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Bias

(447 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne)
(Βίας; Bías). [German version] [1] Mythical son of Amythaon Mythical son of  Amythaon and Idomene or Aglaea; brother of the seer  Melampus. The latter assisted B. in his courtship of Pero, daughter of Neleus and Chloris. As bride-price, Neleus demanded restoration of the cattle that Phylacus had stolen from his wife Chloris. Melampus did that for his brother (Apollod. 1,96-103; Hom. Od. 11,287-297; 15,225-238). Originally from Pylos, B. gained mastery -- again with the help of his brother, who cured the…

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Discordia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] The Latin equivalent of the Greek  Eris. In contrast with  Concordia, D. was never more than a literary personification, and not a cult goddess. Ennius (Ann. 225f.) has D. break down the gates of war (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,460f.). According to Hyg. Fab. praef. 1, D. is a daughter of the ‘night’ ( Nox) and of  Erebos. In Virgil (Aen. 6,280), she stands guard at the entrance to the Orcus; in Aen. 8,702 she appears ─ in a torn cloak ─ on Aeneas' shield amidst the tumult of the battle of Ac…

Euryganea

(52 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυγάνη, -εια; Eurygánē, -eia). In the  Oidipódeia of the Cyclic Epics the second wife of  Oedipus, after  Iocaste (Epicaste) commits suicide upon discovery of her incest. From her come the children that are elsewhere ascribed to Jocasta (Oedipodea, argumentum; fr. 2 PEG I; Apollod. 3,55). Bloch, René (Berne)

Chaeron

(334 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Χαίρων; Chaírōn). [German version] [1] Mythical son of Apollo and Thero Mythical son of Apollo and Thero (in Plut. Sulla 17: Thuro); founder of the city named after him,  Chaeronea (Hes. Cat. fr. 252 M-W = Paus. 9,40,5f.; Hellanicus FGrH 379 F3). Plutarch names a son dead in childhood after him (Consolatio ad uxorem 5 p. 609d). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Spartan polemarch, late 5th cent. BC Spartan polemarch who died in 403 BC in  Pausanias' assault on Piraeus. He was buried on the Cerameicus (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33; Lys. epit. 63). His grave has been p…

Echemus

(153 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔχεμος; Échemos). [German version] [1] King of Tegea in Arcadia King of Tegea in Arcadia, son of Aeropos, married to Leda's daughter Timandra who left him (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 31-35; 176,3-4; Paus. 8,5,1; Apollod. 3,126). E. won in an Olympic wrestling match (Pind. Ol. 10,66). Due to his victory in single combat against Heracles' son Hyllus, E. is said to have checked the advance of the Heraclids into the Peloponnese by 50 (Diod. Sic. 4,58,3-5) or 100 years (Hdt. 9,26). A relief fragment shows E. as an heroic fighter [1]. Paus. 8,53,10 describes the grave of E. in Tegea. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibli…

Damasistratus

(26 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαμασίστρατος; Damasístratos). King of Plataeae who buried  Laius after he had been killed by Oedipus (Paus. 10,5,4; Apollod. 3,52). Bloch, René (Berne)

Demaenetus

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Δημαίνετος; Dēmaínetos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Asclepius in Elis Epithet of  Asclepius in Elis, from the name of the cult founder (Paus. 6,21,4). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] From Parrhasia, allegedly transformed into a wolf D. from Parrhasia, a town in Arcadia. He is said to have been transformed into a wolf after he ate the flesh of a boy whom the Arcadians had sacrificed to Jupiter Lycaeus. After 10 years he became human again and was victorious in boxing at Olympia (Scopas FGrH 413 F 1; Varro in Aug. Civ. 18,17). In Paus. 6,8,2 he is called Damarchos. Bloch, René (Ber…

Eurus

(336 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὖρος/ Eûros, Lat. Eurus). One of the four cardinal winds (Hom. Od. 5,295f.; Verg. Aen. 1,85f.) also used to refer to the different points of the compass. In Hesiod, however (Theog. 379f.), E. is missing. [1]. At first in the Greek world all easterly winds (cf. the Hom. four-winds model [2. 2353, fig. 15]) were called Eúroi (Ps.-Aristot. De mundo 4,394b 20); but especially the E. as neighbour to the  Notus, the south wind (Aristot. Mete. 2,6,363b 21-23), blows from the point of winter sunrise, and is accordingly often called the south-east wind ( Eurónotos, otherwise ES…

Elpis

(205 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλπίς; Elpís, from ἔλπομαι/ἐλπίζω; élpomai/elpízō, ‘expect, hope’). As a term and a character a vox media, which in its fundamentally neutral quality (‘expectation’) alternates between ‘hope’ (positive or false) and ─ less often ─ ‘apprehension’ (Pl. Leg. 644c; Hom. Od. 16,101; 19,84; Semonides fr. 1,6-7 IEG 2; Pind. Fr. 214). In Hes. Op. 90-105, the personified E. remains in  Pandora's box, while the other evil spirits (κακά; kaká) escape (cf. Babr. 58; [1; 2; 3]). According to Thgn. 1135-1146, E. was the only benevolent power to remain on eart…

Echetlus, Echetlaeus

(88 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετλος, Ἐχετλαῖος; Échetlos, Echetlaîos). A man of peasant demeanour who in the battle of Marathon killed many Persians with his plough ( echétlē, ‘plough handle’) and subsequently disappeared. Because of an oracle, the Athenians worshipped him as the Hero Echetlaeus. On the painting of the battle of Marathon in the Stoa Poikile, he was depicted with a plough in his hand (Paus. 1,15,3; 32,5) Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography M. H. Jameson, The Hero Echetlaeus, in: TAPhA 82, 1951, 49-61 J. G. Szilágyi, s.v. Echetlos, LIMC 3.1, 677-678.

Charops

(182 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χάροψ; Chárops). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet by which Heracles was worshipped in Boeotia near the sanctuary of Zeus on Mount Laphystion. It was there that, in Boeotian tradition, he fetched Cerberus from the underworld (Paus. 9,34,5). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Grandfather of Orpheus Thracian; father of Oeagrus, grandfather of Orpheus. After the death of the Thracian King  Lycurgus, Dionysus appointed C. as one of his followers and initiated him into the Bacchic rites; C. then told the god of the assault pl…

Basilicus

(169 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βασιλικός; Basilikós). [German version] [1] Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD who lived past the year 200. He taught in Nicomedia in Bithynia (Suda s.v. Apsines). His student  Apsines refers to him and Aristides as the only sources for his study of rhetoric. In addition to a commentary on Demosthenes, B. is attributed with the authorship of several rhetorical works (περὶ τῶν διὰ λέξεως σχημάτων, περὶ ῥητορικῆς παρασκευῆς ἤτοι περὶ ἀσκήσεως, περὶ μεταποιήσεως). Only few remnants of these works are preserved in the Hermogenes scholia. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswa…

