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Charadra

(331 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(χαράδρα; charádra). Generic Greek term for non-perennial streams or rivers, or deeply eroded valleys and gorges (Italian torrente, Modern Greek rhevma) [1]. Attic inscriptions of the  Poletai, especially mining leases, mention many charadrai [2]. [German version] [1] Major river in northern Attica Major river in northern Attica, springing from the north-eastern foot of the Parnes and flowing into the plain of Marathon; also called the Marathon stream or the Oenoe [3; 4]. Proverbial in referring to troubles brought upon oneself, as a la…

Hestiaea

(49 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἑστιαία; Hestiaía). Attic asty deme of the Aegis phyle, with one bouleutḗs, given the road connexion with Ancyle (Harpocr. s.v. τρικέφαλον) presumably northeast of Athens at Cholargus. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica, 39, 70, 110 no. 55, table 2 Id., Demos and Trittys, 1986, 127.

Cedi

(103 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κηδοί; Kēdoí). Attic deme of the phyle Erechtheis, two   bouleutaí . Its location is uncertain, hardly near Kara (as in [3]), the finding place of the deme decree IG II2 1212, which apparently was released neither by C. nor by Themacus [4. 392]. Epitaphs point to a possible location east of the  Hymettus range, possibly near Koropi: [1. 100 no. 118, 103 no. 137; 2]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Milchhoefer, Antikenbericht aus Attika, in: MDAI(A) 12, 1887, 81-104 2 Traill, Attica, 7; 38; 69; 110 no. 61, table 1 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 125 4 Whi…

Titacidae

(84 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Τιτακίδαι; Titakídai). Kṓmē in the area of the 'constitutional' Attic deme of Aphidna, which moved with the latter from the phyle of Aeantis [1] (Harpocr. s. v. Τ.; EM s. v. Τ.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.: Antiochis) to Ptolemaïs [10] (IG II2 2050 Z. 74; 2067 Z. 63; [1. 50 no. 18]) in 224/3 BC. T. was not an independent deme until the Roman period. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. H. Oliver, Greek Inscriptions, in: Hesperia 11, 1942, 29-103. Traill, Attica, 30, 88, 122 No. 42  Whitehead, 24 n. 83; 329.

Iustinianopolis

(78 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰουστινιανόπολις; Ioustinianópolis). Place on the peninsula of Miletus ( Milesia), first mentioned in an inscription of the time of Justinian from the Sacred Way in  Didyma (unpublished). Possibly identical with Didyma, which, however, in Byzantine sources always appears as Tò Hierón (Τὸ Ἱερόν, from this Turkish Jeronda), or with a deserted city discovered in 1995 on the Gulf of Akbük [1. 304f.]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Lohmann, Survey in der Chora von Milet, in: AA 1997, 285-311.

Lissa

(169 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Island off the Dalmatian coast Island off the Dalmatian coast opposite Iader (Plin. HN 3,152), modern Ugljan. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 206, 208f. [German version] [2] Town in Lycia This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Λίσσα; Líssa). Town attested epigraphically on the south-west coast of Lycia in Asia Minor. Not identical with the place where the inscriptions [3; 6] were found, a Hellenistic tower farmstead in Kızılağaç on Kargın Gölü (different in [1. 520; …

Peleces

(69 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Πήληκες; Pḗlēkes). Attic deme in the mesogaia of the phyle Leontis, with two bouleutaí. Along with Cropidae and Eupyridae P. constituted a cultural trikōmía ("three village union"; Steph. Byz. s.v. Εὐπυρίδαι/ Eurypídai; [2. 185 with n. 46]) and was thus probably situated north of the Aegaleos (near modern Chassia? [1. 47]). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Traill, Attica, 47, 62, 69, 111 no. 104, Tab. 4 2 Whitehead, Index s.v. P.

Phlya

(151 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Φλύα; Phlýa). Large Attic Mesogeia deme belonging to the Cecropis phyle and from 224/3 BC on to the Ptolemaïs phyle, with five? (six?) bouleutaí; located at modern Chalandri northeast of Athens, bordering Athmonon (IG II2 2776,49). In addition to numerous cults (Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Zeus, Nymphs: Paus. 1,34,4; [1]), rural Dionysia are attested for P. (Isaius 8,15f.). After its destruction by the Persians Themistocles renewed the age-old sanctuary to the 'Great Goddess' attended by the Lycomidae (Plut. Themist…

Hermus

(350 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ἑρμός; Hermós). [German version] [1] Att. asty deme of the phyle Acamantis Attic asty deme of the phyle Acamantis, with two bouleutaí. Position: on the ‘Sacred Road’ to Eleusis at the entrance to the pass near modern Daphni, modern Chaidari; there is the tomb of Pythionice, the wife of Harpalus (Plut. Phoc. 22,2; Paus. 1,37,5; [1]). Near Daphni there are funerary inscriptions of Hermeioi: IG II2 6072. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις. Ἀττικά, 1974, 468 with n. 6. W. Kolbe, s.v. H., RE VIII 1, 903 Traill, Attica, 47, 69, 110 no. 5…

Maronea

(613 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Μαρώνεια; Marṓneia). [German version] [1] North Aegaean city This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture North Aegaean city on the southwest slopes of the Ismarus, today's Maronia. Founded by Chios (1st half of the 7th cent. BC; Scyl. 678) in the tribal lands of the Cicones. Mythography associates M. with the Homeric Márōn (Hom. Od. 9,197); first mentioned by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 159. The most important occupations were viticulture and sheep breeding. As of 529 …

Coronea

(908 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Boeotian city (Κορώνεια; Korṓneia). Boeotian city 2 km east of modern Agios Georgios, c. 4 km north of modern C. (formerly Kutumala) on a low promontory (244 m) on the south-eastern edge of a very fertile plain stretching northwards as far as the southern shore of the former Lake  Copais, then south of C., narrowing to a valley, reaching deep into the northern side of the  Helicon [1] and opening up access to an important pass crossing to Thisbe in Boeotia. In the north-eastern part of the…

Phalerum

(319 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Φάληρον; Phálēron). Shallow bay to the east of Piraeus before the latter's expansion as the chief port of Athens (Hdt. 5,63; 5,85; 6,116; 8,66f.; 8,91ff.; 9,32; Paus. 1,1,2), modern Kallithea/Moschato/Palaia Phaliro. Also a large Attic asty-deme of the Aeantis phyle with 9 (13) bouleutaí. The location of the ancient centre of the deme is disputed [1; 2. 25ff.; 3; 5], the question of the ancient coastline [5; 8. 340] can be clarified only with geoscientific methods. In the 5th cent. BC the 'Phaleric Wall' connected Athens …

Philaidae

(447 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Φιλαΐδαι; Philaïdai). [German version] [1] Attican deme P. was an Attic mesogeia deme of the Aigeis phyle with three bouleutaí on the east coast of Attica. The shrine of Artemis at Brauron was on its territory. Peisistratus [4] came from P. (Pl. Hipparch. 228b; Plut. Solon 10,2). It is unsubstantiated that Cleisthenes [2] did not therefore name the deme Brauron [4. 11 with fn. 30, 24 with fn. 83]. The location of the deme centre of P. to the west of the early Christian basilica of Brauron [1. 41; 2. 127] is hypothetical [3. 56]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Traill, Attica, 41, 6…

