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Dryton

(71 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Born before 192 BC, died 126/123, from Crete, citizen of Ptolemais, active at various locations as a soldier and hipparch (Archive with documents from 174-99). On 4.3.150 he wed Apollonia, in his second marriage, and thus set an example, promoting Graeco-Egyptian society as the blend of the two cultures. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 88ff. R. Scholl, D.s Tod, in: CE 63, 1988, 141-144.

Melancomas

(65 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Leonides

(479 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Λεωνίδης; Leōnídēs). Cf. also Leonidas. [German version] [1] General Ptolemy I, c. 300 BC General of Ptolemy I, stratēgós in Cilicia in 310/309 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,19,4). L. probably consecrated a helmet at Delos in 309/308 (IG XI 2, 161 B 77), and in 308 he was appointed by Ptolemy as commander of his Greek possessions. In 307/306, L. fulfilled the function of stratēgós in Sicyon and Corinth; after 301, together with Philocles (?), he commanded Ptolemaic mercenaries in Pamphylia (SEG 17, 639; Aspendus). It is unclear whether he c…

Hermias

(778 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Ἑρμίας; Hermías). [German version] [1] Around 350 BC tyrant over Atarneus and Assos (or Hermeias)…

Cronius

(349 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κρόνιος; Krónios). [German version] [1] Platonist Platonist (Syranus, In Aristot. Metaph. 109,11) of the Pythagorizing tendency, mostly called a Pythagorean, (perhaps older) contemporary and friend (Porph. De anthro nympharum 21) of  Numenius, about the mid 2nd cent. AD. As a rule C. is only mentioned with him but frequently before him and generally shares his opinion. C. was read in the school of Plotin (Porph. Vita Pythagorica 14); he composed hypomnemata (ibid., probably no commentaries on whole writings) and a treatise ‘On rebirth’ (Περὶ παλιγγενεσίας, Nemesius, De natura hominis 2,114). Most testimonia concern the teachings of the soul: like Numenius and  Harpocration [1] C. did not hold the soul but rather matter responsible for evil (Stob. 1,375,14ff. W.). He also considered any incorporation (metempsychosis) of the soul evil (ibid. 380,16f…

Pamenches

(62 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Pachom; c. 50/30 B.C. syngenḗs and stratēgós (Court titles B. 2.) in various Egyptian nomes. Along with his government offices P. held a series of indigenous priestly offices, which already appear in the titles of his father. PP III 5688; VIII 292 b. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egy…

Theogenes

(485 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θεογένης/ Theogénēs). [German version] [1] Athlete from Thasos, 5th cent. BC Famous fighter from the island of Thasos, Olympic champion in 480 BC (against Euthymus of Locri [1. nos. 191; 214; 222]) in fist-fighting [1. no. 201] and in 476 BC in pankration [1. no. 215]. This constellation of victories was first documented for T. on an inscription in Delphi [2. no. 37] dating from the 2nd cent. BC, which attests that the athlete was adored by his home polis for as long as four generations after his death. Pausanias tells of three victories in Delphi, ten in the Isthmia a…

Lycarion

(99 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Λυκαρίων; Lykaríōn). Son of Numenius, from an important family; in the middle of the 1st cent. BC known as syngenḗs ( Court titles B. 2.), honorary head of the gerousia of Alexandria [1], dioikētḗs , exēgētḗs ( exēgētaí ), epì tês póleōs of Alexandria, gymnasiarch ( Gymnasiarchy) of Alexandria. L. is an example of the accumulation of offices in the late Ptolemaic period as well as of the link between state and city duties. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography PP I 37; 156; III 5349a L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1974, 140 no. 0176.