Caligo

(40 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of darkness, analogous to the Greek  Erebus and Skotos. She is the mother of  Chaos, and by him she is also mother of Nox, Dies, Erebos and Aether (Hyg. Fab. praef. 1). Bloch, René (Berne)

Dorus

(89 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δῶρος; Dôros). Mythological first ancestor of the Dorians, son of Hellen and of Orseis, grandson of Deucalion, brother of Xuthus and of Aeolus. His sons are Tectamus and  Aegimius (Hes. Cat. fr. 9,2; Apollod. 1,49-50; Diod. Sic. 4,58,6; 60,2). Starting from Phthia, D. led the people into the Thessalian Hestiaiotis (Diod. Sic. 5,80,2), into the central Greek landscape of Doris (Str.8,7,1) or to southern Aetolia (Apollod. 1,57). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Graf, Greek Mythology, 1993, 132-133 I. Malkin, Myth and Territory in the Spartan Mediterrane…

Copia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of fullness, depicted with the horn of plenty (Plaut. Pseud. 671; 736;  Amalthea), later also called cornucopia (Amm. Marc. 22,9,1). C. with the horn of plenty appears on the coins of two cities with the name Colonia C., which not necessarily indicates the existence of a cult [1; 2]. C. is also mentioned in an inscription from Avennio (today's Avignon, CIL XII 1023). According to Ovid (Met. 9,85-88), C. received the horn filled with fruit and flowers, which Hercules had broken off the  Achelous, from the Naiades. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Euryclea

(66 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρύκλεια; Eurýkleia, the ‘widely-famed’ [1], Euryclia). Daughter of Ops, from childhood the trusted servant in the house of  Odysseus. She recognizes him by a scar when she is washing the beggar's feet (Hom. Od. 1,429; 2,345-347; 19,350-507; Hyg. Fab. 125,20; 126,7) [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 Kamptz, 37 2 O. Touchefeu, s.v. Eurykleia, LIMC 4.1, 101-103. G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, PhD thesis 1973.

Bonifatius

(349 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Defended Marseille against Athaulf 413 AD B. distinguished himself in AD 413 in the defence of Marseilles against Athaulf ( Ataulfus), attested as tribune in Africa from AD 416/17, perhaps praepositus limitis; from AD 423 comes Africae. As he acted independently, he was suspected time and again of disloyalty to  Valentinianus III, and this led to military conflicts in 427-429; publicly confirmed by the emperor as comes in 429. At the same time B. was accused of having invited the Vandals into the country so as to defend his own position; he …

Eurymedusa

(15 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυμέδουσα; Eurymédousa). Maidservant to  Nausicaa (Hom. Od. 7,8). Bloch, René (Berne)

Brizo

(88 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βριζώ; Brizṓ). A deity who predicted the future as a person lay sleeping. She was worshipped by Delian women as the protective goddess of boats. They brought her votive offerings in small barks which were not allowed to contain any fish. The name B. was derived from βρίζειν ( brízein, ‘to slumber’) (Semus of Delos in Ath. 8,335a-b = FGrH 396F4). B. is explained by [1] as a goddess who sends the wind and the waves to sleep. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 H. Usener, Götternamen, 1896, 147.

Epii

(103 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐπειοί; Epeipoí). The oldest population in Elis (Pind. Ol. 9,58).  Augeias was regarded as one of their kings (Pind. Ol. 10,35; Hom. Il. 11,698). According to the Homeric catalogue of ships, the E. fall into four different groups (Hom. Il. 2,618-625). Nestor reports of conflicts between the E. and Pylians in Hom. Il. 11,670-762. According to Paus. 5,1,4; 8, they were named after Epius, but later their name was changed into Elii (cf. also Hecat. FGrH 1 F 25). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 195; 556-557; 562-563 B. Hainsworth…

Eleos

(121 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔλεος; Éleos). ‘Compassion’. Appears personified in Timocles fr. 33 PCG. An altar dedicated to E. stood on a market square in Athens (Paus. 1,17,1; Diod. Sic. 13,22,7) [1], a well-known  asylon/asylum (Lucian Demonax 57 and schol.; Schol. Aeschin. 2,15). According to Apollod. 2,167, it was there that the Heraclides sought refuge, according to Philostr. Epistula 39, they even appear as the founders of the altar. According to Aristotle's poetic theory, through éleos and phóbos (‘pity and fear’), tragedy should lead to  katharsis (Aristot. Poet. 5, 1449 …

Botres

(76 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βότρης; Bótrēs). Son of the Theban Eumelus. When the latter, in B.'s presence, is about to sacrifice a sheep to Apollo, B. eats the animal's brains before it is placed on the altar. Thereupon his father strikes him with a firebrand. Apollo, however, takes pity on him and turns him into the bird, Aeropus (Bee-eater), which broods in an underground nest and continually seeks to fly (Ant. Lib. 18). Bloch, René (Berne)

Diores

(130 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Διώρης; Diṓrēs). [German version] [1] Son of Amarynceus Son of  Amarynceus [1]. One of the four leaders of the Epeians from Elis who went to Troy. He was killed by the Thracian Peirous (Hom. Il. 2,622; 4,517; Paus. 5,3,4). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, Hermes ES 14, 1960, 98 and 162 E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 569-573. [German version] [2] Father of Automedon Father of  Automedon, chariot driver to Achilles and Patroclus (Hom. Il. 17,429). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Son of Priamus Son of Priamus, companion of  Ae…

Demodice

(111 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δημοδίκη; Dēmodíkē). Second wife of the Boeotian king  Athamas and stepmother of Phrixus whom she pursues in unrequited love. Phrixus takes flight for this reason (Pind. fr. 49, Damodika; Schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,288a). Usually she is called  Ino (Apollod. 1,80-84). In another version she is the wife of Cretheus, brother of Athamas. She slanders Phrixus, who will not return her love, before Cretheus, whereupon he demands Phrixus' death from Athamas. However, Phrixus is removed by his mother  Nephele (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,20). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Angeli B…

Euphrosyne

(61 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐφροσύνη; Euphrosýne, ‘cheerfulness’). One of the  Charites (Hes. Theog. 909; Pind. Ol. 14,14; Apollod. 1,13). In Hyg. Poet. Fab. praef. E. is a daughter of Erebos and  Nyx (cf. Gratia in Cic. Nat. D. 3,44). In Orph. H. 3,5 E. is an epithet of Nyx. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography K.-H. Tomberg, E. B. Harrison, s.v. Charis, Charites, LIMC 3.1, 191-203.

