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Scapegoat rituals

(740 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] 'SR' take their name from an ancient Israelite ritual sequence described in Lv 16,5-10 and 20-22, in which every year at Yom Kippur a ram was sacrificed to Yahweh and a second, on to which all the guilt of the people of Israel had been transferred, was driven into the wilderness "to take away divine anger"( ăzāzēl: [1. 159-162]). Post-Exile and, later, Jewish Rabbinic tradition explain Azazel as a demon or fallen angel, whereas early Christian theology interprets the ram as an allegory for Christ, who by his death is supposed to hav…

Volcanus

(1,070 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] is the original form of the name of the Roman god (CIL I2 453; Vetter No. 200B 6b; Volchanus: CIL I2 1218; Volganus: CIL I2 364; Volkanus: CIL IX 6349), the form Vulcanus is more recent. Attempts to trace this name back through the Etruscan Velch(ans) [1. 289-409] to a Cretan ελχάνος ( Welchános, or Zeus Velchanos) [1. 155-287] and thus to identify its origin in the eastern Mediterranean region are based primarily on linguistic similarities; the conclusion that Volcanus was therefore originally a god of vegetation is hypothetical …

Septerion

(307 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Σεπτήριον/ Septḗrion), not Stepterion (Στεπτήριον/ Steptḗrion), was the name of a nine-yearly sequence of festivals and rituals, in the course of which a boy would set fire to a wooden construction beneath the temple of Apollo in Delphi, would then himself be led in a procession into the Thessalian Tempe valley to be ritually purified there of his 'offence' with accompanying sacrifices in the river Peneius. A central constituent was the plucking at the sanctuary to Apollo there of a l…

Nomioi Theoi

(181 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Νόμιοι Θεοί; Nómioi Theoí). As an adjunct to νομεύς/ nomeús, ‘shepherd’, νόμιος/ nómios is a poetic apostrophe or actual cult invocation for the identification of groups of gods (anon. NT in Rome: IG XIV 1013) and individual gods in their function as pastoral deities. The following are addressed as Νόμιος/ Nómios: Hermes (Aristoph. Thesm. 977f.); Pan (Hom. H. 19,5; Paus. 8,38,11: cult of Lycosura in Arcadia); the Nymphs (Orph. H. 51,11f.); Aristaeus [1] in Cyrene (Pind. Pyth. 9,65); Dionysus (Anth. Pal. 9,524); Zeus (Stob. 53,13…

Septemviri

(465 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] ('College of seven men'). Founded at Rome in 196 BC by resolution of the people, initially as a college of three men (Liv. 33,42,1), later (perhaps under L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla) enlarged to seven, and finally, by Caesar, to ten members (Cass. Dio 43,51,9), the Roman urban priestly college known as the tresviri, later septemviri epulonum (e.g. InscrIt 13,2 p. 114 f.) or epulones ( epulo ; e.g. Liv. 33,42,1; Paul. Fest. 68 L.), took its name from its arrangement of the Iovis epulum , the sacrificial banquet ( ludorum epulare sacrificium: Cic. De or. 3,73) for Jupiter, …

Pythioi

(195 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Πύθιοι/ Pýthioi). In the political organization of Sparta - according to tradition established by Lycurgus [4] - each of the two Spartan kings chose two ambassadors which were dispatched to obtain the oracles of Apollo Pythios in Delphi. In the Greek poleis, these ambassadors were usually called theoprópoi or theōroí; the name Pýthioi at Sparta thus reflects a special relationship between this polis and the Delphic oracle. The Pýthioi were allowed to dine in the skēnḕ dēmosía - at the expense of the dḗmos - as fellows in the kings' tent ( sýskēnoi) and at their table ( sýssit…

Pantheus

(1,113 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
(Πάνθεος/ Pántheos, Πάνθειος/ Pántheios, Lat. Pantheus). In antiquity, P. ('all-god' or 'universal deity') referred (Auson. Epigrammata 32 Green; CGL V 318,38) to a deity which, within a differentiated polytheistic system, combined in itself the attributes, traits and identities of several or all gods (syncretism). [German version] I. Ancient concepts of a universal god In Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome, gods were structured into a hierarchic pantheon [1. 107-113; 177-181] analogous to hierarchic human social structures (cf. ruler). This structure e…

