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Mindarus

(165 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μίνδαρος; Míndaros). A Spartan, naúarchos (fleet commander) in 411/410 BC. In September 411, he set out from Miletus for the Thracian Chersonesus, in order to strike at the most important Athenian supply route, but was defeated soon afterwards at Cynossema by a smaller Athenian fleet under Thrasybulus [3] (Thuc. 8,99-107), as well as in a second battle at Abydus [1] (Oct./Nov. 411), after Alcibiades [3] unexpectedly led reinforcements to the Athenian forces (Xen. Hell. 1,1,2-7; Diod.…

Archidamus

(680 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀρχίδαμος; Archídamos). [German version] [1] II. Spartan king (ca. 475-427 BC) II., Spartan king, Eurypontid, grandson and successor of Leotychidas II, who went into exile in Tegea after a failed campaign in Thessaly (476/75 BC?) and died there in 469 (Paus. 3,7,10). It remains uncertain if A. already became king in 476/75 or only in 469. After the great earthquake of 464 he forcefully defended Sparta against an attack by the  Helots (Diod. Sic. 11,63,4-641; Plut. Cimon 16) and apparently proved himself i…

Chilon

(452 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Χίλων; Chílōn). [German version] [1] Spartan politician, 6th cent. BC From Sparta; son of Damagetus; owing to his leading role in the politics of Sparta (ephor c. 556 BC), in the middle of the 6th cent. he became first ephor (Sosicrates FHG IV 502 [1]); also ascribed to him was the strengthening of the ephorate in relation to the kings (Diog. Laert. 1,68). Owing to his elegiac poetry and his wisdom he was counted among the ‘Seven Sages’ of archaic Greece (Pl. Prt. 343a; Diog. Laert. 1,68-73). Rylands papyrus 18 (= FGrH …

Pedaritus

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πεδάριτος; Pedáritos). A Spartan, harmost in 412/1 BC (Harmostai[1]) in Chios, which had seceded from Athens and which he defended against Athenian attacks. Having brutally eliminated Athenian supporters in the process, he had an action brought against him by the Chians in Sparta (Thuc. 8,28,3; 32-33; 38-40; cf. Isocr. Or. 6,53; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 8). He fell in an attack on Athenian siege troops (Thuc. 8,55,3). His successor will presumably have been his father Leon [3]. Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylippus

(285 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γύλιππος; Gýlippos). Spartiate, son of Cleandridas. His education (  agōgḗ ) was perhaps (at times?) made possible by an affluent Spartan, as Aelianus (Var. 12,43) calls him mothax (‘Bastard’) [1. 434]. When Syracuse asked Sparta for help against the Athenians, he was sent to Sicily (Thuc. 6,93; 104), reached Himera in the summer of 414 BC with a small force, reinforced his army there considerably, broke through to Syracuse, organized the resistance and prevented the encircling of the city (Thuc. 7,1-7). A…

Xenias

(214 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ξενίας; Xenías). [German version] [1] Arcadian from Parrhasia, mercenary leader of Cyrus [3] the Younger, c. 400 BC Arcadian from Parrhasia; as a mercenary leader in 405/4 BC he accompanied Cyrus [3] the Younger to the court of the Persian king and later took a large number of mercenaries to him in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,1,2; 2,1-3), but, together with Pasion [1] from Megara, left Cyrus' army in Syria without taking his family, which Cyrus sent after him (Xen. An. 1,4,6-8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] From Elis, pro-Spartan oligarch, c. 400 BC Rich Elean (Elis [2]), próx…

Phylarchos

(247 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(φύλαρχος/ phýlarchos, 'chief' of a phylḗ [1]). [German version] [1] Greek office In many Greek poleis the phýlarchoi were leaders of phylaí with high advisory or magisterial functions: in Epidamnus phyle leaders also formed the advisory board of the leading official ( árchōn) and were replaced in the 5th century BC in this function by a council with a broader basis (Aristot. Pol. 1301b 22f.); in Cyzicus phýlarchoi acted as a college and together with the highest civil and military officials ( stratēgoí) there carried out high magisterial functions [1. no. 59 with comm.]; the…

Peisander

(929 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Πείσανδρος/ Peísandros). [German version] [1] Son of Maimalus Son of Maimalus, general under Achilles [1], best spear-fighter of the Myrmidones after Patroclus [1] (Hom. Il. 16,193ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Antimachus Son of Antimachus [1], brother of Hippolochus, killed by Agamemnon because his father had advised killing  Menelaus [1] in Troy when he had been sent into the city on embassy (Hom. Il. 11,122ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Menelaus in single combat Trojan, killed by Menelaus [1] in single…

Callibius

(55 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλλίβιος; Kallíbios). Spartan, was sent as harmost to Athens in 404/3 BC at the request of the Thirty and after the intervention of Lysander. He was courted by the rulers there and attempted to support their regime (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13f.; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 37,2; 38,2; Diod. Sic. 14,4,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Areus

(225 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀρεύς; Areús). [German version] [1] Spartan king 309 - approx. 265 BC Spartan king 309 -- approx. 265 BC, Agiad, son of  Acrotatus [1], attempted in 281 to exploit the defeat of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas by  Ptolemaeus Ceraunus to liberate Hellas from Macedonian rule in alliance with the Peloponnesian communities, but was defeated by the Aetolians, who were allied with Antigonus (Just. Epit. 24,1,5 f.). Returning from battles in Crete in 272, he saved Sparta in alliance with Antigonus from the attack of  Pyrr…

Hyparchia

(208 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ὑπαρχία; hyparchía). Hellenistic term for ‘sub-district’ of a satrapy, predominantly in the  Seleucid kingdom. In the hyparchia of Eriza (Asia Minor), as attested by OGIS 1,238, the ‘governor’ ( hýparchos, ὕπαρχος) was directly subordinate to the satrap of Caria (OGIS 1,224); in this way there was no intermediate authority here between the two functionaries [1. 176]. The reference may, however, also originate from the Attalid era, though in this case conclusions could be drawn about the Seleucid administration, in which a hýparchos (OGIS 1,225) as administra…

