into the Bacchic rites; C. then told the god of the assault pl…

Caligo

(40 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of darkness, analogous to the Greek  Erebus and Skotos. She is the mother of  Chaos, and by him she is also mother of Nox, Dies, Erebos and Aether (Hyg. Fab. praef. 1). Bloch, René (Berne)

Dorus

(89 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δῶρος; Dôros). Mythological first ancestor of the Dorians, son of Hellen and of Orseis, grandson of Deucalion, brother of Xuthus and of Aeolus. His sons are Tectamus and  Aegimius (Hes. Cat. fr. 9,2; Apollod. 1,49-50; Diod. Sic. 4,58,6; 60,2). Starting from Phthia, D. led the people into the Thessalian Hestiaiotis (Diod. Sic. 5,80,2), into the central Greek landscape of Doris (Str.8,7,1) or to southern Aetolia (Apollod. 1,57). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Graf, Greek Mythology, 1993, 132-133 I. Malkin, Myth and Territory in the Spartan Mediterrane…

Copia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of fullness, depicted with the horn of plenty (Plaut. Pseud. 671; 736;  Amalthea), later also called cornucopia (Amm. Marc. 22,9,1). C. with the horn of plenty appears on the coins of two cities with the name Colonia C., which not necessarily indicates the existence of a cult [1; 2]. C. is also mentioned in an inscription from Avennio (today's Avignon, CIL XII 1023). According to Ovid (Met. 9,85-88), C. received the horn filled with fruit and flowers, which Hercules had broken off the  Achelous, from the Naiades. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Euryclea

(66 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρύκλεια; Eurýkleia, the ‘widely-famed’ [1], Euryclia). Daughter of Ops, from childhood the trusted servant in the house of  Odysseus. She recognizes him by a scar when she is washing the beggar's feet (Hom. Od. 1,429; 2,345-347; 19,350-507; Hyg. Fab. 125,20; 126,7) [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 Kamptz, 37 2 O. Touchefeu, s.v. Eurykleia, LIMC 4.1, 101-103. G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, PhD thesis 1973.

Cloelia

(143 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Young Roman woman, example of female bravery Young woman who was hostage of the Etruscan king  Porsenna (508 BC). She escaped, swam across the Tiber (or rode across it on horseback) and reached Rome safely with a group of young girls; she had to be returned to the king but, in recognition of her bravery, he released her and a number of the hostages. After the peace treaty the Romans honoured her with a statue on horseback at the Velia on the Sacra Via (Liv. 2,13,6-11; Flor. Epit. 1,4,7). She remained one of the most widespread examples of female bravery (Boccaccio, De claris m…

Dymas

(251 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δύμας; Dýmas). [German version] [1] Phrygian king on the Sangarius, father of Hecuba Phrygian king on the Sangarius; father of Hecuba the wife of Priam, and of Asius (Hom. Il. 16,718; Apollod. 3,148; Hyg. Fab. 91,1; Ov. Met. 11,761). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Phaeacian A Phaeacian, whose daughter was a friend of Nausicaa (Hom. Od. 6,22). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Trojan in the Aeneid A Trojan who joined Aeneas at the fall of Troy, and was killed (Verg. Aen. 2,340; 428). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography T. Gargiulo, s.v. Dimante, EV 2, 75. [German version] [4] …

Eurylochus

(228 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐρύλοχος; Eurýlochos). [German version] [1] Relative and companion of Odysseus Close relation and ambivalent companion of  Odysseus. He is the only one not to accept the invitation of  Circe, and so escapes being transformed into a pig (Hom. Od. 10,205-274; Apollod. Epit. 7,14-15; Ov. Met. 14,287). When E. later incites the companions against Odysseus, he is threatened with punishment by death (Hom. Od. 10,429-448). Together with  Perimedes he takes part in the sacrifice to the dead before Odysseus ente…