Dodekapolis

(227 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Δωδεκάπολις; Dōdekápolis, ‘Twelve Town’). Name of several, not always historically verifiable, Greek leagues of towns 1. Hdt. 1,145 mentions  Aegae [2],  Aegira,  Aegium,  Bura,  Dyme,  Helice [1],  Olenus,  Patrae,  Pharaea and  Tritaea [2] as members of the Achaean dodekapolis, which the Achaeans are said to have taken from the Iones when they drove them out. 2. On the Aeolian dodekapolis cf. Aeoles [2]. 3. According to Hdt. 1,142, in the 6th cent. BC the Ionian dodekapolis consisted of  Chios,  Ephesus,  Erythrae,  Clazomenae,  Colophon,  Lebedus,  M…

Laurium

(1,257 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Λαύρειον, Λαύριον; Laúreion, Laúrion). [German version] A. General L. refers to the Attic mining district in south-east Attica as a whole as well as to a specific mining complex within that district. As L. can be etymologically linked with λαύρα/ laúra (Hom. Od. 22,128; 22,137) from the Mycenaean ra-u-ra-ta, it seems that from very early on the region owed its name to the mine. The most important mining district of Greek antiquity, L. with its mines, ore-washeries, furnaces, settlements, graves and sanctuaries is a cultural monument of global importance. Se…

Kolias akra

(120 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κωλιὰς ἄκρα; Kōlías ákra). Cape at the western coast of Attica [1] in the deme Halimus, modern Hagios Cosmas, with an Early Helladic settlement [3; 4]. This is where wreckage from the naval battle of Salamis (480 BC) was washed ashore (Hdt. 8,96). A sanctuary of Demeter Thesmophoros is attested by Plutarch (Solon 8,4), Pausanias (1,31,1), and Hesychius (s.v. Κ.) [2. 100]. The cult of Aphrodite Colias is localized by Str. 9,1,21 incorrectly in Anaphlystus. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. Day, Cape Colias, Phalerum and the Phaleric Wall, in: AJA 36, 1932, 1-11 2 G. …

Bate

(98 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βατή; Batḗ). Attic asty(?)-demos (  asty ) of the phyle Aegeis; one (two) bouleutes/ai. Location unknown (near Ambelokipi?); the decree of the mesogeioi IG II2 1245, found near the Acharnaean Gate, i.e. at the street corner of Sophokleous and Aiolou, does not aid the localization of B. In IG II2 2776 Z. 53, an σχαστηρία is pawned in B. [1. 81] (further documentary evidence for σχαστηρίαι [1. 8123]). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 S. G. Miller, A Roman Monument in the Athenian Agora, in: Hesperia, 41, 1972, 50-95. Traill, Attica, 5, 7, 15f., 39, 69, 109 (n…

Porus

(484 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Attic Paralia(?) deme of the Acamantis phyle (Πόρος/ Póros). Attic paralia(?) deme, Acamantis phyle, from 307/6 BC Demetrias, three bouleutaí. Location unknown, but certainly not in Laureum or Metropisi (otherwise [1; 2]), since no mining is recorded for P. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Siewert, Die Trittyen Attikas und die Heeresreform des Kleisthenes, 1982, 95, 173 f. 2 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 133. Traill, Attica, 9, 48, 68, 112 no. 117 pl. 5, 12. [German version] [2] Indian king, defeated by Alexander [4] the great in 326 (Πῶρος; Pôros)…

Anacaea

(75 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀνακαία; Anakaía). Attic deme of the phyle  Hippothontis (IG II2 2377), with its geographical centre around  Eleusis and in Thriasia. Three bouleutai. Trittys and location uncertain, possibly near Mygdaleza [2. 137] or in the Kundura valley with a deme centre at Hagios Giorgios [1. 61 ff.]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Lohmann, Das Kastro von H. Giorgios (‘Ereneia’), in: MarbWPr 1988, 34-66 2 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986 3 Id., Attica, 52, 68, 109 (no. 11), table 8.

Xypete

(91 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ξυπέτη; Xypétē). Attic asty deme of the Cecropis phyle, from 307/6 until 201 BC of the Demetrias [2] phyle, seven bouleutaí; with Peiraeus, Phalerum and Thymaetadae, X. formed the cult federation of the tetrákōmoi with a common Herakleion at Peiraeus. Its location between this sanctuary and Phalerum at modern Kallithea-Moschato is certain. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2178-2182  Traill, Attica, 11, 50, 67, 112 No. 142, Table 7, 12  J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 5, 13, 14, 24, 115, 134  Whitehead, Index s. v. X.

Cothocidae

(75 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοθωκίδαι; Kothōkídai). Attic paralia deme of the Oeneis phyle, from 307/6 to 200 BC of the Demetrias, with two bouleutaí. Probably c. 6 km north-east of Eleusis near Hagios Ioannis in Goritsa north of Aspropyrgos, the provenance of tomb inscription IG II2 6481 [1; 2. 49].  Aeschines [2] was from C. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 E. Honigmann, s.v. K., RE 11, 1516 2 Traill, Attica 9, 19, 49, 62, 68, 111 no. 76, table 6, 12.

Corydallus

(104 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κορυδαλλός, Korydallós). Attic asty deme of the Hippothontis phyle, from 200 BC of Attalis, the mountains of the same name (Str. 9,14; 23; Diod. Sic. 4,59,5; Ath. from 9,390ab; Ael. NA 3,25 [2]); one (?) bouleutḗs. The deme centre suspected [2] near Palaiokastro/Palaiochora. The so-called ‘heroa’ [1; 2. 10ff.] are farmsteads, not the sanctuary of the Kore Soteira attested by Ammonius ( Perì diapheroýsōn léxeōn 84, s.v. Κόρυδος valckenaer). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 E. Honigmann, s.v. Korydallos, RE 10, 1447 2 A. Milchhoefer, Erläuternder Text, …

Pisilis

(62 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Πίσιλις/ Písilis). Fortified settlement in southeastern Caria between Calynda and Caunus on Baba Dağ near Sarıgerme. The ruins on the bay below belong to the Byzantine town of Prepia. Only mention: Str. 14,2,2. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography H. Lohmann, Zw. Kaunos und Telmessos, in: Orbis Terrarum 5, 1999, 43-83.