Doris

(518 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δωρίς; Dōrís). [German version] I. Personal names Feminine shortened version of the name Eúdōros and similar, likely often understood as ‘the giver’ (cf. dōron, ‘Gift’). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 1] One of the Oceanids, mother of the Nereids One of the  Oceanids, the daughters of Oceanus and of Tethys (Hes. Theog. 350); cf. Polydore and Eudore in Hes. Theog. 354; 360 and the ‘Dorids’ in Goethe's ‘Faust’. Wife of Nereus, mother of the 50  Nereids (Hes. Theog. 241; Apollod. 1,11; Ov. Met. 2,11; 269). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Nereus, one of th…

Eumelus

(707 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(Εὔμηλος; Eúmēlos). [German version] [1] Leader of the pherae. fleet against Troy Son of  Admetus and  Alcestis. He led (only) 11 ships from Pherae against Troy (Hom. Il. 2,711-715) [1]. Although he had the best horses (Hom. Il. 2,763-767), he did not win the chariot race at the funeral games for Patroclus, as Athena broke the yoke of his chariot (Hom. Il. 23,391-397). Achilles nevertheless awarded him a prize (23, 533-538). According to Apollod. epit. 5,5, he is said to have won at the funeral games for Ac…

Bianor

(192 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Son of Tiber and Manto, founder of Mantua Son of the Tiber and Manto, daughter of Teiresias or Hercules. B., also named Ocnus (Aucnus) (Verg. Aen. 10,198), is said to have founded the city of Mantua and named it after his mother. According to others (Serv. Aen.) B. founded Felsina, later to become Bononia (Bologna); Virgil (Ecl. 9,60) mentions B.'s grave. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. E. Brenk, War and the shepherd. The tomb of B. in Vergil's ninth Eclogue, in: AJPh 102, 1981, 427-430. [German version] [2] Writer of epigrams in the ‘Garland’ of Philippus Writer of …

Iapetus

(185 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἰαπετός; Iapetós). The etymology is uncertain, perhaps ‘the one hurled down’ (on ἰάπτειν; iáptein, ‘to hurl’ [1]). The often postulated connection to OT Japheth, the third son of Noah (Gen. 5,32 et passim), cannot be proven [2; 3]. I. is the titan who was hurled by Zeus into Tartarus along with  Kronos (Hom. Il. 8,479). Son of  Gaia and  Uranus (Hes. Theog. 134). He fathered the sons  Atlas [2],  Menoetius,  Prometheus and Epimetheus with the Oceanid Clymene (Hes. Theog. 507-511). Among others, Asia (Apollod. 1…

Eetion

(371 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἠετίων; Ēetíon, linguistically probably not of Greek origin [1]). Name, especially of foreign heroes. [German version] [1] King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe (Hom. Il. 1,366). His daughter  Andromache told her husband Hector how Achilles killed her father E. and her seven brothers during the conquest of Thebe: Achilles set up a monument for the father. The wife of E. was ransomed but later killed by Artemis (Hom. Il. 6,394-428). Among the booty from the conquest of Thebe was th…

Euryale

(47 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυάλη; Euryálē). [German version] [1] One of the Gorgons One of the  Gorgons (Hes. Theog. 276; Pind. Pyth. 12,20; Apollod. 2,40). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Mother of Orion Mother of  Orion (Eratosth. Katasterismoi 32; Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,34; Apollod. 1,25). Bloch, René (Berne)

Dione

(228 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Διώνη; Diṓnē, cf. Ζεύς, Διός; Zeús, Diós). Perhaps Zeus' original wife [1], though she was already replaced by  Hera in Mycenaean times (cf. PY Tn 316). A coin from Epirus [2] shows an enthroned D., with Zeus on the verso; in the Zeus sanctuary at  Dodona, she was worshipped alongside Zeus [3].  Aphrodite was also regarded as the daughter of the two (Hom. Il. 5,370; Eur. Hel. 1098; [4]; Theoc. Id. 15,106; 17,36; cf. Pl. Symp. 180d). In Cic. Nat. D. 3,23, D. is the mother of the third V…

Eurymedon

(520 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Martini, Wolfram (Gießen)
(Εὐρυμέδων; Eurymédōn, ‘far-prevailing’ [2]). The name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] King of the Giants King of the  Giants, by his daughter Periboea grandfather of Nausithous the son of Poseidon, ancestor of the Phaeacian kings. E. brought himself and his people to ruin (Hom. Od. 7,58-60 with schol. and Eust.). According to  Euphorion fr. 99 Powell (schol. Hom. Il. 14,295-296) he raped Hera, whereupon she bore  Prometheus. For this Zeus later hurled E. into the Tartarus. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Vian, s.v. E.1, LIMC 4.1, 105 2 Kamptz 84, …

Eurybates

(110 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυβάτης; Eurybátēs, ‘the long-striding’ [1. 77]). Descriptive name of two heralds. [German version] [1] Herald to Agamemnon Herald to Agamemnon (Hom. Il. 1,320; Ov. Epist. 3,9-10). Together with Talthybius he takes  Briseis from the tent of Achilles and brings her to Agamemnon. He is frequently depicted in this function [1]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 E. Zervoudaki, s.v. Euryalos 1, LIMC 4.1, 95-97. [German version] [2] Quick-witted herald to Odysseus Quick-witted herald to Odysseus, who treasures him despite his ugliness (Hom. Od. 19,244-248; Hom. I…

Enceladus

(103 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐγκέλαδος; Enkélados, ‘The Raging One’, from κελαδέω; keladéō; EM. s.v. E. 310,35 Gaisford; Hsch. s.v. E.). One of the  giants, son of Tartarus and Ge (Hyg. Fab. praef. 4). He fought against Zeus (Batr. 283), Dionysus (Eur. Cycl.5-9) and─according to the most widely disseminated version─Athene, who threw the island of Sicily or Mt. Aetna on him (Callim. Fr. 1,36; Eur. HF 907-909; Apollod. 1,37; Verg. Aen. 3,578). He is commonly represented in the visual arts [1]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Vian, s.v. E., LIMC 3.1, 742-743. R. Rocca, s.v. E., EV 2, 217-218 F. …

Exuviae

(185 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (from exuere, ‘take off, remove’). In addition to its profane meaning (‘discarded items of clothing, captured weapons, stripped animal hide’), exuviae (cf. ThlL s.v. exuviae) is used to signify the attributes of the gods that are paraded on festive occasions (Plin. HN 7,145; Suet. Aug. 94,6; Apul. Met. 9,4; 11,10; 11,29). In the pompa circensis (festive  procession through the  circus) they were taken on special carts ( tensae) to the   pulvinar (Fest. 500: vehiculum quo exuviae deorum ludicris circensibus in circum ad pulvinar vehuntur). In Val. Max. 1,1,16 (Lac…

Basilinda

(101 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (βασιλίνδα; basilínda). Game in which a child is named king by drawing lots, and then the ‘king’ assigns roles to his playmates which they must act out (Poll. 9,110). It is similar to the game of kings of Cyrus as described by Herodotus, except for the fact that the king is elected there (Hdt. 1,114). The game is different from the ball game in which the winner is called the king and the loser is called the donkey (Poll. 9,106); another (different) children's game is mentioned by Horace (Epist. 1,1,59-60).  Ball games;  Children's games Bloch, René (Berne)