Inachus

(283 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἴναχος; Ínachos; etymology unresolved). [German version] [1] Progenitor of the Argive royal house Son of  Oceanus and of  Tethys, who gave the main river of  Argus [II] and of  Argolis their names (schol. Eur. Or. 932). First king of Argus (Acusilaus, FGrH 2 F 23c) and progenitor of the Argive kings and heroes (‘Inachids’: Eur. IA 1088). In the argument between Poseidon and Hera about Argus, I. decides in favour of the goddess and introduces her cult, which causes Poseidon to dry up his river (Paus. 2,15,4-…

Erato

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἐρατώ; Eratṓ). [German version] [1] One of the nine Muses One of the nine  Muses; daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 78; Apollod. 1,13). Attribution of a sphere of activity, as in the case of the other Muses, emerged only gradually. Plato i.a. assigns her to the sphere of the erotic, on account of her name (Phdr. 259d); but she is above all the Muse of love-lyric, and is appealed to in this connection by poets (cf. Verg. Aen. 7,37; Ov. Ars am. 2,16; 425). She is portrayed i.a. on the François Vase (570 BC) and on the Basle lekythos (together with  Thamyris and  Klio). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibl…

Caecilianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Carthage, from AD 311/12 In 311/312 (according to [1] around 309/310), C. was ordained bishop of Carthage by Felix of Apthugni. A council of 70 bishops under the leadership of the Numidian primate Secundus of Tigisi declared C.'s election invalid and accused Felix of traditio. In his place, Maiorinus was elected at first, with (313)  Donatus following shortly afterwards. Emperor Constantine declared his support for C. (cf. especially Constantine's letter in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). The dispute with…

Battus

(646 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βάττος; Báttos). [German version] [1] B.I. King of Cyrene, around 630 BC Son of Polymnestus, from the lineage of the Minyan Euphemus of Thera (Hdt. 4,150). Leader of the colonists and King of Cyrene (Hdt. 4,153,3; SEG 9,3: ἡγεμόνα ἀρχαγέταν καὶ βασιλέα). Around 630 BC, he first settled on the island of Platea, then on the Libyan coast, and finally in the town of  Cyrene after reaching an agreement with the local residents (Hdt. 4,153; 156; 158). There he reigned for 40 years according to Herodotus (4,159).…

Eirene

(570 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). The word is perhaps pre-Greek [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Personification and deification of peace Personification and deification of peace (Orph. H. 15,11). E. is one of the  Horae, daughter of Zeus and Themis, sister of Dike and Eunomia (Hes. Theog. 901-902; Pind. Ol. 13,6-8). She is often mentioned in Greek literature as a central figure for the prospering of the political community. Thus, E.'s gifts are praised, for instance, in Bacchyl. fr. 4,61 Snell-Maehler and in Euripides (Bacch. 419-420; TGF 453) while usually being connected, as ‘a giver of wealth’, to ploút…

Doris

(518 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δωρίς; Dōrís). [German version] I. Personal names Feminine shortened version of the name Eúdōros and similar, likely often understood as ‘the giver’ (cf. dōron, ‘Gift’). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 1] One of the Oceanids, mother of the Nereids One of the  Oceanids, the daughters of Oceanus and of Tethys (Hes. Theog. 350); cf. Polydore and Eudore in Hes. Theog. 354; 360 and the ‘Dorids’ in Goethe's ‘Faust’. Wife of Nereus, mother of the 50  Nereids (Hes. Theog. 241; Apollod. 1,11; Ov. Met. 2,11; 269). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Nereus, one of th…

Bianor

(192 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Son of Tiber and Manto, founder of Mantua Son of the Tiber and Manto, daughter of Teiresias or Hercules. B., also named Ocnus (Aucnus) (Verg. Aen. 10,198), is said to have founded the city of Mantua and named it after his mother. According to others (Serv. Aen.) B. founded Felsina, later to become Bononia (Bologna); Virgil (Ecl. 9,60) mentions B.'s grave. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. E. Brenk, War and the shepherd. The tomb of B. in Vergil's ninth Eclogue, in: AJPh 102, 1981, 427-430. [German version] [2] Writer of epigrams in the ‘Garland’ of Philippus Writer of …