Moles Martis

(151 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Mentioned in the Republican libri sacerdotum as an addressee of prayers (Gell. NA 13,23,2). In the Augustean period, the MM received a supplicatio every 12 May (Feriale Cumanum, InscrIt 13,2, p. 279). This supplication is connected with the natalis templi of the sanctuary of Mars Ultor in the Forum Augustum and with the ludi for Mars on the same day (Mars I.C.). The compound moles belli, ‘the dangers’ or ‘privations of war’, inspired by the mṓlos Árēos (since Hom. Il. 2,401), is present in Roman poets and historians from the 2nd cent. BC (Acc. fr. 610 TRF…

Tritopatores

(155 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Τριτοπάτορες/ Tritopátores, also Τριτοπατρεῖς/ Tritopatreîs). The cultically worshipped ancestors - usually as a collective, but also individually (Τριτοπάτωρ/ Tritopátōr: IDélos 1,66) - of a particular social group. Cults of the T. of a pólis , of demes ( dêmos [2]), phratríai or génē (Family, IV. A. 3.) are recorded in Attica and on Attic-influenced Delos, in Selinus [4], Troezen and Cyrene. Several local inscriptional texts, primarily including a lex sacra from Selinus, give information about their cultic status. Philochorus (FGrH 328 F 182) in…

Rex sacrorum

(1,144 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] In literature also rex sacrificulus (e.g. Liv. 2,2,1), 'king of the sacrifice', or simply rex (e.g. Varro Ling. 6,12 f.). The great age of this Roman priesthood is evident from the requirement that the rex sacrorum belong to a patrician gens (Cic. Dom. 38; Liv. 6,41,9; exception: MRR 1,284 n. 8), be born of a marriage concluded by confarreatio , and he himself be married by that ritual (Gai. Inst. 1,112). The rex sacrorum was nominated by the pontifical college, and, after being elected, inaugurated into the comitia calata (Antistius Labeo fr. 22 Huschke in Gell. NA …

Saxanus

(225 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] ( Saxsanus, also Saxsetanus). Epithet, primarily of Hercules. The name derives from Latin saxum, 'rock, stone'; Hercules S. was worshipped in the context of individual Italic or provincial Roman quarrying regions. The beginning of the worship of Hercules S. dates back to before the second half of the 1st century AD in central Italy (Tibur: CIL XIV 3543, the restoration of an older sanctuary in the Flavian period as a terminus ante quem), less likely in upper Italy (CIL V 5013). From Italy, the cult presumably came to Germany with some of the soldiers…

Patrii di

(911 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] The patrii di (Greek θεοὶ πάτριοι/ theoì pátrioi or θεοὶ πατρῷοι/ theoì patrôioi, theoí pátrioi ) were not a fixed category of Roman religious law, but represented an indigenous attempt to classify religious plurality in terms of the traditionalistic scheme typical of ancient religion: that of in-group/out-group. The 'gods of the fathers' gained some of their legitimacy from the fact that the ancestors were already worshipping them in accordance with the traditional value system (Latin patrii mores ritusque; Greek pátrioi nómoi). Therefore, patrii di can refer t…

Mena

(117 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] According to Varro, Antiquitates rerum divinarum fragments 95 and 273 Cardauns (in Aug. Civ. 7,2-3; cf. ibid. 4,11), a daughter of Jupiter; se was the Roman goddess of menstruation. M., recorded nowhere else, seems to be patterned on the Greek μήνη/ mḗnē, ‘Moon (personified as Mḗnē/ Sēlēnē ), or the linguistically and connotatively related Greek μήν/ mēn, Latin mēnsis, ‘(lunar) month’, and continues the customary association of menstruation with the monthly cycle and the influence of the moon. M.'s sphere of action overlaps those of othe…