Dryope

(212 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δρυόπη; Dryópē). [German version] [1] Nymph, transformed into a tree Name of a nymph. Two widely diverging accounts exist of D.'s metamorphosis. According to Nik. in Antonius Liberalis 32, D. was the daughter of  Dryops and wife of  Andraemon [2]. She took onto her lap Apollo, who had been transformed into a tortoise, and subsequently gave birth to  Amphissus. D. was abducted by the nymphs with whom she played as a girl and to whose world she originally belonged. In her place, a black poplar and a spring…

Echeclus

(108 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔχεκλος; Écheklos). [German version] [1] Son of the Trojan Agenor Son of the Trojan Agenor, killed by Achilles (Hom. Il. 20,474). Paus. 10,27,2 points to a parallel motive in the Iliad parva (18 PEG I) where the son of Achilles, Neoptolemus, kills the father of E. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, Hermes ES 14, 1960, 354 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 555f. [German version] [2] Trojan, killed by Patroclus Trojan, killed by Patroclus (Hom. Il. 16,694). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des…

Electryon

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἠλεκτρύων; Ēlektrýōn). Tirynthian or Mycenaean hero, son of Perseus and Andromeda, husband of Anaxo, the daughter of  Alcaeus, father of  Alcmene. He lost almost all his sons fighting the Teleboans (Taphians). When the cattle stolen from E. were handed over, he was killed by his son-in-law  Amphitryon. This was the occasion for the latter and Alcmene to emigrate to Thebes (Hes. Sc. 3; 11-12; Apollod. 2,52-56; Hyg. Fab. 244,1; 4; Paus. 2,25,8). Bloch, René (Berne)

Cura

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Personification of worry Personification of worry (ThlL, Onom. 2,753). In Horace's first Roman Ode, C. is a black, ghostly companion of man (Hor. Carm. 3,1,40: post equitem sedet atra C.). Aeneas encounters the ‘avenging worries’ ( ultrices Curae) at the gate of Hades (Verg. Aen. 6,274 and Serv. Aen. on this passage). According to Hyginus Fab. 220, C. formed man from a piece of earth. Saturn determines that man belongs to C. in life and to Jupiter after death. The fable is of Greek origin [1]. In all probability, evidence for C. exists on a poculum deorum (CIL I2 442: Coira p…

Chrysothemis

(165 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρυσόθεμις; Chrysóthemis). [German version] [1] Beloved of Apollo Beloved of Apollo. From their union Parthenus was born, but died as a child and was transformed into a constellation by Apollo (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,25). According to Diodorus (5,62,1f.) she was the wife of Staphylus and mother of Molpadia, Parthenus and Rhoeo. The latter bore Appollo's son  Anius. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra Daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, sister of Laodice and Iphianassa (Hom. Il. 9,145.287), in Soph. El. 157 of Electr…

Eurytion

(231 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυτίων; Eurytíōn). Frequently used name of heroes and  centaurs. [German version] [1] Leader of the centaurs Thessalian centaur; in the house of Peirithous, while drunk on wine, he violates Peirithous' bride  Hippodamia, whereupon the Lapiths disfigure him; this leads to the conflict between  Lapithae and centaurs. The suitor  Antinous [1] holds E.'s fate up before Odysseus as a warning (Hom. Od. 21,295-304). Later too, E. as leader of the centaurs is frequently represented as a terrifying example (Thgn. 1,542). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Peloponnesian centaur Pel…

Dolius

(114 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δόλιος; Dólios). [German version] [1] Epithet of Hermes ‘The cunning’, epithet of Hermes (Aristoph. Thesm. 1202; Soph. Phil. 133; Cornutus 16). On the road to Pellene there stood a statue of Hermes D. (Paus. 7,27,1). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Old slave of Penelope Old slave of  Penelope, who looked after her garden on Ithaca for her (Hom. Od. 4,735-741; 24,222). He put his sons at Odysseus' disposal for the battle with the relatives of the slain suitors (Hom. Od. 24,386-411; 492-501). According to Hom. Od. 17,212; 18,321f. …

Erythea

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐρύθεια; Erýtheia). One of the  Hesperids (Hes. fr. 360; Apollod. 2,114). According to schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1399, the mythical island E. (‘Red Country’) on which  Geryoneus lived (Hes. Theog. 290) is named after her. According to Paus. 10,17,5 (after him Steph. Byz. s.v. Ε.), E. was Geryoneus' daughter and the mother of  Norax by Hermes. E. was usually thought to be in the area of Gadera or Tartessus (Stesichorus fr. 184 PMGF 1; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 18b; Ephorus FGrH 70 F 129a; Philistides FGrH 11 F 3; Hdt. 4,8). This view was challenged by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 26). Bloch, René …

Calatores

(133 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] From calare -- ‘to call’. a) Slaves who convey orders (Fest. p. 34; differently [1] who equates calatores with nomenclatores on the basis of Plaut. Merc. 852. The latter are slaves who give their masters the names of those passing while away). b) Assistants of the higher priests, almost exclusively freed persons. They are already in evidence on the Forum stele (CIL I2 1). Their task was to prepare the way for the priest by calling and to stop the priest coming into contact with polluted elements or unfavourable omens prior to sacrifices. The…

Demonassa

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δημώνασσα; Dēmṓnassa). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Argive seer Amphiaraus Daughter of the Argive seer  Amphiaraus and  Eriphyle, wife of  Thersander, a son of Polyneices, mother of Tisamenus (Paus. 3,15,8, 9,5,15). On the Cypselus Chest described by Pausanias she is shown standing with her siblings Eurydice and Alcmaeon before the house of Amphiaraus who is mounting the chariot (Paus. 5,17,7) [1]. On a late Corinthian crater that also depicts the departure of Amphiaraus the inscription calls her …

Deiphontes

(173 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηιφόντης; Dēiphóntēs). Great-great grandson of Heracles (Heracles-Ctessipus-Thrasyanor-Antimachus-D.). He married  Hyrnetho, daughter of the Heraclid  Temenus. The latter had been awarded Argos in the land lottery after the conquest of the Peloponnese. Temenus' sons, who felt neglected compared with D. and Hyrnetho, had their father killed. As he was dying, Temenus handed over rule to D. and Hyrnetho. But the Temenids did not relinquish their claims to power. For this reason D. m…

Evadne

(175 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐάδνη; Euádnē, ‘the pleasing one’). [German version] [1] Daughter of Poseidon and Pitane Daughter of Poseidon and Pitane, the daughter of the river god Eurotas, who was brought up by the Arcadian king  Aepytus [1]. She secretly gave birth to Apollo's son  Iamus, the ancestor of the prophetic clan of the Iamidae in Olympia, and abandoned him in a bed of violets (Pind. Ol. 6,28-73) [1; 2]. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Wife of Capaneus, with whom she died Daughter of Iphis (Apollod. 3,79) or Phylacus (Hyg. Fab. 243,3; 256). She threw herself on the burning funera…