Eetion

(371 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἠετίων; Ēetíon, linguistically probably not of Greek origin [1]). Name, especially of foreign heroes. [German version] [1] King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe (Hom. Il. 1,366). His daughter  Andromache told her husband Hector how Achilles killed her father E. and her seven brothers during the conquest of Thebe: Achilles set up a monument for the father. The wife of E. was ransomed but later killed by Artemis (Hom. Il. 6,394-428). Among the booty from the conquest of Thebe was th…

Cura

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Personification of worry Personification of worry (ThlL, Onom. 2,753). In Horace's first Roman Ode, C. is a black, ghostly companion of man (Hor. Carm. 3,1,40: post equitem sedet atra C.). Aeneas encounters the ‘avenging worries’ ( ultrices Curae) at the gate of Hades (Verg. Aen. 6,274 and Serv. Aen. on this passage). According to Hyginus Fab. 220, C. formed man from a piece of earth. Saturn determines that man belongs to C. in life and to Jupiter after death. The fable is of Greek origin [1]. In all probability, evidence for C. exists on a poculum deorum (CIL I2 442: Coira p…

Daphnaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαφναῖος; Daphnaîos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Syracus 406 BC Strategos in Syracuse, was supposed to relieve Acragas in 406 BC when it was besieged by the Carthaginians, but this went wrong, apparently because of his corruption (Diod. Sic. 13,86,4ff.). This failure led to the removal from office of the group of commanders, the appointment of  Dionysius [1] as an authorized strategos and thereby to the latter's tyrannis. Dionysius killed D. in 405 (Diod. Sic. 13,96,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Apollo Epiclesis of Apollo (Anth. Pal. 9,477…

Spes

(423 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(The Roman personification of 'hope'). [German version] I. Roman Unlike the Greek Elpis, Spes ('Hope') had a cult and temples. In the 1st Punic War, A. Atilius [I 14] Calatinus dedicated a temple to Spes on the Forum Holitorium in Rome (Cic. Leg. 2,28; Tac. Ann. 2,49). The building burned down on several occasions (Liv. 25,7,6; Cass. Dio 50,10,3); there was a rededication under Germanicus in AD 17; the remains of the temple are visible in the church of St. Nicola in Carcere. According to Liv. 2,51,2 and …

Monotheism

(1,572 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] I. Concept Monotheism - the belief in the existence of a single god, in contrast to polytheism and henotheism (worship of a single god while still recognizing other gods) - is a concept from the early modern era, probably first evident in the Cambridge Platonist H. More [1] (Christian-apologetic dissociation from pagan forms of religion; argument defending the trinitarian concept of God). Monotheism has been viewed both from an evolutionary perspective as a final stage of development and as an original form of religion that later degenerated…

Demo

(342 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Δημώ; Dēmṓ). Shortened form of a compound (see D. [3], [4]). [German version] [1] Daughter of Celeus The daughter of  Celeus, king of Eleusis, and  Metaneira. Together with her sisters Callidice, Cleisidice and Callithoe, she has a friendly encounter with  Demeter who is wandering about in the shape of an old woman (Hom. H. 2,109). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Name of the Cymaean Sibyl Name of the Cymaean  Sibyl, of whom, however, the Cymaeans did not know an oracle. They could only point to a water jug that contained the bones of the Sibyl (Hyper…

Dares

(240 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg)
(Δάρης; Dárēs). [German version] [1] Trojan priest of Hephaistus Trojan priest of Hephaistus, whose sons Phegeus and Idaeus start the battle against  Diomedes. Whilst the former is killed by Diomedes, Idaeus is rescued by Hephaistus (Hom. Il. 5,9-26). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography G. S. Kirk, The Iliad: A Commentary, vol. 2, 1990, 54 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 408f. [German version] [2] One of Aeneas' companions One of Aeneas' companions, excellent pugilist. However, at the funeral games in honour of  Anchises, he is unexp…

Bias

(447 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne)
(Βίας; Bías). [German version] [1] Mythical son of Amythaon Mythical son of  Amythaon and Idomene or Aglaea; brother of the seer  Melampus. The latter assisted B. in his courtship of Pero, daughter of Neleus and Chloris. As bride-price, Neleus demanded restoration of the cattle that Phylacus had stolen from his wife Chloris. Melampus did that for his brother (Apollod. 1,96-103; Hom. Od. 11,287-297; 15,225-238). Originally from Pylos, B. gained mastery -- again with the help of his brother, who cured the…