Nicolochus

(61 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Νικόλοχος; Nikólochos). Spartan; while epistoleús (‘deputy’) of the naúarchos (‘naval commander’) Antalcidas (388/7 BC), he was surrounded by Iphicrates at Abydus [1], where Antalcidas relieved him (Xen. Hell. 5,1,6-7; 5,1,25-27; Polyaen. 2,24). As naúarchos in 375 BC, he was defeated by the Athenian Timotheus at Alyzea (Xen. Hell. 5,4,65-66; Diod. 15,36,5; Polyaen. 3,10,4; 3,10,12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Isadas

(59 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσάδας; Isádas). Spartan, son of Phoebidas, proved himself in 362 BC at the defence of Sparta in battle against the forces of  Epaminondas (Plut. Agesilaus 34; Ael. VH. 6,3). In the writings of Polyaenos (2,9), who clearly confused the incursions of the Thebans of 370/69 and 362, erroneously given the name Isidas. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Pollis

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πόλλις/ Póllis). Spartan naúarchos ('naval commander') 396/5 BC, he fought in the Aegean Sea against Conon [1] (Hell. Oxy. 12,2 Chambers); in 393/2 BC he was epistoleús of the naúarchos Podanemus in the Corinthian War (Xen. Hell. 4,8,11). As emissary of Sparta in Syracusae, P. was supposed to secure the participation of Dionysius [I 6] I in the war against Athens and was accused of selling the philosopher Plato [1] into slavery in Aegina on the return trip (Plut. Dion 5; Diog. Laert. 3,19). As naúarchos he was defeated in 376 at Naxos by Chabrias (Xen. Hell. 5,4…

Harmostai

(273 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(ἁρμοσταί; harmostaí, Ionian ἁρμοστῆρες; harmostêres: Xen. Hell. 4,8,39). [German version] [1] Spartan military commanders Spartan military commanders responsible for the supervision of certain areas. The 20 harmostai of the Lacedaemonians, mentioned in the scholia to Pindar (Ol. 6,154), cannot be identified with certainty as supervisory officials over the poleis of the perioikoi and should rather be regarded as ‘governors’ residing outside the Spartan polis area [1. 11f.; 2. 62f.]. The harmostḗs (IG V 1,937), documented in the early 4th cent. for Cythera, proba…

Nabis

(677 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Νάβις; Nábis). Son of Damaratus; controversial representative of the last phase of the Spartan reform movement. After the death of Machanidas (207 BC), N. - apparently a member of a branch of the Eurypontidae - first became regent of Sparta. He consolidated his power by removing the young king Pelops (Diod. Sic. 27,1) and then took the title of king himself (Syll.3 584). Polybius (13,6,1-7,11) and later authors depict N. as a cruel tyrant (Diod. Sic. 27,1; Liv. 33,44,8; 34,32,3; Plut. Titus 13; Paus. 4,29,10). At first, his rule was suppor…

Panthoedas

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πανθοίδας; Panthoídas). Spartan commander who was sent to Byzantium in 403/2 BC with instructions to get rid of the Spartan ruler Clearchus [2] who had usurped power (Diod. Sic.14,12,4-7). He is probably the same person as P. the harmost (governor) who was killed in 377 BC at Tanagra in the battle against the Thebans under Pelopidas (Plut. Pelopidas 15,6). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Spartiatae

(338 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σπαρτιᾶται; Spartiâtai). Full citizens of Sparta, who attained this status at 20 years of age, and who from the 5th cent. BC saw themselves as homoioi [II] (peers), distinct from the perioikoi , and from the hypomeiones, who enjoyed only limited rights as citizens. The conditions for assuming this status included pure Spartan blood, completion of the agoge and participation in the syssitiai (Banquet [II. B]), to which they had to contribute. Their economic basis were the klaroi ( kleros ), which were worked by helots. The notion that all o…

Ephoroi

(670 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἔφοροι; éphoroi). ‘Custodians’; annual officials in Sparta and a number of Peloponnesian and Dorian poleis and colonies (e.g. Thera, Cyrene, Heraclea on the Siris). The most significant institution of this kind was that of the five Spartan ephoroi, who arrived at their decisions by majority and whose chairman (Plut. Lysander 30) gave his name to his year of office. According to ancient tradition, the Spartan ephorate was held to be an institution of Lycurgus (Hdt. 1,65), and it was later ascribed to king Theopompus …

Hetairia

(601 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(ἑταιρία/ hetairía, also ἑταιρεία/ hetaireía). [German version] [1] In Crete a sub-category of citizenry In Crete a sub-category of citizenry, with communal meals ( andreia or syssitia: Aristot. Pol. 1272a 12ff.; Ath. 4,143a-b = Dosiadas FGrH 458 F 2) and a common cult of Zeus Hetaireîos (Hsch. s.v. ἑταιρεῖος/ hetaireîos), but neither an association of family members nor part of a phyle, as was the hetairia in Thera or Cyrene (ML 5, l. 16). Acceptance into the hetairia took place after those fit for military service had left the   agélai and it was a prerequisit…

Xenelasia

(294 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ξενηλασία; xenēlasía). 'Expulsion of aliens' (Xenoi), traditionally incorrectly represented as a measure often repeated by the Spartans to protect their city from outside influences (Xen. Lac. 14,4), traced to Lycurgus [4] in the tradition in Plutarch (Lycurgus 27,7; Agis 9; Mor. 238d) and explained by scholars e.g. by an alleged internal change in Sparta in the 6th cent. BC. The first xenelasia is supposed to have been the expulsion of Maeandrius [1] of Samos (Hdt. 3,148); however, that was not a general prohibition of residence for fore…