Eudorus

(435 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster)
(Εὔδωρος; Eúdōros). [German version] [1] One of the five leaders of the Myrmidons under Achilles One of the five leaders of the  Myrmidons under Achilles. A son of Hermes and  Polymele, he was brought up by his grandfather Phylas after Polymele later married the Actorid Echecles. His aptitude for fighting, being a fast runner, is strongly emphasized (Hom. Il. 16,179-186) but apart from this, the Iliad is silent on his fate. Eust. Od. 1697,56 reports of his death at the hands of Pyraechmes at the first clash with the Trojans (cf. also Eust. Od. 1053,54). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography R. Jan…

Daphnaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαφναῖος; Daphnaîos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Syracus 406 BC Strategos in Syracuse, was supposed to relieve Acragas in 406 BC when it was besieged by the Carthaginians, but this went wrong, apparently because of his corruption (Diod. Sic. 13,86,4ff.). This failure led to the removal from office of the group of commanders, the appointment of  Dionysius [1] as an authorized strategos and thereby to the latter's tyrannis. Dionysius killed D. in 405 (Diod. Sic. 13,96,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Apollo Epiclesis of Apollo (Anth. Pal. 9,477…

Deion(eus)

(103 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δηιών, Δηιονεύς; Dēiṓn, Dēioneús). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Phocis Son of Aeolus [1] and Enarete the daughter of Deimachus. He was king of Phocis, and married Diomede the daughter of  Xuthus. From this marriage issued Asterodia, Ainetus,  Actor [2],  Phylacus and  Cephalus (Apollod. 1,51; 86; Hyg. Fab. 189,1; Callim. H. 3,209; Str. 10,2,14). The two last names show connections with Attica, as does the name Xuthus. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Graf, Greek Mythology, 1993, 127. [German version] [2] A frequent erroneous spelling of Eioneus A frequent erroneous s…

Spes

(423 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(The Roman personification of 'hope'). [German version] I. Roman Unlike the Greek Elpis, Spes ('Hope') had a cult and temples. In the 1st Punic War, A. Atilius [I 14] Calatinus dedicated a temple to Spes on the Forum Holitorium in Rome (Cic. Leg. 2,28; Tac. Ann. 2,49). The building burned down on several occasions (Liv. 25,7,6; Cass. Dio 50,10,3); there was a rededication under Germanicus in AD 17; the remains of the temple are visible in the church of St. Nicola in Carcere. According to Liv. 2,51,2 and …

Euneus

(158 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὔνηος; Eúnēos). [German version] [1] Great-grandson of Dionysus, warrior on both fronts in the Trojan War Lemnian ruler, son of Hypsipyle ( Lemnian women) and of Jason (Apollod. 1,115; Hyg. Fab. 15), brother of  Thoas [2], grandson of  Thoas [1] and great-grandson of  Dionysus. In the Trojan War he assisted both the Achaeans and the Trojans. While he was sending wine-laden ships to the former (Hom. Il 7,467-469), he bought freedom for Priamus' son Lycaon who was a prisoner of war (Hom. Il 23,746-747). ─ In Athens there was a ‘musicians' guild’ ( génos musikṓn) by the name of Euneidai …

Moloch

(266 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (ְךֶלֹמ, molæk, LXX: Μολοχ/ Moloch, Vulg.: Moloch). M. is most probably the name of a Canaanite deity to whom children were supposedly sacrificed. However, it is difficult to determine how M. fit into the Canaanite pantheon (Malik? Milkom? Adad-Milki?). Referring to the Phoenician-Punic term for a sacrifice, mlk/ molk, Eissfeldt interpreted M. not as a god, but as a technical term for the sacrifice of children (or substitutes) [1]. But this view is contradicted by passages in which M. clearly referred to a god (cf. Lv 20:5). The Hebrew Bible explicitly forbids sacri…

Broteas

(140 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βροτέας; Brotéas). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalos Son of Tantalus and Euryanassa, brother to Pelops and Niobe, father of the younger Tantalus, who was married with Clytaemnestra before Agamemnon (schol. Eur. Or. 5; Paus. 2,22,3). The Magnetes believed that he had created the oldest rock carving of the Mother of the Gods near Magnesia on the Sipylus (Paus. 3,22,4). In another tradition he was a huntsman who scorned  Artemis and who, after asserting that fire could do him no harm, hurled himself into a fire in a fit of insanity and perished (Apollod. Epit. 2,2). Bloch, René (Berne) …

Chromius

(113 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρομίος; Chromíos). [German version] [1] Brother of Nestor Son of Neleus and Chloris; brother of Nestor (Hom. Od. 11,286). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Companion at arms of Nestor Companion at arms of Nestor (Hom. Il. 4,295). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Son of Priam Son of Priam; killed by Diomedes (Hom. Il. 5,160; Apollod. 3,152). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [4] Trojan, killed by Teucer Trojan; killed by Teucer (Hom. Il. 8,275). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [5] Lycian, killed by Odysseus Lycian; killed by Odysseus (Hom. Il. 5,677). Bloch, Ren…

Deiopites

(41 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηιοπίτης; Dēiopítēs). Trojan, son of  Priamus (Apollod. 3,153; Hyg. Fab. 90,6). Wounded by Odysseus (Hom. Il. 11,420); according to Dictys 3,7 killed by Agamemnon. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, vol. 1, 414f.

Enalus

(122 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔναλος; Énalos). Lesbian hero from the Poseidon circle, entangled in the foundation myth of Lesbos. According to Myrsilus of Methymna (FGrH 477 F 14), the Penthilidae ( Penthilus), because of an oracle of Amphitrite, threw the daughter of Smintheus (or Phineus) into the sea; her lover E. jumped in but was saved by a dolphin and carried to Lesbos. Plut. Mor. 20, p. 163 a-d is more detailed: E. was one of the colonists of Lesbos who had to sacrifice a maiden to Amphitrite and the Ne…

Bisaltes

(85 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βισάλτης; Bisáltēs). [German version] [1] Son of Helius and Ge Son of Helius (the Sun) and Ge (the Earth); the Macedonian city and region, Bisaltia, is named after him (Steph. Byz. s.v. Βισαλτία 170f.; Favorinos FHG 3,583f. [fr. 44]). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Father of Theophane Father of  Theophane, who was courted by many suitors (Ov. Met. 6,117: Bisaltis). Her liaison with Poseidon produced the ram with the Golden Fleece that carried Phrixus to Colchis (Hyg. Fab. 188). Bloch, René (Berne)

Briseus, Brises

(48 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βρισεύς; Briseús, Βρίσης; Brísēs). [German version] [1] Father of Briseis Father of  Briseis (Hom. Il. 1,392; 9,132). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of  Dionysus in Smyrna Epiclesis of  Dionysus in Smyrna (CIG 3160f.; 3190). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Nilsson, GGR 2, 344, 361, 379.