Eurus

(336 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὖρος/ Eûros, Lat. Eurus). One of the four cardinal winds (Hom. Od. 5,295f.; Verg. Aen. 1,85f.) also used to refer to the different points of the compass. In Hesiod, however (Theog. 379f.), E. is missing. [1]. At first in the Greek world all easterly winds (cf. the Hom. four-winds model [2. 2353, fig. 15]) were called Eúroi (Ps.-Aristot. De mundo 4,394b 20); but especially the E. as neighbour to the  Notus, the south wind (Aristot. Mete. 2,6,363b 21-23), blows from the point of winter sunrise, and is accordingly often called the south-east wind ( Eurónotos, otherwise ES…

Basilicus

(169 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βασιλικός; Basilikós). [German version] [1] Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD who lived past the year 200. He taught in Nicomedia in Bithynia (Suda s.v. Apsines). His student  Apsines refers to him and Aristides as the only sources for his study of rhetoric. In addition to a commentary on Demosthenes, B. is attributed with the authorship of several rhetorical works (περὶ τῶν διὰ λέξεως σχημάτων, περὶ ῥητορικῆς παρασκευῆς ἤτοι περὶ ἀσκήσεως, περὶ μεταποιήσεως). Only few remnants of these works are preserved in the Hermogenes scholia. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswa…

Bonifatius

(349 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Defended Marseille against Athaulf 413 AD B. distinguished himself in AD 413 in the defence of Marseilles against Athaulf ( Ataulfus), attested as tribune in Africa from AD 416/17, perhaps praepositus limitis; from AD 423 comes Africae. As he acted independently, he was suspected time and again of disloyalty to  Valentinianus III, and this led to military conflicts in 427-429; publicly confirmed by the emperor as comes in 429. At the same time B. was accused of having invited the Vandals into the country so as to defend his own position; he …

Eryx

(583 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(ὁ Ἔρυξ/ ho Éryx, Lat. Eryx, Erucus, Erycus). [German version] [1] Mountain in western Sicily High, isolated mountain in western Sicily (751 m), now Monte San Giuliano. Settled even in prehistoric times, with a famous sanctuary to the probably Phoenician goddess of E., identified as Aphrodite by the Greeks, later (Thuc. 6,2,3) became a polis of the  Elymaeans. The attempt by Dorieus to establish a Greek colony (around 510 BC) ended in his destruction by the Phoenicians and the Elymaeans of Segesta (Hdt. 5,43-4…

Brisae

(123 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Βρῖσαι; Brîsai). [German version] [1] Nymphs on Ceos Nymphs on Ceos; introduced the rural deity  Aristaeus to olive oil and honey (Hsch s.v. B. 348; schol. Theoc. 5,53). Even in antiquity they were associated with the Lesbian Dionysus,  Brisaeus, whom a nymph Brisa is said to have nurtured (schol. Pers. 1,76). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Thracian sub-tribe Thracian sub-tribe above the lower Nestus, neighbours of the Sinti and Mygdones; only attested once in literature (Plin. HN 4,40), frequently conjectured to be Brigas (Brison in Arr. Ana…

Diopeithes

(409 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Διοπείθης; Diopeíthēs). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Author of Old Comedy, only known from inscriptions; probably won at the Dionysia for the first time in 451 BC [1. test.]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 43. [German version] [2] Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by Pericles Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by  Pericles. Following his petition it was decided in 437/6(?) BC to prosecute those who did not believe in the …

Eurymedon

(520 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Martini, Wolfram (Gießen)
(Εὐρυμέδων; Eurymédōn, ‘far-prevailing’ [2]). The name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] King of the Giants King of the  Giants, by his daughter Periboea grandfather of Nausithous the son of Poseidon, ancestor of the Phaeacian kings. E. brought himself and his people to ruin (Hom. Od. 7,58-60 with schol. and Eust.). According to  Euphorion fr. 99 Powell (schol. Hom. Il. 14,295-296) he raped Hera, whereupon she bore  Prometheus. For this Zeus later hurled E. into the Tartarus. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Vian, s.v. E.1, LIMC 4.1, 105 2 Kamptz 84, …