Ptolemies

(408 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (οἱ Πτολεμαϊκοὶ δυναστεῖς/ hoi Ptolemaïkoì dynasteîs, Str. 2,5,12). Hellenistic dynasty which established itself in Egypt after the death of Alexander [4] the Great and ruled there until Egypt was instituted as a Roman province by Augustus; the dynasty is named after its founder, Ptolemaeus [1] I as 'Ptolemies' or after his father Lagus [1] as 'Lagidae' (Λαγίδαι/ Lagídai). The ambitions of the first P. were not limited to Egypt, but extended to the whole of Alexander's empire (cf. Ptolemaeus [6] III; Hellenistic states) and large parts…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period…

Philadelphos

(369 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλάδελφος/ Philádelphos, literally 'One who loves his/her brother/sister'). (Cult-) epithet of Hellenistic kings. It was borne first of all by Arsinoe [II 3] II. (Philadelphos is only documented from 165/4 BC with referenceto her brother and husband Ptolemy II.). The name is very frequently used in the dynasty of the Ptolemies (Cleopatra [II 9] Berenice III, Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra [II 10] Tryphaina; Cleopatra [II 12] VII and her brothers became theoì néoi philádelphoi during the lifetime of Ptolemy XII; cf. also Ptolemaeus Philadelphos). Philadelphos was likewise used in other dynasties: e.g. Attalus [5] II [1. 156], Mithradates [4] IV and Laodice [II 10], Demetrius [8] II, the children of Antiochus [10] VIII, Iotape [1] VI of Commagene, Artabanus [5] II and Ariarathes X. Arsinoe’s love for her brother is compared in literature with that of Zeus and Hera (Callim. in SH 254,2; Theoc. Epigr. 17,130-137), and, in addition, has the relationship of Isis and Osiris as a model. However, some other examples show that the epithet is not necessarily part of the dynastic …

Simaristus

(44 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Hor

(162 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] An Egyptian from the district of  Sebennytus, a village scribe and perhaps also scribe for the district, he began a five-year journey in 173 BC, which he had been instructed to make by an oracle.   Pastophóros of Isis and from 167/6 priest (κάτοχος/ kátochos?) at the ibis Sanctuary of Saqqara/Memphis, where he had an administrative position in the temple. His oracular prophesies delivered via dreams, were listened to even in the palace. Among other destinations he…

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indic…

Zoilus

(701 words)

Author(s): Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ζωίλος/ Zōílos). [German version] [1] Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC; active in the area of historiography [1], rhetoric [3] and philology; pupil of Polycrates [3], teacher of Anaximenes [2] from Lampsacus and Demosthenes [2]. However, Z. owes his fame to his criticism of Homerus [1] in his work Κατὰ τῆς Ὁμήρου ποιήσεως/

Chaereas

(228 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Χαιρέας; Chairéas). [German version] [1] Strategos at Cyzicus, 410 BC Son of Archestratus (Lycomide?) of Athens. In 411/10 BC co- strategos in Samos, sent to Athens on the  Paralus, but was able to return (Thuc. 8,74,1-3; 86,3). In 410 strategos at Cyzicus (Diod. Sic. 13,49,6; 50,7; 51,3). PA 15093. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) …

Psenamun

(90 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [1] High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, 1st cent. BC Father of P. [2], c. 80-35 BC. Before 50/49 he was the High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, afterwards he held further priestly offices. PP III/IX 5375. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Last High Priest of Ptah in 28/7 BC Son of P. [1], born c. 42 BC, last High Priest of Ptah and other gods, received most of his titles in  28/7. P. died after 23 BC. PP III/IX 5375 a. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Leucius

(289 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Λεύκιος; Leúkios). [German version] [1] Roman in the Ptolemaic army L. (= Lucius), son of Gaius, Roman, Ptolemaic phroúrarchos on Itanus (between 221-209 BC), thus the first Roman known to have had a higher rank in the Ptolemaic army. PP VI 15117. Ameling, Walter (Jena)…

Komogrammateus

(452 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (κωμογραμματεύς; kōmogrammateús). Administrative official in Ptolemaic Egypt, although the position itself is doubtlessly older. Egypt was divided up into nomoí, tópoi and kômai, and corresponding to this sequence is, in order, basilikós grammateús, topogrammateús and komogrammateús (It is, however, not certain whether the topogrammateús was the superior of the komogrammateus; sometim…

Sophron

(861 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σώφρων/ Sṓphrōn). [German version] [1] Poet, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC from Syracuse. According to Suda σ 893, approximately contemporaneous with (Arta)Xerxes in Persia and Euripides in Athens, i.e. from the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC. This is in keeping with the traditional belief that his son Xenarchus composed a mime that referred to a historical event occurring in 394 or 389 BC (fr. 1; 4 Olivieri; [1. 59]). S. became famous for his
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