Gymnasiarchy

(238 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (γυμνασιαρχία; Gymnasiarchía). Supervision of a  gymnasium by a gymnasiarchus, whose functions varied in scope and importance depending on the place and time. In Athens the gymnasiarchy in the 5th and 4th cents. BC was a one-year   leitoūrgía (λειτουργία; And. 1,132; Dem. Or. 20,21), the task being to train a certain number of runners for torch competitions at the Great Panathenaea, Hephaistia, Promethia and festivals of Pan and to supply them with all their requisites. At the end of the 4th cent. the gymnasiar…

Eurybiades

(130 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐρυβιάδης; Eurybiádēs). Spartan commander of the fleet of the Greek confederation of 481 BC at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis in 480. After the Persians had overcome Leonidas' position at Thermopylae, E. took timely measures to lead the Greek fleet through the narrow sound of Euripus into Attic waters (Hdt. 8,4-21). At Salamis, against the vigourous protests of most leaders of the Greek nav…

Therimenes

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Θηριμένης; Thēriménēs). Spartiate, in the late summer of 412 BC led a fleet taking help to the naúarchos Astyochus in Asia Minor; at Miletus he forced Athenian forces into retreat (Thuc. 8,26,1-29,2) and in the autumn negotiated for Sparta a second subsidy treaty with Persia. During his return in 411 he was killed in a shipwreck (Thuc. 8,36,2-38,1). Welwei, Ka…

Ischagoras

(108 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσχαγόρας; Ischagóras). Sparta…

Cleora

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεόρα; Kleóra). Spartan, wife of Agesilaus [2] II, mother of Archidamus [2] III (Xen. Hell. 3,4,29; 5,4,25; Plut. Agesilaus 19). …

Agiatis

(103 words)

Callicratidas

(431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Καλλικρατίδας; Kallikratídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch, 407/6 BC Spartan nauarch (naval commander) in 407/6 BC, was only able to relieve  Lysander of his command in the spring of 406 and was confronted through the latter's intrigues with extremely serious problems while preparing his operations. However, he was as unimpressed by these as by the affront he suffered from Cyrus the Younger. C. secured the finances for his warfare and took the initiative. After relocating his naval base from Ep…

Damaratus

(262 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Δαμάρατος, Δημάρητος; Damáratos, Dēmárētos). Spartan king, Eurypontid, son and successor (around 510 BC) of King Ariston. The turning-point in his life was brought about by the enmity with Cleomenes I, whose intention to establish a Spartan satellite regime in Athens, with the help of an army campaign in 506 he thwarted at Eleusis (Hdt. 5,74f.). We do not know whether Athenian investigations became known to the Persian satrap in Sardeis [3. 273-276]. In 491 D. plotted against Cleome…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149

Mamertini

(463 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Former Oscan mercenaries, predominantly from Campania, hired by Agathocles [2] of Syracuse. After his death (289 BC), they conquered the town of Messana between 288 and 283 BC. They called themselves M. after the war god Mamers, the Oscan form of Mars (Diod. Sic. 21,18,1; Cass. Dio fr. 40,8; Fest. 150,30-35), plundering a wide area and enforcing tributes (Pol. 1,7,2-5; 8,1; Plut. Pyrrhus 23,1). After the M. had conquered wide areas of Northern Sicily (Diod. Sic. 22,13,1-2), they concluded a trea…

Epitadeus

(183 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιτάδευς; Epitádeus). An ephor from Sparta; according to Plutarch (Agis 5), out of anger against his son, he passed a law making it permissible to give away or pass on house and   kleros at will, no doubt with the aim of increasing the number of Spartiates. Plutarch dates this  rhetra vaguely to 404 BC, but cites this law as the reason for significant differences in wealth amongst the Spartiates in

Anchimolus

(73 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγχίμολος; Anchímolos). In Aristot. Ath. Pol. 19,5 and schol. Aristoph. Lys. 1153 (Anchimolios in Hdt. 5,63,2) high-ranking Spartan, who in 511 BC was supposed to expel the  Peisistratids from Athens and landed with hoplites at Phalerum. In expectation of the invasion  Hippias had, however, called upon 1,000 Thessalian horsemen for help and prepared the landing-point for their attack. A. fell, the rest of his hoplites fled.…

Agis

(919 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἆγις; Âgis). …

Xenares

(141 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ξενάρης; Xenárēs). Spartiate, probably identical to the son of Cnidis who, as harmost ( Harmostaí [2]) in Heraclea [1] Trachinia in the winter of 420/19 BC, fell in battle against the Aenianes, the Dolopes and other tribes in that territory (Thuc. 5,51,2). As éphoros in 421/20 BC, X. and his colleague in office Cleobulus [3] rejected the alliance between Sparta and Athens concluded after the Peace of Nicias [1]. After unofficial negotiations with the Boeotians and the Corinthians, the two managed to conclude a special alliance between Sparta and Boeotia in March 420 (Thuc. 5,36,1-37,1). Their goal was to regain Pylos for Sparta. They presumably also had a hand in the Boeotians' destroying the fortress of Panactum in breach of the treat…

Labotas

(50 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λαβώτας; Labṓtas). Legendary Spartan king of the house of the Agiads. During his (fictional) reign (traditionally 1025/4-989/8 BC), Sparta is said to have fought against Argus for the first time (Apollod. FGrH 244 F 62; Hdt. 1,65; 7,204; Plut. Mor. 224c; Paus. 3,2,3f.).…

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Lacrates

(36 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Spartan olympic champion; died in 403 BC during a skirmish in Piraeus against resistance fighters who freed Athens from the rule of the ‘Thirty’ ( Triakonta) (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Zeuxidamus

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ζευξίδαμος/ Zeuxídamos). [German version] [1] King of Sparta, c. 700 BC Was considered a Spartan king of the house of the Eurypontids and a son of Archidamus, is supposed to have been the successor to his grandfather Theopompus [1] towards …

Polis

(1,781 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(πόλις, πτόλις/ pólis, ptólis; pl. πόλεις/ póleis; 'city state'). [German version] …