Eudorus

(435 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster)
(Εὔδωρος; Eúdōros). [German version] [1] One of the five leaders of the Myrmidons under Achilles One of the five leaders of the  Myrmidons under Achilles. A son of Hermes and  Polymele, he was brought up by his grandfather Phylas after Polymele later married the Actorid Echecles. His aptitude for fighting, being a fast runner, is strongly emphasized (Hom. Il. 16,179-186) but apart from this, the Iliad is silent on his fate. Eust. Od. 1697,56 reports of his death at the hands of Pyraechmes at the first clash with the Trojans (cf. also Eust. Od. 1053,54). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography R. Jan…

Ephyra

(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἐφύρα; Ephýra). [German version] [1] City in Argos City ‘in a corner of Argos’ (Hom. Il. 6,152); home of Sisyphus; later equated with Corinth. Sources: Str. 8,3,5; Paus. 2,1,1; 3,10. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] Equated with Oinoe in Elis by Homeric commentators Str. 8,3,5 mentions an otherwise unknown town on the Elean coast, by the name of  Oinoe; Homeric commentators equate it with the Homeric E. [1] (cf. also Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; Hsch. s.v. E). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography L. Deroy, Ephyre, ville imaginaire, in: AC 18, 1949, 401-402. [German version] [3] City in E…

Damon

(975 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Δάμων; Dámōn) [German version] [1] Prince of the Telchines Prince of the  Telchines. Father-in-law of Minos and ancestor of Miletus. When the Telchines were struck dead by lightning by Jupiter because they poisoned crops, D. and his family were spared in gratitude for hospitality provided. Only his daughter Macelo and her husband were among the victims (Nic. in the schol. Ov. Ib. 475). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Syracuse A Pythagorean from Syracuse, friend of Phintias, for whom he stood surety with his life. According to Aristoxenus (…

Candidus

(240 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
A popular cognomen in the Imperial Age, attested with certainty from the 1st cent. AD (ThlL, Onom. 2,133ff.). [German version] [1] Christian in AD 200 Christian in c. AD 200, author of various lost treatise about the Hexaemeron (Eus. HE 5,27; Jer. vir. ill. 48). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus, 3rd cent. AD A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus; in c. AD 230, he had a public dispute with  Origen, who accused him of retrospectively falsifying the records (Rufin. Apol. Orig. epil. = PG 17,625; Hier. Adv. Ru…

Euphorion

(1,434 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Εὐφορίων; Euphoríōn). [German version] [1] Winged son of Achilles and Helena A figure invented by Ptolemy Chennus (Phot. 149a): E., a winged son of Achilles and Helena, is killed on the island of Melos by a bolt of lightning from Zeus whose love he does not reciprocate. The nymphs who bury the corpse are changed into frogs by Zeus. In Goethe's Faust (2nd Part), E. appears as the son of Faust and Helena. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography K.-H. Tomberg, Die Kaine Historia des Ptolemaios Chennos, 1967, 108. [German version] [2] of Athens Tragedian Tragedian, son of Aeschylus. He won priz…

Damas

(245 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δάμας; Dámas). [German version] [1] Hero from Aulis Hero from Aulis who travelled to Troy with Arcesilaus and was killed there by Aeneas (Q. Smyrn. 8,303-305: Dymas? [1]). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 P. Vian, Q. Smyrn., 1966. [German version] [2] Eponymous founder of Damascus in Syria (Δαμᾶς; Damâs). Eponymous founder of  Damascus in Syria. He accompanied Dionysus to Asia where he established a shrine to him in Syria in the form of a hut (σκηνή), called Δαμᾶ σκηνή ( Damâ skēnḗ, ‘hut of Damas’), hence Damascus (Etym. m. s.v. Δαμσκός 247 Gaisford). Bloch, René (Berne) …