Cytherus

(179 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κύθηρος; Kýthēros). Attic paralia(?) deme of the Pandionis phyle, from 307/6 to 201 BC of the Antigonis; supplied two bouleutaí. According to Str. 9,1,20, one of the locations belonging to the Attic dodecapolis. Its localisation near Poussi Kalojerou by Traill [3] is methodologically unsustainable; Dem. Or. 42 suggests a site near a city, in a wooded area. In IG II2 2496 three houses belonging to the deme of C. in Piraeus are leased by otherwise unattested Meritai [4. 383 no. 72]. A cult association between Trikomoi, Erchia and C. can scarcely be deduced from IG II2 1213…

Oropus

(319 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Ionic | Oracles | Attica | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὀρωπός/ Orōpós). Coastal town in northwest Attica opposite Eretria, present-day Skala Oropou (for classical remains [1; 5; 6. 304 fig. 378, 379]) and suburb of Oropia, which was a disputed territory between Athens and Boeotia. The principal shrine of Amphiaraus, and site of his oracle, is situated 6 km to the southeast in a narrow wooded valley. Excavations s…

Anaea

(98 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀναία; Anaía). Coastal town in Ionia to the north of the Mycale mountains at and near the Byzantine fortress (12th/13th century AD; [3. 65-74]), now called Kadıkale, where [2] found pottery from the 10th-3rd cent. BC. When the Athenians conquered Samos in 365 BC, A., as part of the peraia of Samos [3], was used by the Samians as a place of refuge [1. 44 f.]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Ch. Habicht, Athen, 1995 2 Z. Mercangöz, Kuşadası, Kadıkalesi Kazısı, in: 24. Kazı, Araştırma ve Arkeometri Sempozyumu, 2003 3 W. Müller- Wiener, Mittelalterliche Befest…

Antiochis

(559 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
(Ἀντιοχίς; Antiochís). [German version] [1] Tenth Attic phyle Tenth Attic phyle following the reform of the phyles by  Cleisthenes (IG II2 1700 ff.); its eponymous hero was  Antiochus, a son of Heracles. In the 4th cent. BC, A. encompassed one asty deme, six mesogeia demes, and also six paralia ones; with 28 bouleutai, they were stronger represented than either of the other two trittyes. In 308/7 BC, three demes changed over into the Macedonian phyles of Antigonis or Demetrias ( Atene,  Colonae,  Thorae), but returned to A. after the abolishment…

Drymus

(271 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Δρυμός; Drymós). [German version] [1] City at the foot of the Callidromon (Δρυμαία; Drymaía). City situated at the foot of the Callidromon, in the northern foothills of the central Cephissus valley, c. 1.5 km south-east of Drymea (in antiquity Nauboleís, Paus. 10,33,12; cf. Hom. Il. 2,518); set ablaze by the Persians (480 BC, Hdt. 8,33), destroyed by Philip II (346 BC Paus. 10,3,2) and conquered by Philip V (207 BC, Liv. 28,7,13), still mentioned in late antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 643; Not. Episc. 737-762). Well-preserved wal…

Cynosura

(346 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Κυνόσουρα; Kynósoura, ‘dog's tail’). Name of several headlands. [German version] [1] Promontory on the east coast of the island of Salamis Promontory on the east coast of the island of Salamis, 4 km long and narrow (Hdt. 8,76,1; 77,1). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 1, 870. [German version] [2] Narrow headland in the north-east of the bay of Marathon Narrow headland in the north-east of the bay of Marathon, where the Persian fleet landed in 490 BC (Paus. 1,32,3; 7), modern Cape Stomi. On C. there are walls of unknown d…

Parnes

(274 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (ἡ/ὁ Πάρνης; hē/ho Párnēs). A mountain range, rich in forests and springs, on the border between Attica and Boeotia, stretching west of the Aegaleos, with the name Pastra, as far as Cithaeron; the modern Parnitha (elevation 1413 m). A number of demes were located at the foot of the P., including Acharnae, Aphidna, Decelea, Paeonidae, Peleces and Phyle. Several fortresses secured the passes to Boeotia in the area of the P.: Decelea with the fort at Katsimidi Pass, Phyle, and Panactum,…

Daedalidae

(96 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Δαιδαλίδαι; Daidalídai). Attic asty deme of the Cecropis phyle, from 307/6 to 201/0 BC of the Demetrias phyle, from AD 126/7 of the Hadrianis. One   bouleutes . With the Daedalion, mentioned only in the poletai inscription [1] and probably the sanctuary of the eponymous hero of D., it bordered to the south with the Alopece deme. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. Young, Greek Inscriptions, in: Hesperia 10, 1941, 14ff., esp. 20f. no. 1, l. 10f. Traill, Attica 10f., 50, 70, 109 no. 30, table 7, 12, 15 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 14, 135.

Themacus

(75 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Θημακός; Thēmakós). Attic mesogeia (?) deme, Erechtheis phyle, from 224/3 BC Ptolemaïs, one bouleutḗs; location unknown. IG II2 1212 (finding site: in vico Kara, modern Ilioupoli) is probably not a decree from T., cf. [1]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Whitehead, 392 No. 135. Traill, Attica 15, 38, 62, 69, 75, 112 No. 134, Tab. 1, 13  J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 126.

Cerata

(52 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κέρατα; Kérata). Peaks, named after their peculiar shape (‘horns’) (modern Trikeraton; Trikeri, 470 m), in the mountains on the border between Attica and Megaris east of Eleusis (Diod. Sic. 11,65,1; Plut. Themistocles 13,1; Str. 9,1,11). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. K., RE 11, 265f. Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 760; 973.

Samicum

(222 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σαμικόν; Samikón). The biggest fort of Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the western foothills of Mount Kaiapha, between the modern Agoulinitsa lagoon in the north and lake Kaiapha in the south. This is the location of a cave of the Anigriades [4], spring nymphs of the former river Anigrus ( cf. [2]) with sulphur springs (Str. 8,3,19; Paus. 5,5,11; Schol. Hom. Il. 11,721). Sources: Paus. 5,6,1-3; Pol. 4,77,9; 80,12; Str. 8,3,13; 19 f.; 27. The form Sámos is only attested in Str. 8,3,20 and Schol. Hom. Il. 13,13. S. was probably built by the Eleans in …

Thorae

(96 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Θοραί; Thoraí). Attic paralia deme, phyle Antiochis, 307/6 - 200 BC Demetrias, four bouleutaí. According to Str. 9,1,21 on the Attic southwest coast between Aegilia (modern Finikia?) and Lamptrae, probably therefore between Lagonisi and Agios Dimitrios ([2. 243 note 10; 3], differently [1]). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 C. W. J. Eliot, Coastal Demes of Attika, 1962, 65-68 2 H. Lauter, Ein ländliches Heiligtum hellenistischer Zeit in Trapuria (Attika), in: AA 1980, 242-255 3 J. S. Traill, Demos…

Diacria

(100 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Διακρία; Diakría), also Hyperacria and Epacria. Term for the mountainous northeast of Attica [2], probably also the Attic east coast as far as Brauron, the ancestral home of the  Peisistratids (Pl. Hipparch. 228b; Plut. Solon 10,3; [4. 224]). Supported by a group of Hyperakrioi (Hdt. 1,59) or Diakrioi (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 13,4; [1; 2; 3. 184-188]), Peisistratus [4] established his tyrannis in Athens in 561 BC. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 K. H. Kinzl, Regionalism in Classical Athens?, in: Ancient History Bull. 3, 1989, 5-9 2 R. J. Hopper, 'Plain', 'S…

Halipedon

(65 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἁλίπεδον, Ἁλαί; Halípedon, Halaí). Swampy plain (Hsch. s.v. Ἁ.) North of the main harbour of the Piraeus [1; 2], in 403 BC scene of a defeat of Thrasybulus by the Spartan king Pausanias (Xen. Hell. 2,4,30-34). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. Judeich, Top. von Athen, 21931, 425, 426 n. 1 2 W. Kolbe, s.v. H., RE 7, 2268 3 Travlos, Athen 3, 164 fig. 213 (Neophaliron).