Melanthus

(205 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Μέλανθος/ Mélanthos). [German version] [1] From Messenia, descendant of Neleus of Pylos M. of Messenia, descendant of Neleus of Pylus (Hdt. 1,147; 5,65), son of Andropompus and Henoche (Paus. 1,3,3; 19,5; 2,187ff.; 7,1,9), father of Codrus (ibid. 8,18,7). Expelled from Messenia, he went to Attica (Eleusis), where he fought a duel on behalf of the king Thymoetes with Xanthus, the king of Boeotia. With the aid of D…

Megillus

(102 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μέγιλλος/ Mégillos). Spartan, one of three members of a legation which negotiated the release of prisoners of war in Athens in 408/7 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 44; [1. 50; 2. 395]). He was probably identical with a homonymous member of a legation sent by Agesilaus [2] II to Tissaphernes in 396 (Xen. Hell. 3,4,6), and with an interlocutor in Plato (Epin. passim and Leg. 642b), described there as a guest of the Athenians. Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1

Herippidas

(161 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἑριππίδας; Herippídas). A Spartiate, who after 400 BC belonged to the inner circle of Sparta's political leaders [1. 154]; in 399, he suppressed an uprising in Heraclea Trachinia (Diod. Sic. 14,38,4-5) [2. 120f., 154]. 395 saw him as an influential adviser to Agesilaus [2] during the latter's campaign in Asia Minor, when he also commanded the Cyreans, who in 394 were once again under his command at Coronea (Xen. Hell. 3,4,20; 4,1,11-14; 20-28; 4,3,15). Following the death of the

Timouchos

(293 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (τιμοῦχος/ timoûchos). Holder of an honour, honorary position or office (formed from τιμὴν ἔχειν, timḕn échein, 'to have/hold honour'); first recorded in the form τιμάοχος as an epithet of deities in the 7th cent. BC (Hom. Hymnos to Demeter 268 f.; Hom. Hymnos to Aphrodite 31 f.); as office holders timoûchoi are recorded almost only in communities of the Ionic dialect groups, e.g. in the early 5th cent. BC in Teos (Syll.3 37/8; ML 30), where they had to pronounce…

Teleutias

(169 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τελευτίας/ Teleutías). Spartiate, step-brother of Agesilaus [2] II (Xen. Hell.  4,4,19; Plut. Agesilaos 21,1), commander of Spartan fleets several times between 392 and 381 BC, nauarchos in 387/6 (Xen. Hell. 5,1,13). In 392 he conquered ships and destroyed wharves in Lechaeum (Xen. Hell. 4,4,19; Plut. Agesilaos 21,1-3); in 390 he took over the fleet of the naúarchos Ecdicus in Cnidus, captured ten Athenian triremes and supported Sparta's partisans in Rhodes [1. 84-86]. He surrendered his fleet to the nauarchos Hierax in Aegina in 389 (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24 f.; 5,1,1-4). T. was very much loved by his soldiers, was given a new naval command in 388 and gained great plunder in an attack on Piraeus and in battle with an Athenian grain fleet (Xen. Hell. 5,1,13-24). As an

Timaea

(90 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τίμαια/ Tímaia). Spartan, wife of Agis [2] II, in 415 BC supposedly seduced by Alcibiades [3] who thus fathered her son Leotychidas [3], yet this is doubtful [1. 67 f.]. Agis only recognised Leotychidas as his son on his death-bed, in order to enable him to succeed to the throne. Lysander [1], however, saw to the election of Agesilaus [2] II (Duris FGrH 76 F 69; …

Lysander

(988 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λύσανδρος; Lýsandros). [German version] [1] Spartan fleet commander, end of the 5th cent. BC Spartiate, son of Aristocritus. Reports that the family, which traces its family tree back to Hercules and was connected to king Libys of Cyrene through hospitality (Diod. Sic. 14,13,5-6; Paus. 6,3,14), was impoverished (Plut. Lysander = Lys. 2,1) and that L. was considered a móthax (foster-brother of a citizen's boy, móthakes ) (Phylarchos FGrH 81 F 43; Ael. VH 12,43), appear to be based on deliberate defamation. L. became fleet commander ( naúarchos) of the Spartan fleet in Rhodes ( Pe…

Hippocrates

(5,685 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Potter, Paul (London, Ontario) | Gundert, Beate (London, Ontario) | Et al.
(Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs). [German version] [1] Father of Peisistratus, from Brauron Father of  Peisistratus. H. is presumed to have come from Brauron, the later deme of Philaidai, and traced his ancestry back to Neleus (Hdt. 1,59; 5,65; Plut. Solon 10; 30). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography Traill, PAA 538385. [German version] [2] Son of Megacles from Athens, approx. 6th cent. BC Son of the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonids)  Megacles from Athens, born around 560 BC, H. was the brother of Cleisthenes, the father of  Megacles and Agariste [2] and thus th…

Pleistoanax

(191 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πλειστοάναξ/ Pleistoánax). Son of the Spartan regent Pausanias [1] of the house of the Agiads, king 458-408/7 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,75,1), initially under the guardianship of his uncle Nicomedes [1] (Thuc. 1,107,2; Diod. Sic. 11,79,6). In 446, P., in command of a Spartan army in fact led by his advisor Cleandridas, was to march on Attica to engage…

Trierarchia

(170 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (τριηραρχία; triērarchía). Obligation to equip a trireme for one year and to command the crew ( c. 200 men). Introduced in 483/2 as a military leiturgia (Liturgy I.) in place of the naukrariai , which were no longer sufficient following the naval rearmament programme of Themistocles. Later also used as a technical term for the command of other warships. Because of the great financial burden it imposed, the system was modified from 410 BC by the syntrierarchy (two trierarchoi per…

Nicagoras

(381 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Lasserre, F. (Lausanne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νικαγόρας/ Nikagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Zelia, c. 330 BC According to the Greek historian Bato of Sinope (Athenaeus 7,289b-c = FHG 4, 348 fragment 1), N. was tyrant of Zelia. He is identical with the N. mentioned by Clement of Alexandria (Protrepticus 4,48), a contemporary of Alexander [4] the Great's and possibly tyrant by the grace of Darius [3] III [1. 229]. N. fell from power after the battle on the Granicus (in this context possibly Syll.…