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Chaeron

(334 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Χαίρων; Chaírōn). [German version] [1] Mythical son of Apollo and Thero Mythical son of Apollo and Thero (in Plut. Sulla 17: Thuro); founder of the city named after him,  Chaeronea (Hes. Cat. fr. 252 M-W = Paus. 9,40,5f.; Hellanicus FGrH 379 F3). Plutarch names a son dead in childhood after him (Consolatio ad uxorem 5 p. 609d). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Spartan polemarch, late 5th cent. BC Spartan polemarch who died in 403 BC in  Pausanias' assault on Piraeus. He was buried on the Cerameicus (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33; Lys. epit. 63). His grave has been p…

Cerialis

(149 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
Roman cognomen (also Caerialis, Caerealis) of Latin origin, derived from the adjectival Cerealis (‘belonging to Ceres’); current from the Julian-Claudian era onwards (Schulze, 486f.; ThlL, Onom. 2,344f.).   Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinianus I, 4th cent. AD Brother of  Iustina, the wife of  Valentinianus I (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). Tribunus stabuli (Amm. Marc. 30,5,19). In AD 375 he helped his nephew  Valentinianus II to the throne (Amm. Marc. 30,10,5). PLRE 1,197. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Dux Libyarum 405 AD In AD 4…

Eumelus

(707 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(Εὔμηλος; Eúmēlos). [German version] [1] Leader of the pherae. fleet against Troy Son of  Admetus and  Alcestis. He led (only) 11 ships from Pherae against Troy (Hom. Il. 2,711-715) [1]. Although he had the best horses (Hom. Il. 2,763-767), he did not win the chariot race at the funeral games for Patroclus, as Athena broke the yoke of his chariot (Hom. Il. 23,391-397). Achilles nevertheless awarded him a prize (23, 533-538). According to Apollod. epit. 5,5, he is said to have won at the funeral games for Ac…

Charisius

(459 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Χαρίσιος; Charísios). [German version] [I] Attic orator, late 4th cent. BC Attic orator at the end of the 4th cent. BC; contemporary of Demetrius of Phalerum, Demochares and Menander. He was active as a  logographer, and imitated  Lysias (Cic. Brut. 286). Speeches by him were still extant at the time of Quintilian, at that time being ascribed by many to  Menander (Quint. Inst. 10,1,70). Only three passages have survived, in Latin translation in Rutilius Lupus (1,10; 2,6; 2,16). Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2, 351f. [II] [German version] [1] C., Aurelius…

Dia

(455 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Δῖα, Δία; Dîa, Día). [German version] [1] Female equivalent of Zeus The female equivalent of  Zeus, as Diwiya on the Linear B inscriptions from Pylos and Knossos, with her own sanctuary, just as  Poseidon also has his female counterpart in the Mycenaean pantheon [1]. In the post-Mycenaean period the three heroines who can be linked with the Mycenaean goddess by name, are all linked with Zeus, but the individual derivation is problematical. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Heroine in the local cults of Phlius and Sicyon The heroine is most likely D. in the local cult…

Demophon

(535 words)

Author(s): Clinton, Kevin (Ithaca N. Y.) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δημοφῶν; Dēmophôn). [German version] [1] Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus and Metaneira. According to myth D. was nurtured by the goddess  Demeter, who had been hired as a wet-nurse; she anointed him with ambrosia and hardened him at night in the fire so as to burn away his mortality (cf. Thetis: Achilles), until his mother noticed and cried out. Demeter then placed D. on the ground and threatened the Eleusinians with civil wars (Hom. Il. 2,233-255);…

Demaenetus

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Δημαίνετος; Dēmaínetos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Asclepius in Elis Epithet of  Asclepius in Elis, from the name of the cult founder (Paus. 6,21,4). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] From Parrhasia, allegedly transformed into a wolf D. from Parrhasia, a town in Arcadia. He is said to have been transformed into a wolf after he ate the flesh of a boy whom the Arcadians had sacrificed to Jupiter Lycaeus. After 10 years he became human again and was victorious in boxing at Olympia (Scopas FGrH 413 F 1; Varro in Aug. Civ. 18,17). In Paus. 6,8,2 he is called Damarchos. Bloch, René (Ber…

Diocles

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…
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