Diocles

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…

Charisius

(459 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Χαρίσιος; Charísios). [German version] [I] Attic orator, late 4th cent. BC Attic orator at the end of the 4th cent. BC; contemporary of Demetrius of Phalerum, Demochares and Menander. He was active as a  logographer, and imitated  Lysias (Cic. Brut. 286). Speeches by him were still extant at the time of Quintilian, at that time being ascribed by many to  Menander (Quint. Inst. 10,1,70). Only three passages have survived, in Latin translation in Rutilius Lupus (1,10; 2,6; 2,16). Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2, 351f. [II] [German version] [1] C., Aurelius…

Doto

(66 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δωτώ; Dōtṓ). Feminine short form, presumably understood as ‘the giver’ [1] (cf. δώτωρ, δωτήρ, δώτης etc.). One of the  Nereids (Hom. Il. 18,43; Hes. Theog. 248; Apollod. 1,11; Verg. Aen. 9,102; Hyg. Fab. praef. 8; IG XIV 2519). She occupied a sanctuary in the Syrian coastal town of Gabala (Paus. 2,1,8). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 Kamptz, 126. G. Garbugino, s.v. D., EV 2, 137.

Ephyra

(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἐφύρα; Ephýra). [German version] [1] City in Argos City ‘in a corner of Argos’ (Hom. Il. 6,152); home of Sisyphus; later equated with Corinth. Sources: Str. 8,3,5; Paus. 2,1,1; 3,10. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] Equated with Oinoe in Elis by Homeric commentators Str. 8,3,5 mentions an otherwise unknown town on the Elean coast, by the name of  Oinoe; Homeric commentators equate it with the Homeric E. [1] (cf. also Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; Hsch. s.v. E). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography L. Deroy, Ephyre, ville imaginaire, in: AC 18, 1949, 401-402. [German version] [3] City in E…

Deiopea

(54 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηιόπεια; Dēiópeia). A nymph in the vicinity of Cyrene, distinguished by her extraordinary beauty; she lives in the depths of the Peneius (Verg. G. 4,343). Juno promises her to Aeolus in marriage (Verg. Aen. 1,71-73). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography R. A. B. Mynors, Virgil. Georgics (comm.), 1990, 303 M. Scarsi, s.v. D., EV 2,17.

Brontes

(70 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βρόντης; Bróntēs), cf. ἡ βροντή (hē brontḗ) ‘thunder’. One of the three  Cyclopes born of Uranus and Gaia, who gave Zeus thunder and lightning (Hes. Theog. 140; Apollod. 1,1; Serv. Aen. 8,425; Pherecydes in schol. Eur. Alc. 1). B. made  Metis pregnant, who was devoured by Zeus, whereupon Pallas  Athene sprang from Zeus' head (schol. Il. 8,39). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography O. Touchefeu-Meynier, s.v. Kyklops, LIMC 6.1, 154-159.

Dictys

(316 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δίκτυς; Díktys). [German version] [1] Son of Magnes and a Naiad Son of Magnes and a Naiad, brother or half-brother to  Polydectes (Apollod. 1,88), the king of the island of Seriphos. Other sources stress his descent from Poseidon direct or in the fourth degree (Tzetz. Lycoph. 838; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 10f.). As a fisherman (D. = ‘netsman’) he lodges  Danae and her infant son  Perseus, who are swept onto the shore at Seriphos in a box. The story has been frequently staged [1]. In Aeschylus' satyr-play Diktyulkoi (TrGF 3 F 46-47) satyrs help D. and another fisherman to land the heav…

Eteocles

(326 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐτεοκλῆς; Eteoklês, ‘genuine fame’ cf. [1]). [German version] [1] Committer of fratricide, son of Oedipus and Iocaste Theban hero, son of  Oedipus and his mother Iocasta (Epicaste); in the Oedipodea (fr. 2 PEG I;  Epic cycle) Euryganeia is the mother. The feud with his brother  Polyneices, recounted as early as Homer (Il. 4,376-398), stemmed from the curse uttered by their father after both sons had insulted him (Thebais fr.2-3 PEG I; Attic tragedy: Aesch. Sept.; Soph. OT; Soph. OC; Soph. Ant.; Eur. Phoen.). E. broke the a…

Erginus

(142 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐργῖνος; Ergînos). Mythical king of Orchomenus in Boeotia, son of Clymenus and  Budeia or Buzyge. When Menoeceus' chariot driver, the Theban Perieres, killed E.'s father during the feast of Poseidon, E. made Thebes pay tributes. The young Hercules, however, liberated Thebes from this tribute in a fight in which E. was defeated (Paus. 9,17,1-4; 37,1-4; schol. Il. 16,572; Apollod. 2,67-69; Eur. HF 220-221; Diod. Sic. 4,10,5). The fight of E. against Hercules is depicted on a Hadrian…

Delphus

(132 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δελφός; Delphós). Hero who gave his name to  Delphi. He controlled the territory around Parnassus, when  Apollo, arriving from Delos, entered Delphi (Aesch. Eum. 16 with schol.). Apollo or Poseidon was mentioned as his father, and Melaena, Celaeno or Thyia as his mother (Paus. 10,6,3-5; schol. Eur. Or. 1094; Hyg. Fab. 161). In some accounts D. is said to have been the leader of the Cretans who came to Phocis and called themselves Delphi after him (Phylarchos FGrH 81 F 85). Delphi was also called Pytho after his son Pythes or his daughter Pythis (Paus.…

Deipyle

(52 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηιπύλη; Dēipýlē). Daughter of  Adrastus [1] and Amphithea; sister of  Argea [2], in whose company she is often portrayed [1]. Adrastus gave D. in marriage to  Tydeus, to whom she bore  Diomedes (Apollod. 1,103; 3,59; Hyg. Fab. 69A; 97,4). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Berger-Doer, s.v. Argeia, LIMC 2.1, 587-590.

Echemmon

(89 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχέμμων; Echémmōn). [German version] [1] Son of Priamus A son of Priamus. He was killed at the same time as his brother Chromius [3] of Diomedes (Hom. Il. 5,160; Apollod. 3,153). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 557f. [German version] [2] Nabataean A Nabataean who was killed by Perseus (Ov. Met. 5,163; 176). Ovid at this point adopts the Homeric motif from Hom. Il. 5,159-165 (cf. E. [1]). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Met. B. 4-5 (comm.), 1976, 264.

Daedalion

(81 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαιδαλίων; Daidalíōn). Son of Heosphoros (Lucifer); brother of Ceyx; father of  Chione [2]. In his grief for the death of his only daughter, who scorned the beauty of Diana and was killed by her, he throws himself from the peak of Parnassus. Apollo, however, transforms him into a hawk (Ov. Met. 11,291-345; Hyg. Fab. 200). In Paus. 8,4,6 D. is the father of  Autolycus [1]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, Kommentar zu Ov. Met. B. X-XI, 1980, 313.