Eurypontids

(124 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐρυπωντίδαι; Eurypōntídai). Spartan royal house, whose representatives according to Herodotus (6,51) were supposed to have less prestige than the royal house of the Agiads. In fact the E. provided important kings such as Archidamus II, Agesilaus II, Agis II, III and IV. Its eponym was the fictitious figure of Eurypon, a descendant of Heracles in the sixth (Hdt. 8,131; Str. 8,366) or seventh generation (Plut. Lycurgus 1; Paus. 3,7,1). The list of E…

Tellis

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τέλλις; Téllis). Spartiate, father of Brasidas, married to Argileonis, who commented on the death of her son (in 422 BC) with the words that he had been brave but Sparta had better men (Plut. Lycurgus 25,8-9; Plut. Mor. 190b; 219d; 240c; Diod. Sic. 12,74,3). T. swore to the Peace of Nicias (Nicias [1]) in 421 BC (Thuc. 5,19,2; 5,24,1) and was then doubtless a champion of Spartan peace policy. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Nicomedes

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Νικομήδης; Nikomḗdēs). [German version] [1] Spartan commander, 458 or 457 BC Member of the Spartan royal family of the Agiadae, son of Cleombrotus [2], brother of Pausanias, the victor of Plataeae. In 458 or 457 BC, N. led a Spartan army as the guardian of his underage nephew Pleistoanax to support the inhabitants of the Doris region against the Phocians and on the return march defeated the Athenians near Tanagra (Thuc. 1,107,2-108,1; Diod. Sic. 11,79,4-80,6; Plut. Cimon 17,4-9; Plut. Pericles 10,1-4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] N. I of Bithynia King from 280 BC S…

Pleistarchus

(386 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Hülden, Oliver (Tübingen)
(Πλείσταρχος/ Pleístarchos). [German version] [1] King of Sparta (5th cent. BC) King of Sparta, of the house of the Agiads; still not of age at the death of his father Leonidas [1], fallen at Thermopylae in 480 BC; P.' cousin Pausanias [1], who commanded the Greek forces at Plataeae in 479 BC, thus became regent (Hdt. 9,10,2; Thuc. 1,132,1; Paus. 3,4,9; Plut. Mor. 231c). Once of age, P. exercised the role of king for only a few years until his death in 458 BC (Paus. 3,5,1), making no political or military impression.…

Peraia

(736 words)

Praktor

(313 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(πράκτωρ/ práktōr, πρακτήρ/ praktḗr: Poll. 8,114, 'executor', 'manager', from práttein, 'do'). [German version] I. Classical Period Greek official of a state executory authority, who, on instruction, recovered state claims, particularly fines. In Athens ten práktores chosen by lot annually were in service. Informed by the authorized court magistrate of penalties imposed, they entered them in the list kept on the Acropolis when state debtors did not pay immediately (IG II2 45; And. 1,77-79; Dem. Or. 25,4; 25,28; 43,71) [1. 270 f.]. An authority of the same name wi…

Xenodikai

(295 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(ξενοδίκαι/ xenodíkai). [German version] [1] In Athens: 'judges of foreigners' First mentioned in Athens as 'judges of foreigners' (IG I3 439,75 and IG I3 440,126) for the years 444-442 BC in which the xenodikai had to provide quite large sums for the construction of the Parthenon . It cannot be deduced from this evidence [3. 661 f.] that they operated only for a relatively short period after Pericles' [1] statute of civic rights as an authority for lawsuits relating to illegal arrogation of Athenian civil rights (Xenias graph…

Naucleidas

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ναυκλείδας/ Naukleídas). Spartiate, son of Polybiades; as an ephor, he accompanied king Pausanias to Athens in 403 BC, and supported his policy of reconciling the hostile sides in the civil war, in defiance of the intent of Lysander [1], who in revenge later accused him of debauchery (Xen. Hell. 2,4,35-36; Agatharchidas FGrH 86 F 11 = Athen. 12,550 d-e). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Epaminondas

(1,037 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπαμεινώνδας; Epameinṓndas). Most important Theban commander of the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC. His year of birth has not been recorded. After instruction by the Pythagorean Lysis of Tarentum who lived in his father Polymis' house (Diod. Sic. 15,39,2; Plut. Mor. 583c; 585e; Paus. 9,13,1; Nep. Epaminondas 2,2), he was considered incorruptible and frugal as well as a great orator (Plut. Mor. 808e, 809a). Little is known about his political beginnings. The outline in Paus. 9,13,1-1…

Xenoi

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(ξένοι/ xénoi). 'Alien', i.e. free-born person not belonging to the Greek citizenship structure, who voluntarily stayed in a place and enjoyed certain rights there. Non-free aliens (slaves, prisoners of war) were not members of the group of xenoi, which was primarily defined in terms of rights. [German version] I. Classical Greece The term xenoi generally describes large groups of free-born people, staying permanently or temporarily in a particular community, without being citizens of it (Thuc. 2,31,1; 2,36,4; 6,30,2; Aristot. Pol. 1300b 31 f.), often used in contrast to ἀστοί/ ast…

Tisamenus

(313 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
(Τεισαμενός/ Teisamenós, Lat. Tisamenus). [German version] [1] Son of Thersander Son of Thersander, the king of Thebes and of Demonassa [1] (Paus. 9,5,15) and therefore a grandson of Polyneices (Hdt. 6,52). After the death of his father in Mysia, Peneleus at first led the Theban contingent to Troy in place of T. who was still too young (Hom. Il. 2,494). T. became king of Thebes only after Peneleus died. Under his rule, the curse on his lineage was supposedly dormant. His son Theras is said to have settled the island of Thera (Hdt. 4,147; Paus. 3,15,6 f.). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) …