Cydantidae

(82 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυδαντίδαι; Kydantídai). Attic mesogeia(?)-deme of the phyle Aegeis, from 224/3 BC of Ptolemaïs; placed one (two) bouleutaí. Location unknown; Vurva [1. 173; 4. 24ff.], Kato Charvati [2], Mendeli [3 have been suggested. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Siewert, Die Trittyen Attikas und die Heeresreform des Kleisthenes, 1982 2 Traill, Attica 15f., 41, 62, 69, 111 no. 79, pl. 2, 13 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 128 with n. 17 4 E. Vanderpool, The Location of the Attic Deme Erchia, in: BCH 89, 1965, 21-26.

Myrrhinus

(176 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Μυρρινοῦς/ Murrhinoûs). Attic paralia deme of the phyle of Pandionis, six (eight) bouleutaí, near modern Merenda. Significant archaeological finds [1; 2; 4]; an incomplete ancient fortification on the Merenda [3]. Two decrees on demes from Myrrhinus (IG II2 1182, 1183) are significant for research on the internal organization of dḗmoi. Apart from a theatre (IG II2 1182, Z. 2-4), they attest to cults of Zeus (IG II2 1183, Z. 32-36), Artemis Colaenis (IG II2 1182 ,Z. 19-21; Paus. 1,31,4; schol. Aristoph. Av. 873) and rural Dionysia (IG II2 1183, l. 36-37). Aristion [2] Loh…

Cantharus

(417 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάνθαρος; Kántharos. Cp. Kantharos) [German version] [1] Main harbour of Piraeus The main harbour of Piraeus (Plut. Phocion 28,3; Aristoph. Pax 145 with schol.; Hesch. s.v. Κάνθαρος; Anecd. Bekk. 1,271,8), otherwise referred to simply as mégas or mégistos limḗn ('large' or 'largest harbour'; Plut. Themistocles 32,4; Paus. 1,1,2; IG II2 1035,45f.) [1. 61f.; 2. 9], modern Kentrikos limen. Named after an otherwise unknown heros [1] C. (Philochorus, FGrH 328 F 203) or after the pottery shape Kantharos [1] (cf. [3]). Moles narrowed the entry into the C. which, as limḕn kleistós ('close…

Eleusis

(1,171 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Attic Paralia deme of the phyle Hippothontis This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Linear B | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Peloponnesian War | Attica | Attica | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ἐλευσίς; Eleusís, mod. Elefsina). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) [German version] A. Location Attic Paralia deme of the phyle Hippothontis with urban character, 11 (?) bouleutai, c. 21 km west of  Athens [1] on a low coastal hill range west of Thriasia, whose north-western summit with Hellenistic fortress and…

Sybridae

(79 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Συβρίδαι; Sybrídai). Attic Paralia(?) deme of the Erechtheis phyle, before 307/6 BC with one bouleutḗs in alternation with Pambotadae, near which S. may have been. There is speculation on a connexion with the River Syverus (Siberus) in Plin. HN 37,114. The sculptor Cephisodotus [5] was from S. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. S., RE Suppl. 10, 925-927  Traill, Attica, 6, 14, 59, 62, 69, 112 No. 131, Table. 1  J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 126.

Crioa

(98 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κριώα). Attic asty (?) deme of the Antiochis phyle. With one bouleutaí, after 307/6 BC two bouleutaí. Location uncertain, but the genealogical links between the eponymous hero Crius (schol. Aristoph. Av. 645) and Pallas suggest proximity to Pallene [1; 2. 3732]. The funerary inscription IG II2 6108 of the wife of a Κριωεύς is from Kypseli. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 E. Honigmann, s.v. K., RE 11, 1866 2 P. J. Bicknell, Akamantid Eitea, in: Historia 27, 1978, 369-374. Traill, Attica 23, 54 with n. 27, 59, 69, 111 no. 77, tab. 10 J. S. Traill, Demos and Tritt…

Aegilia

(155 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Αἰγιλιά; Aigiliá). Attic   paralia (coastal) deme of the phyle Antiochis, later Ptolemais. Six   bouleutai [5. 23, 53, Table 10], located on the south-western coast of Attica (according to Str. 9,1,21 between Thorae and Anaphlystus), though not north-east of the Olympus [1. 69 ff.] near Hagios Panteleimon [5. 53; 3. 50 ff.], but to the west, probably near Phoinikia [2. 243 annotation 10; 4. 829]. Famous for its figs (Ath. 14,652E; Theoc. 1,147). A., together with a large part of the southern paralia, was probably depopulated quite early. ( Atene) [3]. Lohmann, …

Araphen

(107 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀραφήν; Araphḗn). Attic   paralia deme of the  Aigeis phyle (IG II2 1747; two bouleutai), on the east coast west of Raphina, which has retained the name. Ancient remains (cf. [1. 39]) built over by modern development. A fortified proto-urban centre in Askitario (early Helladic II) [2; 3]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Milchhoefer, explanatory text, in: E. Curtius, J. A. Kaupert (ed.), Karten von Attika 3-6, 1889 2 D. Theocharis, Ανασκαφη εν Αραφηι, in: Praktika 1951, 77-92; 1952, 129-151; 1953, 105-118; 1954,104-113; 1955, 109-117 3 Id., Ασκητα…

Cares, Caria

(3,236 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Κᾶρες, Καρία; Kâres, Karía). [German version] I. Geography Tribe and region in south-western Asia Minor, its borders defined in the north by the Maeander and the mountain ranges of Mycale and Mesogis, and in the east by the Salbacus range; the Carian south coast stretches from the Triopic promontory to the bay of Telmessus (Str. 14,2,1; Liv. 37,16). Along its western coast -- characterized by gulfs and long stretched-out peninsulas -- lay the following towns which initially still belonged to Ionia:  Mi…

Semachidae

(86 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σημαχίδαι; Sēmachídai). Attic asty(?) deme of the Antiochis phyle, with one bouleutḗs . According to Philochorus in Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ., situated in Epacria, the mountainous north of Attica, (at modern Vredou [2]?). A second S., attested at the end of the 2nd/beginning of the 3rd cent. AD, was not a regular Attic deme [1. 13, 94 f., 121 no. 37]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Traill, Attica, 13, 54, 69, 94 f., 112 No. 126, 121, No. 37, Table 10 2 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 139, 149.

Apollonieis

(51 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀπολλωνιείς; Apollōnieís). Attic deme of the  Attalis phyle (IG II2 1794 ff.), created in 200 BC in honour of Apollonis, wife of  Attalos I [4]. Five bouleutai. Site unknown. 14 demotai attested by name. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica, 30, 109 no.18, table 14 Whitehead, 20 note 66.

Chollidae

(82 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] Listed amongst the asty demes of the Leontis phyle epigraphically [2. 99f.], but not in IG II2 2362 (200 BC); with four (?) bouleutai. Location debatable, probably neighbouring Acharnae, see Aristoph. Ach. 406. Archedemus, who had decorated the grotto of the Nymphs near Vari ( Anagyrus), was naturalized in C. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Traill, 18ff., 109 (no. 29), table 4 2 Id., Diakris, the inland trittys of Leontis, in: Hesperia 47, 1978, 89-109 3 Whitehead, 332 with fn. 35, 425.