Dryops

(116 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δρύοψ; Drýops, ‘man of oak’). Gave his name to the Dryopians [1]; son of the river  Spercheus and the Danaid Polydora, or of Apollo and  Dia [3], daughter of the Arcadian Lycaon. D. himself was also thought to be an Arcadian (Str. 8,6,13; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 8; Nik. in Ant. Lib. 32; Tzetz. Lycoph. 480). One of his daughters bore Pan to Hermes (Hom. h. 19,33-39). D. had a cult (temple with statue) in the Dryopian town of Asine in Messenia (Paus. 4,34,11), whence occasional coins showing D. [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 I. Malkin, Myth and Territory in the Spartan…

Chromis

(125 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρόμις; Chrómis). [German version] [1] Ally of the Trojans Son of Arsinous (Apollod. Epit. 3,35); ally of the Trojans. With Ennomus leader of the Mysians (Hom. Il. 2,858; 17,218; 494; 534; Dictys 2,35). C. is then either ‘forgotten’ in the portrayal of the river battle (Hom. Il. 21) or replaced by Asteropaeus [1]. At a later time he is regarded as propator of the Mysian Abbaetae [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, 1960, 175. 2 P. Weiss, s.v. C., LIMC 3.1, 275 no. 1. K. Jachmann, Der homer. Schiffskatalog und die Ilias, 1958, 144-146. …

Elpenor

(166 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλπήνωρ; Elpḗnōr). Evocative name, whose exact meaning is disputed (‘on whom rest the hopes of men’ or ‘who hopes for manly vigour’) [1]. He was one of Odysseus' companions, who were turned into swine by Circe; reverted to his normal shape, he fell off the roof of her house in a sleepy drunken stupor, broke his neck, and was left without burial. His shadow begged Odysseus to bury him, when the latter visited the Underworld; his wish was granted (Hom. Od. 10,551-560; 11,51-83; 12,1…

Batieia, Bateia

(118 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βατίεια, Βάτεια; Batíeia, Báteia). Hill in front of the Scaean Gate of Troy between Scamander and Simois where the Trojans lined up for battle. The gods called it the ‘grave mound of far-jumping Myrina’ (Hom. Il. 2,811-815). Because of the epithet, B. was thought to be an Amazon (Str. 12,573). Lycophron designates the place itself as Myrina (Lycoph. 243). B. was supposedly the daughter of the first Trojan King Teucer and of the nymph Idaea, and the wife of Dardanus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,62; Apollod. 3,139; Hellanicus FGrH g 4 F24; Diod. Sic. 4,75). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibli…

Empusa

(260 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔμπουσα; Émpousa, etymology unclear [1]). Ghostly female figure ( phásma) who was remarkable for her ability to transform her appearance ( polýmorphos) and belonged to the group of spectral  Demons in Greek popular belief [2; 3] ( Lamia). She adopted various forms and in Aristoph. Ran. 285-295 appeared to Dionysus and his slave Xanthias, on their journey through the underworld [4], as a cow, a mule, a pretty woman and finally as a dog [5]. Her face was lit by fire, one leg was made of ore, the other …

Bia

(153 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βία; Bía). Personification of violence; daughter of Pallas and the Styx, sister of Zelus, Nike and Cratus (Hes. Theog. 385-388). In the titanomachy Styx goes over to Zeus with her children and they then follow him. As Zeus' henchmen, Cratus and B. spur Hephaestus on to chain  Prometheus to a rock (Aesch. PV 1-87, in which B. plays a silent part). An Athenian scyphus shows  Ixion being bound to a wheel by Hephaestus, Cratus and B. [1]. Themistocles tells the people of Andros that h…

Chloe

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Χλόη; Chlóē). ‘Greening’; epiclesis of  Demeter (Ath. 14,618d/e). She had a shrine close to the Acropolis, where a ram was sacrificed to her (Paus. 1,22,3; Aristoph. Lys. 835; FGrH 328 F 6; Eupolis PCG V fr.196). She is also attested in Eleusis (IG II2 949,7), on Myconus (LSCG 96,11) and in the Tetrapolis (LSCG 20 B 49). An exuberant festival, the Chloia, placed by late antique theology at around springtime, was celebrated in her name (Cornutus, Theol. 28). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography A. B. Chandor, The Attic Festivals of Demeter and their Relation to the …

Catillus

(105 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Mythical founder of Tibur (Hor. Carm. 1,18,2; Sil. 4,225; Stat. Silv. 1,3,100). According to Cato (Orig. fr. 56 in Solin. 2,7) he was an Arcadian and fleet commander of Euander. A certain Sextius considered him to be an Argive (Solin. 2,7). He was the son of an Argive seer  Amphiaraus and upon the behest of his grandfather he moved to Italy as   ver sacrum . His three sons Tiburtus (Tibur/Tiburnus), Coras and C. drove the Sicans out of their town and then called it Tibur (Solin. ibid; Verg. Aen. 7,670 with Serv.; Hor. Carm. 2,6,5; Plin. HN 16,237). Bloch, René (Berne)

Damasichthon

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαμασίχθων; Damasíchthōn). [German version] [1] One of the sons of Niobe One of the sons of  Niobe (Apollod. 3,45) who like his brothers is killed by Apollo (Ov. Met. 6,254-260). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, Kommentar zu Ov. met. 6-7,1976, 78. [German version] [2] Son of the Athenian Codrus Son of the Athenian Codrus. Together with his brother Promethus, who later murdered him, he was the leader of the Ionian colony in Colophon (Paus. 7,3,3). Bloch, René (Berne)

Dia

(455 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Δῖα, Δία; Dîa, Día). [German version] [1] Female equivalent of Zeus The female equivalent of  Zeus, as Diwiya on the Linear B inscriptions from Pylos and Knossos, with her own sanctuary, just as  Poseidon also has his female counterpart in the Mycenaean pantheon [1]. In the post-Mycenaean period the three heroines who can be linked with the Mycenaean goddess by name, are all linked with Zeus, but the individual derivation is problematical. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Heroine in the local cults of Phlius and Sicyon The heroine is most likely D. in the local cult…

Caelus, Caelum

(121 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Translation of the Greek  Uranus (‘Heaven’). The genealogy of C. (Cic. Nat. D. 2,63.3,44; Hyg. Fab. praef. 2) corresponds with some variations to that in Hesiod. Varro (Ling. 5,57) named C. and Terra as the oldest of the deities. C. had no cult in Rome; inscriptions venerating him as aeternus (CIL VI 181-84; cf. also Vitr. 1,2,5) refer to foreign cults [1]. Graphically, C. is portrayed as a bearded man holding a garment above his head in the shape of an arch, as for example on the breast plate of the statue of Augustus of Prima Porta [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Egerius

(159 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Son of Arruns Son of Arruns, grandson of Demaratus. E. was only born after the death of his father and grandfather, which is why the entire fortune went to Arruns' brother Lucumo. His nephew supposedly received the name E. because of his poverty ( egere, ‘to suffer want’). When Lucumo later became Roman king with the name L. Tarquinius Priscus, E. was granted rule over the Latin town of Collatia by him and took the epithet Collatinus. His son L. Tarquinius Collatinus was the husband of  Lucretia (Liv. 1,34,2f.; 57,6; Dio…

Bitias

(92 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Companion of Aeneas B. and Pandarus, companions of Aeneas, are sons of Alcanor who were brought up by Iaera. Against Aeneas' command they open a gate of the Trojan encampment; consequently both are killed by Turnus (Verg. Aen. 9,672ff.; 722ff.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Man in Dido's retinue Man in Dido's retinue (Verg. Aen. 1,738). According to Serv. (commenting on this point), who drew on Livy, he was the commander of the Carthaginian fleet. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Ph. Hardie, Virgil Aeneid Book IX, 1994, 213f.