Klerouchoi

(1,718 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(κληροῦχοι; klēroûchoi, proprietors of a klêros , of a ‘land allotment’). I. Athens [German version] A. 5th cent. BC Apart from its metaphorical meaning in Sophocles (Soph. Aj. 508: ‘having a certain fate’) first mentioned in literature by Herodotus (5,77,2) as a designation of 400 Athenians, who received fields in Chalcis [1] after the Athenian victory over the Chalcidians in 506/505 BC. The number is probably exaggerated, and cannot be corrected from Aelianus (Var. 6,1), who reports that 2,000 Athenians were settled on lands of the Chalcidian hippobótai . These kleroûchoi had to re…

Proegoros

(169 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (προήγορος/ proḗgoros, Doric προάγορος/ proágoros, 'spokesman'; from pro-agoreúein, 'speak publicly for somebody'). Spokesman of a group or legation (Xen. Hell. 1,1,27; 2,2,22; Xen. An. 5,5,7). In the Sicilian poleis of Acragas (IG XIV 952: 2nd cent. BC), Tyndaris (Cic. Verr. 2,4,85) and possibly also Tauromenium (IG XIV 423) the term for an official. In Catane even, according to Cicero (Verr. 2,4,50), the proḗgoros was the highest magistrate, though this may be exaggerated. In Sardeis , stratēgoí and proḗgoroi feature (as leading officials) in the prescri…

Dercylidas

(305 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Δερκυλίδας; Derkylídas). Spartan; regarded as a talented and cunning military commander. He won Abydus and Lampsacus in 411 BC without a battle (Thuc. 8,61f.), was harmost in Abydus in 407/6 (Xen. Hell. 3,1,9) and in 399 in Sparta's war against the Persian satrap Tissaphernes in Asia Minor he relieved the unpopular Thibron, who was unable to keep discipline in the army, including the former mercenaries (including Xenophon) of Cyrus the Younger (Xen. Hell. 3,1,8-10). In 399 in a ‘l…

Agesilaus

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀγησίλαος; Agēsílaos). [German version] [1] I, legendary Spartan king (c. 900 BC) A. I, legendary Spartan king, Agiad, considered the son of Doryssus and father of Archelaus (Hdt. 7,204), ‘ruled’ according to Alexandrian chronographers 929/28-886/85 BC, for a shorter time according to Pausanias (3,2,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] II, Spartan king, Eurypontid (400-359 BC) A. II, Spartan king, Eurypontid, 444/43 BC. When his brother Agis [2] II died in the summer of 400 and Agis' son Leotychidas was excluded from succession, …

Melesippus

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελήσιππος; Melḗsippos). Spartiate, son of Diacritus, member of the last Spartan delegation to Athens in 431 BC before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 1,139,3). In the same year, during the advance of the army of Archidamus [1], he was again sent to Athens for negotiations, but was turned back at the city gates. On leaving Attica, he is said to have prophesied that that day would mark the beginning of great misfortune for the Hellenes (Thuc. 2,12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Erianthes

(90 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐριάνθης; Eríanthēs). Theban commander of the Boeotian triremes at Aigospotamoi. His statue, therefore, stood on the Spartan victory monument in Delphi (Paus. 10,9,9) [1. 14f.]. After the capitulation of Athens, his demand to destroy the city was rejected in Sparta (Xen. Hell. 2,2,19; Plut. Lys. 15). When the Thebans in 395 BC endeavoured to form an alliance with Athens, they attempted to interpret the action by E. as having been carried out by him without authority (Xen. Hell. 3,5,8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J.-F. Bommelaer, Lysandre de S…

Pasiteilidas

(47 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πασιτειλίδας; Pasiteilídas). Spartiate, son of Hegesander and harmost under Brasidas in Torone, where he was taken prisoner in 422 BC during the Athenians' capture of the city under Cleon [1]. From there he was presumably taken to Athens (Thuc. 4,132,3; 5,3,1-4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Leotychidas

(368 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Λεωτυχίδας; Leōtychídas). [German version] [1] Eurypontid Eurypontid (Hdt. 8,131; Eurypontidae), considered to be the ancestor of L. [2]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of Sparta, 5th cent. BC Eurypontid; became king in Sparta after Damaratus was deposed; in 491 BC, he participated in the actions of Cleomenes [3] I in Aegina (Hdt. 6,73), and for that reason was almost delivered up to the Aeginetans (Hdt. 6,85f.). In 479, L. commanded the Hellenic fleet, followed a request for help by the Samians, …

Gerousia

(995 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
(γερουσία; gerousía, ‘Council of Elders’). [German version] I. Graeco-Roman In Sparta the gerousia was probably originally an assembly of representatives from leading families. There it gained its institutional character from early on and consisted of the two kings and 28   gérontes (γέροντες), who were appointed for life and were at least 60 years old. Election took place on the basis of the volume of the acclamation in the   apélla (ἀπέλλα), with ‘electoral officials’ in a closed room deciding who got the strongest applause (Plut. Lycurgus …

Alcibiades

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκιβιάδης; Alkibiádēs). [German version] [1] Athenian (end of 6th cent. BC) Athenian, who in 510 BC supported  Cleisthenes when he initiated the expulsion of the Peisistratids from Athens (Isoc. Or. 16,26). [1; cf. 2]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 Traill, PAA, 121620. 2 Davies, 600,III u. V. [German version] [2] ‘the Elder’ Athenian, around 461 BC Son of the previous (cf. Pl. Euthd. 275a/b); after the deposition of  Cimon (462/1 BC) and the break between Athens and Sparta he laid down demonstratively the inherited title of a Lacedaimonian proxenos (Thuc. 5,43,2; 6,8…

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…

Tresantes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τρέσαντες, 'those having fled in fear'). Spartiates, who had failed in battle and lost their aretḗ (Virtue) (Tyrtaeus fr. 8,14 Gentili/Prato), with the result that they were held in contempt socially (Plut. Lycurgus 21,2). They were allowed to shave only half their beards, could not hold office, were excluded from gymnastics, games, contubernia and from merchant business (Xen. Lac. 9,4-6), could allegedly also be beaten and had to wear dirty clothing. It was considered shameful to give one a da…