Pandionis

(180 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Πανδιονίς; Pandionís). [German version] [1] See Procne see Procne Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) [German version] [2] Third of the ten phyles of Attica The third of the ten phyles of Attica from the time of the phyle reform of Cleisthenes [2] in 508/7 BC (IG II2 1138-1140; 1144; 1148; 1152; 1157; 1160; 1167; Attica, with map); eponymous hero Pandion [1] (Πανδίων/ Pandí ōn, Paus. 1,5,3). In the 4th cent. BC, P. comprised eleven dḗmoi, of which (at least) one was in the asty trittys of Cydathenaeon, four in the mesogeia trittys of Paeanea and five in the paralia trittys of Myrrhinus. Three dḗmoi (Cydath…

Eroeadae

(181 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἐροιάδαι; Eroiádai). [German version] [1] Attic asty(?)-deme of the phyle Hippothontis Attic asty(?)-deme (IG II2, 1927) of the phyle Hippothontis, one bouleutes (after 307/6 BC: two). Only this E. (not E. [2]) is mentioned by Harpocr., Hsch. and Steph. Byz. s.v. E. Presumably located near Chaidari (there is the finding place of IG II2, 1867, 6090). Ὀρε(ι)άδαι; Ore(i)ádai (SEG 13,115; SEG 17, 98; IG II2, 2776 l. 52 [1. 82]) is possibly a variant of E. based on vowel metathesis [2. 171f.]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 S. G. Miller, A Roman Monument in the Athenian Agora…

Colonae

(356 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Κολωναί; Kolōnaí). [German version] [1] Attic mesogeia deme belonging to the Leontis phyle Attic mesogeia deme belonging to the Leontis phyle, provided two bouleutaí, on Mount Pentelicon [1. 37217] near Hecale [2. 64f.] or near Michaleza [3. 131]. The Demotikon is Κολωνεύς and also Κολωνῆθεν.  Colonus Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. J. Bicknell, Akamantid Eitea, in: Historia 27, 1978, 369-374 2 W. E. Thompson, Notes on Attic Demes, in: Hesperia 39, 1970, 64-67 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 61f., 131. Traill, Attica 6, 47, 62, 69, 110 no. 70, 125, table 4. …

Anaphlystus

(275 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀνάφλυστος; Anáphlystos). Attic   paralia deme of the phyle  Antiochis (10 bouleutai) in the coastal region of Anavysso in south-western Attica between  Aegilia in the west,  Atene in the south-east, and  Amphitrope in the east; the astike hodos, the arterial highway from Athens to  Sounion, and respectively the Rhevma Maresas/Ari formed the border to  Phrearrhii in the north-west. Traces of habitation from the neolithic period onwards; the peninsula of Hagios Nikolaos (Astypalaea: Str. 9,1,21) housed an important m…

Pentelicon

(283 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (τὸ Πεντελικὸν ὄρος; tò Pentelikòn óros). Mountain in the northeast of Athens (1108 m). The name P. (modern Penteli) is derived from the post-Cleisthenic deme of Pentele [1] at the southwest foot and in Antiquity attested only in Paus. 1,32,1f. (cf. Vitr. 2,8,49: mons Pentelensis), otherwise (pre-Greek) Brilettus (Brilessus, Βριληττός; brilēttos). P. was famous for its marble (Thuc. 2,23,1; Str. 9,1,23; Theophr. De signis 3,6,43; S. Emp. Adv. math. 1,257), which was increasingly quarried from the middle of the 6th cent. BC and i…

Perithoedae

(69 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Περιθοῖδαι; Perithoîdai). Attic asty deme of the phyle Oineïs with three bouleutaí. On the basis of the site of the funeral inscription IG II2 7219 and mythological speculation P. is mostly located to the west of Athens in the Cephisus valley along the Sacred Road (present day Aigaleo)(Athenai II.7.). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica, 49, 68, 111 Nr. 107, Tab. 6  Whitehead, 84, 210, 371.

Myrrhinutta

(76 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Μυρρινοῦττα/ Murrhinoûtta). Small Attic (paralia?) deme of the phyle of Aigeis, one bouleutḗs; tentatively located at Nea Makri [1] or Vourva [2. 24ff.]. Strab. 9.1.22 should be read as M., and not Myrrhinús [1]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography …

Leuconoe

(234 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Phosphorus (Λευκονόη; Leukonóē). Daughter of Phosphoros. With Apollo the father, she is the mother of Philammon (Hyg. Fab. 161) whose mother is otherwise said to be Chione [2] or Philonis (Hyg. Fab. 200; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 120; Conon FGrH 26 F 1,7).…

Potamus

(264 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ποταμός/ Potamós). Name borne by three Attic demes of the phyle Leontis: (1) and (2) were asty demes in the upper Ilissus valley, divided into Upper P. (Π. καθύπερθεν/ P. kathýperthen) at the Kaisariani monastery with two bouleutaí and Lower P. (Π. ὑπένερθεν/ P. hypénerthen) in modern Panepistemioupolis with one or two bouleutaí, from 307/6 to 201/200 BC in  Demetrias [2]. Boundary-rock inscriptions on  Alepovouni [1; 2] pres…

Dema

(105 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Modern Greek Δέμα). Incomplete (?) towerless, polygonal wall, 4.3 km in length with numerous sally gates and two watchtowers that, at Ano Liosia, sealed the northern access between Parnes and Aigaleos from Thriasia into the Pedion. Constructed either in 404 BC after the banishment of the Thirty [2] or in 378/375 BC in the Boeotian War [1]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. H. Munn, The Defense of Attica, 1993 2 A. Skias, Τὸ λεγόμενον Δέμα καὶ ἄλλα ἐρείπια [ Tò legómenon Déma kaì álla ereípia], in: ArchE 1919, 35-36. J. P. Adam, L'architecture militaire grec…

Mycale

(192 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Blümel, Wolfgang (Cologne)
[German version] (Μυκάλη; Mykálē). Mountain range on the west coast of Asia Minor (up to 1237 m high), ending opposite Samos in Cape Trogilium, present-day Dilek Dağı; there is a debate about whether M. is actually the Hittite Arinnanda. Hom. Il. 2,869 states that M.was inhabited by the Cares tribe (cf. [1]). It is famous for the victory of the Greeks over the Persians in 479 BC (Hdt. 9,90ff.). Melia and the Archaic Panionion were situated on the M. (Hdt. 1,148); the later town of Panionion (4th ce…

Pergase

(91 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Περγασή/ Pergasḗ; Demoticon Περγασῆθεν/ Pergasêthen). Attic Mesogeia deme of the Erechtheis phyle, divided into upper and lower P. (Π. καθύπερθεν/ P. kathýperthen, Π. ὑπένερθεν/ P. hypénerthen) each with two bouleutaí, one part of which went over to the Antigonis phyle in 307/6 BC. According to Aristoph. Equ. 321, P. was on the road from Athens to Aphidna (near modern Chelidonou?). The burial inscription IG II2 7205 is from Varibopi near Tatoï. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica, 6, 38, 59, 69, 111 Nr. 105f., 126, Tab. 1, 11  Whitehead, Index s.v. P.