Mena

(98 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[English version] Laut Varro, Antiquitates rerum divinarum fr. 95 und 273 Cardauns (bei Aug. civ. 7,2-3; vgl. ebd. 4,11) eine Tochter des Iuppiter und röm. Göttin der Menstruation. Die sonst nicht nachweisbare M. scheint griech. μήνη, Mond (personifiziert als Mḗnē/ Sēlēnē ), oder sprachlich wie inhaltlich verwandtem griech. μήν, lat. mēnsis, “(lunarer) Monat”, nachgebildet und greift die gebräuchliche Verbindung der Menstruation mit Monatszyklus und Mondeinfluß auf. M.s Wirkungsbereich überschneidet sich mit dem anderer Göttinnen (Iuno Lucina o…

Novensides, Di.

(514 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] A group of deities whose worship is reflected in the inscriptions of Marruvium (Vetter no. 225 = [1. 43-47 no. 36]: esos nouesede, 3rd cent. BC) and Pisaurum (CIL XI 6297 = ILLRP 20: deiu no[ u] esede, 3rd/2nd cents. BC). Calpurnius Piso (fr. 45 HRR = 35 Forsythe) claims the origin and cult of the Di Novensides lie in the Sabine town of Trebula Mutuesca. Together with the Di Indigetes (see below) and other divinities the Di Novensides (as divi Novensiles; the ending in -ilis is probably secondary) are invoked in the devotional formula of P. Decius [I 1] Mus in 34…

Patera, Patella

(372 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] The patera was a flat, round dish without a handle, decorated from time to time, with a bulge ( omphalós) in the middle (like the Greek phiálē : [1. 42-44]) that was used as a drinking vessel (Plaut. Amph. 260; Prop. 4,6,85) and as a sacrificial bowl in the Roman cultural area (Varro, Ling. 5,122; fig. see Sacrifice IV.): from the patera, the person offering up the sacrifice poured the libatio, the drink offering, especially the sacrifice of wine (libation and wine consumption: Verg. Aen. 1,728-740); it was also used to sprinkle the head of the sac…

Sagmen

(69 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Sagmina (pl.) were the herbs which were pulled out of the ground with their soil in Rome on the Arx on behalf of the fetiales (Plin. HN 22,5; 25,105; Fest. 424-426 L.). These herbs were used during the appointment ritual of the pater patratus (Liv. 1,24,4-6); the fetiales also took them along on their missions (Liv. 30,43,9). Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) Bibliography J. Rüpke, Domi militiae, 1990, 100-103.

Manalis lapis

(296 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] The object and function were already obsolete in the 1st cent. BC, and therefore required explanation. Paul Fest. 115 l. knows of two explanations: (1) the manalis lapis (ML) was an entrance to the underworld through which the souls of the subterraneans, alias Di Manes, ‘streamed ( manāre) into the upper world; (2) the ML was a stone (or a water jug: Varro in Non. 547 with dubious rationalization) located at the temple of Mars outside the Porta Capena in Rome which the pontifices ( Pontifex) pulled into the city in times of drought (cf. Paul Fest. 2 l., associating ML with aquaeli…

Lua

(389 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Goddess probably of Italian (Sabin.: [4. 166, 186]) origin. In 167 BC, after the victory over Perseus of Macedonia, L. Aemilius [I-32] Paullus burnt the weapons of the enemies for her and other deities (Liv. 45,33,1f.: L. mater; 8,1,6, L. mater as the addressee of a weapon-burning in 341 BC is presumably an annalistic fiction). The choice of the goddess may be explained by the derivation of her name from Latin luere: the weapon-burning after a successfully concluded battle marks the phase of demilitarization as a rite de passage; it symbolizes not only the ‘destructi…

Intertextuality

(1,180 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] A. Concept In the 1960s, criticism of the work-immanent interpretation of literary texts as closed systems was voiced in the aesthetics of reception of H. R. Jauss and in intertextuality as shaped by the semiotician Julia Kristeva. Kristeva was influenced by Mikhail Bakhtin's concept of the literary text as an open system: no text originates in a socio-historical vacuum; even at the very moment of its production it represents a dialogue with other literary and non-literary texts and…
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