Lysandridas

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυσανδρίδας; Lysandrídas). [German version] [1] Spartan military commander, 4th cent. BC (Plut.: Λυσανορίδας; Lysanorídas). Spartan, one of the three harmostai of the Spartan occupation in Thebes, who could not prevent this polis from being liberated by Pelopidas in 379 BC. L. was condemned to a big fine in Sparta and left the Peloponnese (Plut. Pel. 13; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 240; cf. Xen. Hell. 5,4,13; Diod. Sic. 15,27). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] From Megalopolis, end of the 3rd cent. BC L. from Megalopolis ( Megale Polis); in 223/2 BC L. wanted to l…

Kleros

(412 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλῆρος; klêros; Dor. κλᾶρος; klâros, ‘lot’, ‘land allocation’, ‘plot of land’, ‘land allotment’; etymologically probably derived from κλάειν/ kláein, ‘to break, to share’). The drawing of lots for cultivatable plots when acquiring land cannot be verified in the early Greek period.[1]. Already in Homer (Il. 15,498; Od. 14,64 ), as well as in Hesiod (Op. 37; 341), kleros designates private property, not acquired by lot. The function of the klêros in the ancient Thessalonian order of regulations on levies explained by Aristotle (fr. 611 Rose) is not …

Cynisca

(53 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνίσκα; Kyníska). Rich Spartan woman, born around 442 BC, daughter of Archidamus [1] II, sister of Agesilaus [2] II. C. was the first woman to participate in chariot races at Olympia where she was twice victorious (Xen. Ages. 9,6; Plut. Agesilaus 20; Paus. 3,8,1f.; 6,1,6; SGDI 4418). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Pelops

(1,023 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Πέλοψ; Pélops). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalus Son of Tantalus (Cypria fragment 13 EpGF; in Hyg. Fab. 82 from his liaison with Dione), husband of Hippodamia [1], father of Atreus, Thyestes, Pittheus and other children (Pind. O. 1,88f. with schol.). P.'s original homeland was Asia Minor (cf. Pind. Ol. 1,24; Hdt. 7,8).  P.'s father Tantalus chops him into pieces, cooks him and serves him up to the gods. Demeter is the only one who fails to notice the horrendous deed and eats part of his shoulder (A…

Alcidas

(297 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκίδας; Alkídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC The Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC, who was supposed to bring relief to the polis of Mytilene on Lesbos, but on route learned of Mytilene's capitulation. The relief of Mytilene, which had been occupied after having broken away from Athens (Thuc. 3,16,3; 26,1), was to take place simultaneously with the invasion of Attica by a Peloponnesian army in the early summer of 427. He landed in Erythrae of Asia Minor, but did not advance fast enough i…

Geranor

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γεράνωρ; Geránōr). Spartiate, former polemarchos, fell in 369/8 BC during the defence of Asine against the Arcadians (Xen. Hell. 7,1,25). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lacedas

(68 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λακήδας; Lakḗdas; Hdt. 6,127,3: Λεωκήδης; Leōkḗdēs). Legendary king of Argus, by tradition the son of the historically debated Pheidon [3]. L. was regarded as the father of Meltas, the last king of the Argives (Paus. 2,19,2) [1. 385; 2. 107ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Carlier, La royauté en Grèce avant Alexandre, 1984 2 Th. Kelly, A History of Argos to 500 BC, 1976.

Thrasydaeus

(171 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Θρασυδαῖος/ Thrasydaîos). [German version] [1] From Elis, c. 400 BC T. from Elis. Leader of anti-Spartan democrats in the war between Elis and Sparta (402-400 BC), after initial successes in 400 he had to conclude a peace in which the Eleans abandoned dependent towns with the exception of Olympia (Xen. Hell. 3,2,21-31; Diod. 14,17,4-12; 34,1; Paus. 3,8,3-5). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Perhaps from Pharsalus, second half of the 4th cent. BC In the 340s BC T., who may have been from Pharsalus (cf. Syll.3 240 H), was a Thessalian tetrarch under Philippus […

Presbeia, Presbeis

(467 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (πρεσβεία/ presbeía, πρέσβεις/ présbeis, 'embassy', 'emissary'). The terms presbeía and présbeis in this sense are known only from the 5th cent. BC on, but there is evidence of 'diplomatic traffic' in Greece considerably earlier than this in Homer, in the form of the sending of 'messengers' (Hom. Il. 4,384; 5,804; 10,286). The term présbeis is explained by the fact that originally it was generally 'elders' ( présbys: 'old') who were sent out as emissaries, though by the 5th cent. this was no longer the custom (Aristoph. Ach. 599 ff.). Présbeis acted on behalf of their…

Mandrocleidas

(148 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Μανδροκλείδας; Mandrokleídas). [German version] [1] Spartiate, tried to keep Pyrrhos from further raids in Laconia, 272 BC Spartiate (Μανδρικλείδας/ Mandrikleídas in good MSS). Plutarch (Plut. Pyrrhus 26,24) passes down a memorable statement by M. who is said to have attempted in 272 BC to convince Pyrrhus of the Spartan will to resist him so as to prevent further plundering raids in Laconia by his troops [1. 128f.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Spartiate, supporter of Agis's reforms in 243/2 BC Spartiate (probably not identical to M. [1]), talented fo…

Aegidae

(222 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Αἰγεῖδαι; Aigeîdai). Designated by Herodotus (4,149) as ‘great phyle in Sparta’, but also (4,147) brought in connection with Cadmean Thebes. In Aristotle (fr. 532 Rose) the A. appear as φρατρία Θηβαίων ( phratría Thēbaíōn) and in Pindar (I. 7,15) as ‘Thebans’ (cf. Androtion FGrH 324 F 60; schol. Pind. Pyth. 5,101). According to the Schol. of Pindar I. 7,18 they are supposed to have originally been Phlegraei. Whether here ‘Phlegyans’ are meant [1. 28] is uncertain. Supposedly the A. migrated with the Heraclidae t…