Hybadae

(48 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὑβάδαι; Hybádai). Attic mesogeia(?) deme of the phyle Leontis, with two (one)   bouleutaí . Location unknown. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. H., RE Suppl. 10, 327 Traill, Attica, 6, 18, 46, 62, 69, 110 no. 57, table 4 Id., Demos and Trittys, 1986, 131.

Assesus

(257 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀσσησός; Assēsós). Proto-Greek settlement with Carian name within the territory of the polis of  Miletus (Steph. Byz. s.v. A.), about 6.5 km south-east of the metropolis, home to the important extra-mural sanctuary of  Athena Assesia, which had been burned down by the Lydian king Alyattes in the 6th year of his reign (shortly before 600 BC), but later rebuilt by him at the behest of the Delphian oracle (Hdt. 1,19-22). Town and sanctuary were discovered in 1992 east of the Mengereb…

Ptolemais

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαίς; Ptolemaís). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4]; presumably married to a descendant of the pharaoh Nectanebus [2]; from 298 BC betrothed, and from 287 married to Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. PP VI 14565. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Das Haus des Nektanebis und das Haus des Ptolemaios, in: AncSoc 25, 1994, 111-117  J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 30 ff. 74 f. [German version] [2] P. from Cyrene Ancient scholar of m…

Cephale

(129 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κεφαλή; Kephalḗ). Attic paralia deme of the phyle Acamantis, nine (12)   bouleutaí ,…

Prasia, Prasiae

(211 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Πρασία/ Prasía, Πρασίαι/ Prasíai). Attic paralia deme, phyle Pandionis, three bouleutaí. P. and Stiria lay on the Bay of Porto Raphti (modern Limen Mesogeias), where the place name has survived as Pras(i)as (Str. 9,1,22; Thuc. 8,95,1; Liv. 31,45,10; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.; [4. 67 ff.]). Settlement remains can be found in the boundaries of Natso [1; 2]. Paus. 1,31,1 records a T…

Oeneis

(102 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Οἰνηίς/ Oinēís). After Cleisthenes' [2] phyle reform (508/7 BC) the sixth of the ten Attic phylai, with eponymous hero Οἰνεύς/ Oineús (Paus. 1,5,2). In the 4th cent. it had thirteen dḗmoi, eight in the asty tritty…

Cicynna

(58 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κίκυννα; Kíkynna). Attic mesogeia deme of the phyle  Acamantis, two (three) bouleutai. Only one deme of C. is verifiable [1. 83; 3. 20]. Its location is uncertain (Chalidou? [1. 48; 2]). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Traill, Attica, 19, 48, 59, 68, 83, 110 no. 67, table 5 2 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 132 3 Whitehead…

Aegeis

(135 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Αἰγηίς; Aigēís). Following the reforms by  Cleisthenes A. was the second of the ten Attic phyles (IG II/III2 1740 ff.), named after the eponymous hero  Aegeus. In the 4th cent. BC, Aegeis comprised the following demes: eight   asty- , five   paralia- and eight   mesogeia . In 308/7 BC, four of those changed over to the Macedonian phyles of  Antigonis or  Demetrias; following their dissolu…

Hippothontis

(172 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἱπποθοντίς; Hippothontís). Since Cleistenes' reform of the phyles, the 8th of 10 phyles of Attica; eponymous hero Hippothoon. At the time of the 10 phyles in the 4th cent. BC, the H. comprised 17 (6? asty-, 7? paralia, 4? mesogeia-) demes [1. 11f., 51f., 102] primarily around Eleusis and in north-west Attica; several are not located [1. map]. In 307/6 BC Coele and Oenoe (modern Myupolis) changed to the Demetrias, Auridae or Corydallus to the Antigonis, in 224/3 BC Oion Dekeleikon and Oenoe (from the Demetrias) to the …

Cropidae

(135 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρωπίδαι; Krōpídai). Attic mesogea deme of the Leontis phyle, a bouleutḗs, also attested as Κρωπιάς or Κρῶπες (Steph. Byz. s.v. Κρωπιά), Κρωπίδης demoticon. Cropia was probably the name of the region [2. 2019]. Κλωπίδαι, which is also attested on inscriptions (Aristoph. Equ. 79) [2], possibly belonged to Aphidna [3. 90f., 116 no. 19; 4. 55, 62]. In 431 BC  Archidamus [1] travelled to Acharnae through C., which is located by [3. 47; 4. 131] to the west of Ano Liosia (Thuc. 2,19). With Eupyr…

Limnae

(329 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Λίμναι; Límnai). [German version] [1] Oldest sanctuary to Dionysus in the municipal area of Athens Oldest sanctuary to Dionysus ἐν Λίμναις ( en Límnais) in the municipal area of Athens south of the Acropolis (Thuc. 2,15,4), now localized in the area of the Makrygianni/Chatzchristou streets [2. 332 fig. 219, 379, 435]. The identification with a triangular temenos on the south-western slope of the Areopagus [1; 3] is obsolete [2. 274f. fig. 351]. The sanctuary was opened only on the second day of the Anthesteria, the 12th day of the month of Anthesterion. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliograph…

Probalinthus

(143 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Προβάλινθος/ Probálinthos, with the demoticon Προβαλίσιος/ Probalísios). Attic paralia deme of the phyle Pandionis [2], from 200 BC of the phyle Attalis, with five bouleutaí; name pre-Greek; on the eastern coast of Attica at modern Nea Makri, where there is also a significant Neolithic settlement [1; 2]. P., Marathon, Oenoe [5] and Tricory(n)thus formed the cult union of the Tetrapolis of Marathon (Str. 8,7,1; IG II2 2933). At the time of Pliny in the 1st cent. AD, P. had been depopulated (Plin. HN 4,24). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Pantelidou-Gopha, Η νεολιθική Μάκρη, 1991 2 D. R. Theocharis, Nea Makri, in: MDAI(A) 71, 1956, 1-29. Traill, Attica 8, 42 with notes 14, 63, 67, 112 no. 122, pl. 3, 14  J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 33, …

Laciadae

(194 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)

Hymettus

(649 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὑμηττός; Hymēttós, name pre-Greek [17]). Mountain in Attica, modern Imittos, earlier Trelovuni, Turkish Deli Dağ (height 1027 m). H., which is mostly deforested today, consists of Triassic limestone, micaceous slate, marble and other metamorphites [19]. It isolates the pedíon of Athens in the south-east from the Attic mesógaia. From the defile between Pentelicon and H. near Stavro in the north it stretches over 22 km to the Saronic Gulf by Cape Zoster in the south [14]. The gorge of Pirnari separates the northern ‘great H.’ (μέγας Ὑ./ mégas H.) from the southern ‘…

Schoenus

(232 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Σχοινοῦς/ Schoinoûs, literally '(bul)rushes'). [German version] [1] River in Boeotia River in the area of Thebes in Boeotia (Σχοινεύς/ Schoineús in Steph. Byz. s. v. Σχοινοῦς/ Schoinoûs; Stat. Theb. 7,268; Nonnus, Dion. 13,63; Nic. Ther. 889) which flowed through the region or town of Schoenus (about 9 km from Thebae; modern Muriki) (Str.…