Diomus

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δίομος; Díomos). Son of Colyttus, eponymous hero of the Attic deme  Diomea. D. is understood to be connected to the aetiology of the first ‘ox murder’ ( Bouphonia), although the name of the bull killer (βουτύπος; boutýpos) varies. D., priest of Zeus Polieus, was the first to kill an ox at the Dipolieia after the latter had eaten from the sacrificial grain (Porph. De abstinentia 2,10). The bull killer is also called Thaulon (Androtion FGrH 324 F 16) or Sopater (Porph. ibid. 2,29). D. also plays a central role in th…

Euthyphron

(119 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐθύφρων; Euthýphrōn). Athenian seer, a character in Plato's eponymous dialogue: Socrates, who has been summoned to court, meets E., who wants to see his father prosecuted for manslaughter by criminal negligence, because he has allowed a slave to die who had been guilty of murder. Socrates' reservations about this way of action lead to a debate on the nature of piety. E. is also mentioned in Pl. Crat. 396d; 399e; 428c. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography M. L. McPherran, Socratic Piety in the E., in: H. H. Benson (ed.), Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates, 1992, 220-241 A. …

Damon

(975 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Δάμων; Dámōn) [German version] [1] Prince of the Telchines Prince of the  Telchines. Father-in-law of Minos and ancestor of Miletus. When the Telchines were struck dead by lightning by Jupiter because they poisoned crops, D. and his family were spared in gratitude for hospitality provided. Only his daughter Macelo and her husband were among the victims (Nic. in the schol. Ov. Ib. 475). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Syracuse A Pythagorean from Syracuse, friend of Phintias, for whom he stood surety with his life. According to Aristoxenus (…

Candidus

(240 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
A popular cognomen in the Imperial Age, attested with certainty from the 1st cent. AD (ThlL, Onom. 2,133ff.). [German version] [1] Christian in AD 200 Christian in c. AD 200, author of various lost treatise about the Hexaemeron (Eus. HE 5,27; Jer. vir. ill. 48). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus, 3rd cent. AD A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus; in c. AD 230, he had a public dispute with  Origen, who accused him of retrospectively falsifying the records (Rufin. Apol. Orig. epil. = PG 17,625; Hier. Adv. Ru…

Monotheism

(1,572 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] I. Concept Monotheism - the belief in the existence of a single god, in contrast to polytheism and henotheism (worship of a single god while still recognizing other gods) - is a concept from the early modern era, probably first evident in the Cambridge Platonist H. More [1] (Christian-apologetic dissociation from pagan forms of religion; argument defending the trinitarian concept of God). Monotheism has been viewed both from an evolutionary perspective as a final stage of development and as an original form of religion that later degenerated…

Elate

(57 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλάτη; Elátē, ‘spruce’). Sister of the  Aloads Otus and Ephialtes. She was similar in stature to them. When she mourned the demise of her brothers she was transferred into a spruce tree towering to the sky (Lib. Narrationes 37; Eust. on Hom. Od. 5,239 and on Hom. Il. 5,560; 14,287). Bloch, René (Berne)

Euphorion

(1,434 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Εὐφορίων; Euphoríōn). [German version] [1] Winged son of Achilles and Helena A figure invented by Ptolemy Chennus (Phot. 149a): E., a winged son of Achilles and Helena, is killed on the island of Melos by a bolt of lightning from Zeus whose love he does not reciprocate. The nymphs who bury the corpse are changed into frogs by Zeus. In Goethe's Faust (2nd Part), E. appears as the son of Faust and Helena. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography K.-H. Tomberg, Die Kaine Historia des Ptolemaios Chennos, 1967, 108. [German version] [2] of Athens Tragedian Tragedian, son of Aeschylus. He won priz…

Echetus

(97 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετος; Échetos, ‘Holder’). Cruel king with whom the suitor Antinous threatened the beggar Irus and Odysseus (Hom. Od. 18,85; 116; 21,308; Suda s.v. E. 493 Adler). He blinded his daughter Amphissa (or Metope) and had her crush ore in a chamber; he dismembered her lover Aechmodicus (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1093 with schol.). Schol. Hom. Od. 18,85 (= Marsyas FGrH 135-136 F 19) explains that he was a Sicilian tyrant who tortured strangers, but who was eventually stoned by his own subjects. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography J. Russo et al., Homer's Odyssey, vol. 3 (comm.), 1992, 52f.

Euryalus

(331 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρύαλος; Eurýalos, ‘far-voyaging’ [1. 71, 195]); the name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] Argive hero An Argive hero, son of Mecisteus from Argos. He is mentioned both as one of the  Argonauts (Apollod. 1,113) and one of the Epigoni (sons of the seven heroes who fought in vain against Thebes; Apollod. 3,82; Paus. 2,20,5). E. marches against Troy with Diomedes and Sthenelus (Hom. Il. 2,566; 6,20-28 aristeia; Apollod. 1,103; Paus. 2,30,10). At the funerary games for Patroclus he is defeated in the boxing competition by Epius (Hom. Il…

Elymus

(77 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Trojan, eponymous forefather of the  Elymi. He came to Sicily either with Aegestus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,47; 52f.; Tzetz. schol. Lycoph. 965) or Aeneas (Str.13,1,53), and settled in the region around the  Eryx. Virgil, who refers to him as Helymus, depicts him as the winner in a competition (Verg. Aen. 5,73; 323). According to Serv. Aen. 5,73, he was the founder of the cities of Asca, Entella, and Egesta. Bloch, René (Berne)

Eunomia

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐνομία, Εὐνομίη; Eunomía, Eunomíē). Personification of good order. Along with  Dike and  Eirene she is one of the three  Horae (Hes. Theog. 901-902), the daughters of Zeus and Themis. Only in Alcman (PMG 64) is E. the daughter of Promatheia (‘foresight, consideration’) and sister of  Tyche and  Peitho. In her role as the guardian of peace (cf. Pind. Pyth. 5,66-67: eunomía apólemos, ‘unwarlike E.’), E. is praised particularly in times of crisis (Tyrtaeus IEG fr. 1-4; Solon IEG fr. 4, 32-39); in the 5th cent. (in the Peloponnesian War) E. b…

Eurymachus

(63 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρύμαχος; Eurýmachos; for the name cf. [1]). Son of Polybus; one of the most respected of  Penelope's suitors (Hom. Od. 1,399). In the suitors' board games he is often the victor (Ath. 1,17 a b). He is killed by Odysseus, in spite of offering him atonement (Hom. Od. 22,44-88). Cf. also Aesch. 179 TrGF. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 Kamptz, 72.
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