Panteus

(62 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Παντεύς; Panteús). Spartan, who in 223 BC successfully commanded two Spartan units under Cleomenes [6] III in the attack on Megalopolis (Plut. Cleomenes 23,5-6). After the battle of Sellasia, he fled to Egypt with Cleomenes , where he committed suicide after the latter's failed attempt to free himself from internment (ibid. 37,13-16; 38,5; Pol. 5,37,8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylis

(44 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γῦλις; Gŷlis). Spartiate, in 394 BC polemarch, assumed command of the army of Agesilaus [2] II after the battle of Coronea and advanced to Locris. He fell in battle after the retreat (Xen. Ages. 2,15; Hell. 4,3,21-23). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Prytanis

(191 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Πρύτανις; Prýtanis). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sparta Mythical king of Sparta, allegedly son of Eurypon (Hdt. 8,131), who was considered to be progenitor of the Eurypontid dynasty. The genealogy is fictitious, however, like the one of the Agiads before the 6th cent. BC. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of the Regnum Bosporanum in 310-309 BC King of the Regnum Bosporanum in 310-309 BC, the youngest son of Paerisades [1] I. After the death of his brother Satyrus [2] I, he fought against his eldest brother Eumelus [4] (D…

Menedaeus

(74 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μενεδάϊος/ Menedáios). Spartan, in 426 BC a member of Eurylochus's [2] war council in Acarnania. After Eurylochus's defeat and death at Olpae, he became commander of the Peloponnesian troops there. In a secret agreement the Athenian commander Demosthenes [1] granted him free passage in return for surrender of the Ambraciots (Thuc. 3,100,2; 109,1-3; [1. 30]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. Roisman, The General Demosthenes and His Use of Military Surprise, 1993.

Cleandridas

(92 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεανδρίδας; Kleandrías). Spartan; allegedly fought in 470 BC against Tegea (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,10,3) and in 446 as advisor of king  Pleistoanax he was bribed by Pericles on a campaign to Attica. Sentenced to death, C. fled (Diod. Sic. 13,106,10; Plut. Pericles 22f.) and became a citizen of Thurii, where he functioned as general after 443 (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,10). The embellishment of the bribery affair probably only occurred after his son  Gylippus was convicted of embezzlement [1. 145]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 K. L. Noethlichs, Bestechu…

Gerontes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (γέροντες; gérontes). ‘Elders’, in the Homeric epic not only the aged advisers of a city-king (Hom. Il. 3,149) but also high-ranking dignitaries ( Basileus, I. B. Homeric) with leadership functions in war and peace (Hom. Il. 2,404-408). From the advisory assemblies in early Greek pre-city settlements and defensive communities, committees with distinct competencies and criteria of admission developed along with city structures. An indication of this process is the trial scene in Hom. Il. 18,497-508, in which gerontes resolve a dispute over compensation [1…

Megistonous

(102 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεγιστόνους/ Megistónous). Spartan who supported the reforms of his stepson Cleomenes [6] III (Plut. Cleomenes 7,1; 11,1). As the Spartan commander at Orchomenus (Arcadia) he was defeated and captured by Aratus [2] of Sicyon after Cleomenes' coup (227 BC) at a time which has not been exactly determined (Plut. Aratus 38,1), and was sent by him to Cleomenes as a go-between (Plut. Cleomenes 19,5; Plut. Aratus 41,5). M. died in 224 while trying to prevent Argos being captured by Aratus and Antigonus [3] Doson (Plut. Cleomenes 21,1-3; [1. 374f.]). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bo…

Libys

(110 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] [1] One of the Tyrrhenian pirates One of the Tyrrhenian pirates who, together with them abducts Dionysius who is disguised as a drunken boy. As a punishment all pirates are transformed into dolphins by the wine god, except the helmsman Acoetes ( Acoetes [1]) who wants to keep them from the outrage (Ov. Met. 3,605-691; Hyg. Fab. 134). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Brother of Lysander, Spartan nauarch 403 BC Brother of Lysander, as Spartan nauarch he blockaded Piraeus in 403 BC in order to combat the revolt of Thrasybulus and his suppo…

Antalcidas

(491 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀντιαλκίδας; Antalkídas in IG V 1,93 ll. 15 and 212). At some time in the spring of 392 BC or the preceding winter A., through the mediation of the satrap  Tiribazus and abandoning the Greeks of Asia Minor, was to make peace with the Persian king [3; 7], the victory of  Conon at Cnidus having left Sparta in a precarious situation. As Sparta no longer controlled the poleis of Asia Minor, the attempt was a failure, although A. did receive a secret subsidy from Tiribazus for the expansion of the Spartan fleet (Xen. Hell. 4,8,12 ff.; Plut. Ages. 23,2). In the summer of 388 as   nauarch…

Pythagoras

(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…

Cratesiclea

(59 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρατησίκλεια). Wife of Leonidas II, mother of  Cleomenes [6] III, who was strongly in favour of his reform plans. Following her son's flight to Ptolemy III, she went to Egypt as a hostage and was executed there in 219 BC after the failure of Cleomenes' coup (Plut. Cleomenes 6,2; 7,1; 22,3-10; 38,2-12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Polytropus

(77 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πολύτροπος/ Polýtropos). Commander of a detachment of mercenaries recruited in Corinth, which fought for Sparta in 370/369 BC against the newly founded koinón of the Arcadians (see also Arcadians, Arcadia, with map; [1. 80 ff.]) and occupied the polis of Orchomenus [3] because it did not wish to join the Arcadians' League. P. fell in action against Mantinean troops (Xen. Hell. 6,5,11-14; cf. Diod. Sic. 15,62,1-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Beck, Polis und Koinon, 1997.
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