Mesogeia

(111 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (μεσόγεια, mesógeia), the inland area of Attica. Since Cleisthenes' reform of the tribes [4. 157ff.], each of the ten Attic phýlai consisted of one trittýs (‘third’) each of dḗmoi from a sty, m esógeia and p aralia (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 21,4) [1; 2. 251ff.; 4. 159]. In classical times the 10 mesógeia trittýes included approximately 47 dḗmoi [3. 125ff.]. Attica (with map); Demos [2] Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. H. Hansen, Asty, M. and Paralia, in: CeM 41, 1990, 51-54 2 P. J. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia, 1981 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and …

Oa

(110 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὄα/ Óa, Ὀά/ ; demotikon Ὀα(ι)εύς/ Oa(i)eús, Ὄαθεν/Ó athen or Οἴαθεν/ Oíathen [1]). Attic mesogeia deme of the phyle of Pandionis, and from 1AD 27/8 of the Hadrianis, with four bouleutaí. Finds of funerary inscriptions point to the neighbourhood of Spata: IG II2 7820 (FO Papangelaki), IG II2 7816, 7817, 7825 (FO Velanideza). For métoikoi in O. cf. [2. 84]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 S. Dow, The Attic Demes Oa and Oe, in: AJPh 84, 1963, 166-181 2 Whitehead, Index s.v. O. Traill, Attica, 8, 17f., 42 with notes 14, 43, 62, 68, 111 no. 91 pl. 3, 15  J.S. Traill, Demos…

Leipsydrium

(110 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Λειψύδριον; Leipsýdrion). Town on the Parnes in the Attic deme of Paeonidae [2], fortified by the Alcmaeonidae shortly before [3] or after the murder of Hipparchus in 514 BC in the battles with the Peisistratidae. Identification uncertain. The fortress near modern Karagufolesa supposed to be L. dates to the 4th/3rd cents. BC [1]. Sources: Hdt. 5,62,2; Aristoph. Lys. 665 with schol.; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 19,3. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. R. McCredie, Fortified Military Camps in Attica (Hesperia Suppl. 11), 1966, 58ff. fig. 11 pl. 12d 2 P. J. Rhodes, A Commen…

Oenoe

(872 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Οἰνόη/ Oinóē). [German version] [1] Arcadian nymph, mother of Pan Arcadian nymph, mother of Pan (schol. Eur. Rhes. 36), nurse of Zeus (Paus. 8,47,3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Nicodamas Wife of Nicodamas, mother of Mopsus, transformed into a crane as punishment for arrogance (Antoninus Liberalis 16, see also Gerana). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Eponymous lady of the Attic deme of O. [5] Eponymous lady of the Attic deme of O. [5], sister of Epochus (Paus. 1,33,8). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Attic paralia deme of the phyle of Hippothontis At…

Epieicidae

(63 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιεικίδαι; Epieikídai). Attic asty or mesogeia deme of the phyle Cecropis. One  bouleutes. In the years 303/2 and 281/0 BC, E. was without council representative. The location is unknown. Trittys-affiliation uncertain [1. 135, 13533]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986. Traill, Attica 11, 20, 51, 62, 70, 110 no. 39, table 7 Whitehead, 266, 372, 379, 428.

Amphitrope

(123 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀμφιτροπή; Amphitropḗ). Attic   paralia deme of the phyle  Antiochis (IG II2 1750). Two bouleutai. From [3] onwards localized near Metropisi, nowadays in the Legrena valley with the deme's centre at Sinterina-Pussipelia [1. 88 ff.]. Its borders with  Atene in the west on Mount Megalo Baphi, and with  Sounion in the east on Mount Spitharopussi are marked by rock-hewn   horos inscriptions [1. 54; 2 (new find in 1994)]. A. with its evidence of eight to nine mines was one of the smaller exploitation areas ( Mining) of  Laurion. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Lo…

Pyrrha

(494 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Πύρρα/ Pýrrha). [German version] [1] Daughter of Epimetheus In Greek mythology daughter of Epimetheus (brother of Prometheus) and Pandora and wife of  Deucalion. She and her husband were the only people to survive the flood sent over the earth by Zeus to punish the people of the Bronze Age; on the advice of Prometheus they built a boat on which they sailed around for nine days and nine nights. Deucalion and P. created a new race of people (Pind. Ol. 9,43-56; Ov. Met. 1,318-415), by - on the instruction…

Macaria

(197 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Μακαρία; Makaría). [German version] [1] Daughter of Heracles and Deianira Daughter of Heracles and Deianira; sacrifices herself voluntarily in the war of the Athenians and the Heraclidae against Eurystheus to secure victory ( Human sacrifices): first referred to in this way in Eur. Heracl., but without mentioning her name; possibly already in Aeschylus or in Athenian local myth [1. XVI, XXXI-XXXIII, 111f.] Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 J. Wilkins (ed.), Euripides, Heraclidae, 1993 (introduction and commentary). [German version] [2] Spring in Tricorythus Spring in Tricor…

Phyle

(1,309 words)

Author(s): Smarczyk, Bernhard (Cologne) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Unit within a polis (φυλή/ phyl , plural phylaí). Smarczyk, Bernhard (Cologne) [German version] I. Definition The Greeks described as phylaí groups or categories of extremely various sizes of people (or animals), and therefore also the peoples and tribes into which they divided themselves and the 'ethnic groups' ( éthnē) of barbarians. Clearly predominant, however, is the technical use of the term for the largest subunit of a pólis state. As in the case of the terms for other subdivisions of the pólis, with the term phyle the idiom of the kinship was transferre…

Acherdus

(76 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀχερδοῦς; Acherdoús, from ἄχερδος; ácherdos, thorn bush,  Achradus). Attic   paralia(?)-deme of the phyle  Hippothontis, 1 bouleutes. Localization uncertain [1. 23 (near Goritsa); 2. 217 (near Eleusis or Decelea); 3. 137], obviously within the region of Thriasia. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Milchhoefer, Erläuternder Text, in: E. Curtius, J. A. Kaupert (ed.), Karten von Attika 7-8, 1895, 23 2 Id., s. v. A., RE 1 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986. Traill, Attica, 52, 109 no. 2, table 8 Whitehead, 23, 336, 372.

Auridae

(61 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Αὐρίδαι; Aurídai). Attican paralia(?)-deme belonging to the phyle of Hippothontis, and later possibly that of Antigonis; one bouleutes [1. 106]. The location is unknown, but was probably in Thriasion Pedion. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. S. Traill, Diakris, the inland trittys of Leontis, in: Hesperia 47, 1978, 89-109 2 Id., Attica, 12, 27, 52, 70, 109 (no. 22), table 8, 11.

Decelea

(259 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Δεκέλεια; Dekéleia). Attic Mesogeia deme of the Hippothonti phyles; four  bouleutai. Part of the Attic Dodecapolis (Str. 9,1,20). In the former royal palace gardens of Tatoï (Thuc. 7,19,2) 120 stadiums north of Athens and south of the pass which, to the south-east of the Katsimidi, leads to Oropus and Tanagra (Thuc. 7,28,1; Hdt. 9,15). In 413 BC, the Spartans fortified D. (Thuc. 7,19,2; [1. 15 fig. 7; 3. 56f.; 4. 141f.]; hence the name of the ‘Decelean War’); they occupied D. until …

Tetrapolis

(151 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Τετράπολις/ Tetrápolis, 'four-city'). Cult association of the Attic dêmoi of Marathon (capital), Oenoe[5], Probalinthus and Tricory(n)thus (Str. 8,7,1) on the eastern coast of Attica, founded by Xuthus (Str. 8,7,1); surviving prehistoric settlements at modern Nea Makri (Probalinthus), Plasi (cf. Marathon) and Kato Souli (cf. Tricorynthus), middle Helladic and early Mycenaean necropolis of a local dynasty in Vrana [1]. As (pre-Greek) Hyttenia T. was part of the Attic Dōdekápolis ('twelve-city', Str. 9,1,20) and sent festal legations from the Deli…

Salaminii

(204 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σαλαμίνιοι; Salamínioi). Athenian génos from Salamis [5], which was divided into the 'S. of Seven Phyles' and the 'S. in Sunium'. In the 4th cent. BC, it primarily acted as a cult alliance in charge of some of the oldest cults in the polis (Athena Skiras, Aglaurus, Pandrosus, Ge Kourotrophos among others). Both branches had sanctuaries of Heracles, one in Sunium, the other 'on the Porthmus', that is, the strait of Salamis ([4]; pace [1; 2; 3]) where, along with Phalerum and Athens, the cultic activities of the S. were concentrated. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. …

Besa

(173 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βῆσ(σ)α; Bês(s)a). Attic   paralia-deme of the phyle Antiochis, later Hadrianis. Two bouleutai. Significant mining district in  Laurion, for which 24 mining leases are attested. Probably located near today's Hagios Konstantinos (formerly Kamareza), as Xen. Vect. 4,43 recommends the construction of a fortification on the highest point of B. (= Vigla Rimbari?) halfway between Anaphlystus and Thoricus. In the south, therefore, B. adjoined Amphitrope; in the north, Thoricus; in the east and south-east, Sunium, to which it was linked by the astikè hodós. Road conne…

Coprus

(92 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κόπρος; Kópros). Attic paralia-deme of the phyle Hippothontis, with two bouleutaí. Probably identical with the synonymous (river?) island (νῆσος τῆς Ἀττικῆς, Schol. Aristoph. Equ. 899; Hsch. s.v. Κ.), but not identical with Gaiduronisi (Patroklu Charax) [1]. [2. 52; 3. 178; 4] assume that C. was located east of Eleusis. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 E. Honigmann, s.v. Kopros, RE XI 2, 1365f. 2 Traill, Attica 21 with n. 26bis, 52, 69, 111 no. 74, table 8 3 Travlos, Attika 4 E. Vanderpool, New Evidence for the Location of the Attic Deme Kopros, …

Butadae

(61 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βουτάδαι; Boutádai). Attic   asty deme of the phyle Oenieis, later of the Ptolemais; one bouleutes; of uncertain location, but the connection of the  Eteoboutadai with the Scirophoria and the town quarter of Sciron suggests a position of B. at the Holy Way near Laciadae and the Cephisus. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica 9,48,62,69,109 (no. 27), table 6,13.

Paeania

(198 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Παιανία/ Paianía). Great Attic mesogeia deme of the phyle Pandionis in Liopesi (today again P.), divided into Upper P. (Π. καθύπερθεν/ P. kathýperthen) with one bouleutḗs and Lower P. (Π. ὑπένερθεν/ P. Hypénerthen) with eleven bouleutaí (Harpocr. s.v. Παιανιεῖς). In 307/6 BC, Upper P. changed over to Antigonis. The deme decree IG I3 250 (450/430 BC; FO: Liopesi) [2. 385 No. 83] of Lower P., which mentions a quorum of 100 dēmótai [2. 95], attests to the harvest festival of Pr(o)ērosía [2. 196f.] and hieropoioí ('cult officials') [2. 142, 183]. For the cult of …

Achradus

(53 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀχραδοῦς; Achradoús). According to Steph. Byz. s. v. A., Attic deme. Ἀχραδούσιος/ Achradoúsios (Aristoph. Eccl. 362) is explained as a travesty of  Acherdus [1. 336], but A. is also verified in IG II2 2776 Z. 195, possibly as a dependent   kome of  Ionidae [2. 53]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Whitehead 2 H. Lohmann, Atene, 1993.

Tricorythus

(178 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Τρικόρυ(ν)θος; Trikóry(n)thos). Attic paralia deme, Aeantis phyle, from AD 126/7 Hadrianis, three (six) bouleutaí, on the marshy northern edge of the Plain of Marathon near modern Kato Souli; demoticon Τρικορύσιος/ Trikorýsios. With Marathon, Oenoe [5] and Probalinthus, T. formed the Tetrapolis cult association (Str. 8,7,1), whose cultic calendar (IG II2 1358 Z. 55) is evidence of a Hera cult in T. According to Sic. 4,57,4; 58,4, the Heraclidae settled in T., and the head of Eurystheu…

Otryne

(96 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὀτρύνη/ Otrýnē). Attic asty deme of the phyle of Aegeis, with one bouleutḗs. Location uncertain - the connection with fish in Ath. 7,309e is topographically irrelevant [1]. For a case of illegitimate acquisition of citizenship in O., cf. Dem. Or. 44,37 [2. 297]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 D. Schaps, Antiphanes Frg. 206 and the Location of the Deme O., in: CPh 77, 1982, 327f. 2 Whitehead, Index s.v. O. W.E. Thompson, Kleisthenes and Aigeis, in: Mnemosyne 22, 1969, 137-152  Traill, Attica, 16f., 40, 69, 111 nr. 97, table 2  J.S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1…

Aeantis

(190 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] [1] 9th of the 10 Attic phylae (Αἰαντίς; Aiantís). The 9th of the 10 Attic phylae, dating from the phyle reforms of  Cleisthenes (Hdt. 5,66). Named after the hero  Ajax [1], son of Telamon, king of  Salamis. In the 4th cent. BC it included four paralia demes as well as one   asty- and one mesogeia deme ( Phalerum and  Aphidna), which, on account of their size, each represented one trittýs. In 307/6 BC, the A. gave none of its demes to the new Macedonian phyles, but later gave one each to the  Ptolemais,  Attalis and  Hadrianis. In the case of the mesogeiatrittýs of A., there is e…

Thoricus

(345 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Laurium | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Attica | Attica | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Θορικός/ Thorikós). Paralia deme with the character of a small town on the southeastern coast of Attica, Acamantis phyle, five (six) bouleutaí. Settlement activity from the late Chalcolithic (end of the 4th millennium BC). In the early Mycenaean period a princely seat with a significant Mycenaean necropolis [1], which was absorbed by Athens in the Late Helladic IIIA ( synoikismós of Theseus; T…

Angele

(86 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγγελή; Angelḗ). Attic   paralia deme of the phyle Pandionis with two (three), later four bouleutai; its location north-east of the modern Markopulo is verified by the modern place name of Angelisi, by the finding place of IG II/III 5230, and by a   horos from the grove of Angelus, the eponymous hero of A. [1. 9, no. 7]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. Kirchner, S. Dow, Inschr. vom att. Lande, in: MDAI(A) 62, 1937, 1-12 2 Traill, Attica, 17 f., 42, 59, 62, 68, 109 no. 13, table 3.
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