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Strategikon

(260 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] (στρατηγικόν; stratēgikón). A military manual, also called Taktikón, with accounts of military tactics, training and leadership, and weapon and siege technology. From the Early Byzantine Period we have the Stratēgiká of Urbicius (c. AD 500), the Naumachíai of Syrianus Magister (6th cent., on naval warfare), an anonymous treatise, and, most importantly, the so-called Strategikon of Mauricius. Attribution of the latter text to the emperor Mauricius (582-602) is uncertain, although it must date from before the 630s, as the wars against t…

Amorion, martyrs of

(101 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Designation for a group of 42 citizens of the city of Amorion in Phrygia (Asia Minor), who were taken to the caliph's residence in Samarra on the Euphrates after the Arab conquest in AD 838 and were executed there in 845. Their Greek vita, which was written by the monk Euodius soon thereafter, bears strongly legendary traits. The main focus lies with a theological discussion between the captives and their guards; the martyrs are executed because they refuse to convert to  Islam. Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) Bibliography Editions: V. Vasil'ev, P. Nikitin (ed.), Skazanija…

Opsikion

(88 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] (ὀψίκιον/ opsíkion). Originally a term for a troop detachment (Latin obsequium), from c. 680 AD one of the four original themes ( thḗma ) of the Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor. It comprised the northern part of the Dardanelles peninsula as far as the River Halys with a capital at Ancyra. Later it was reduced in size and limited in the west, with Nicaea [5] as its capital. Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) Bibliography R. Hiss, s.v. O., LMA 6, 1418f.  C.F.W. Foss, s.v. O., ODB 3, 1528f.

Themata, naval

(114 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] Themes of the Byzantine Empire, established from the early 8th cent. AD for the construction and maintenance of a fleet. The most significant of them comprised the whole Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor from Miletus to Cilicia. The capital was probably Attaleia [1], but the crews were predominantly from the mountainous hinterland in the western part of the theme, as is shown by the name 'Theme of the Cibyrrhaeoti', which can be traced to the city of Cibyra about 80 km from the sea in the Carian-Lycian border region. Theme Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) Bibliography 1 H. Ahrwe…

Taktika

(326 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Military handbook Byzantine term for military handbook, cf. Taktika [2]; cf. also stratēgikón . Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) [German version] [2] Taktika of Leo Military handbook ( stratēgikón) in 20 books, written c. AD 905 by the emperor Leo [9] VI or at his command. It is to some extent based on earlier sources such as writings by Onasander [2] and the stratēgikón of Mauricius, but it also contains many contemporary passages, e.g. on the Arabs and Hungary. The work, which is preserved in two different versions, exer…

Nubia

(1,560 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] A. Name A country on the middle reaches of the Nile; more precisely, the area today settled by a Nubian-speaking population: Lower Nubia from the 1st to the 2nd Nile cataract (Aswān to Wadi Halfa, Republic of Egypt) and Upper Nubia from the 2nd to the 4th cataract (Wadi Halfa to Meroe, northern Sudan). In a culturally and historically understood sense, Nubia also includes the land as far as the 6th cataract and around Khartoum (central Sudan). Besides the general term t-stj for the country, recorded from the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3000 BC), the Egyptian la…

Cassia

(219 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] [1] C. Mother of Avidius Cassius Wife of Avidius Heliodorus, mother of Avidius Cassius [1. 217]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Marciana Wife of senator Wife of a senator, relative of Cassius Apronianus (I. Eph. 3, 710B; Raepsaet-Charlier no. 197). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C. Paterna Wife of Iulius [II 18] Asper Wife of Iulius Asper, cos. II AD 212 (PIR2 C 529). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Syme, SHA-Coll., 1987. [German version] [4] C. Byzantine poet and abbess, died c. AD 800/805 (also Cassiane and Eicasia). Byzantine poet a…

Patrocinium

(1,253 words)

Author(s): Krause, Jens-Uwe (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
I. Political [German version] A. Definition In Late Antiquity, the term patrocinium referred to relationships of protection and dependence, especially in rural areas, in which the coloni or small farmers placed themselves under the protection of powerful office holders or the owners of large private landholdings. The patrocinium was primarily directed against the imperial administration, particularly against the tax collectors; the rural population sought to escape the obligation of paying taxes through the patrocinium. In modern scholarship, the patrocinium is frequently…

Smyrna

(782 words)

Author(s): Petzl, Georg (Cologne) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Christianity | | Dark Ages | Ionic | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Pergamum | Athletes | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources ( Zmyrna; Σμύρνα/ Smýrna, Σμύρνη/ Smýrnē, Ζμύρνα/ Zmýrna, Ζμύρνη/ Zmýrnē). City in Aeolis, modern İzmir. [German version] I. Early times to Hellenistic Period On a hill near Bayraklı north of the Gulf of İzmir, settled since the 3rd millennium, the Aioleis settled late in the 11th cent. BC (mud brick houses). In c. 700 BC (?) the Iones from Colophon took…

Cilices, Cilicia

(1,000 words)

Author(s): Täuber, Hans (Vienna) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Κίλικες, Κιλικία; Kílikes, Kilikía). [German version] I. Cilices a) Tribe mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 6,397; 415; cf. Str. 13,1,7; 60), who settled in the southern Troad. b) The inhabitants of the region of Cilicia. The relationship between the two is not clear. Täuber, Hans (Vienna) [German version] II. Cilicia The name first appears around 858 BC in Assyrian sources as H̬ilakku; however, in these it only refers to the mountainous part of the region, where the Greeks first visited. An eponymous hero named Cilix appears in the mythological literature (e…

Theophylactus

(509 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θεοφύλακτος; Theophýlaktos). [German version] [1] T. Simocatta Byzantine historian, 7th cent. (Θ. Σιμοκάτης; Th. Simokátēs). Byzantine historian, born in Egypt, jurist and high official in Constantinople under the emperor Heraclius [7] (610-641). The family name Simokates is not recorded prior to the Suda, the spelling with -tt- is modern. Author of a 'General History' (οἰκουμενικὴ ἱστορία/ oikoumenikḕ historía, 8 bks), designed as a continuation of Menander [13] Protector, on the reign of the emperor Mauricius (582-602) with a look back to the time …

Symeon

(715 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Συμεών; Symeṓn). [German version] [1] Monk and priest, 4th cent. AD Macarius the Egyptian (Μακάριος/ Makários). Born around the year AD 300, Macarius lived from c. AD 330 - c. 390 as a monk and priest in the Scetic desert (Egypt). The accounts of his life (Rufinus, Historia monachorum 21; Pall. Laus. 17) describe his immaculate ascetism and his miracles. The later hagiographic tradition has developed this into a vita. Except for a number of oral sayings ( Apophthegmata patrum) none of Macarius' pronouncements have been handed down; a letter attributed to him may well be a…

Cappadocia, I.

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καππαδοκία; Kappadokía). Region and kingdom in Asia Minor [German version] A. Geography and population C. (Str. 12,1f.) extends from the Taurus to the Black Sea coast; its western border to Paphlagonia and Phrygia, later also to Galatia, is at the Halys (and Lake Tatta); in the south-west, it borders on Lycaonia, in the east on Colchis, Lesser Armenia, and the upper reaches of the Euphrates, in the south on Cilicia and Commagene. The entire region is seen as an ethnic-linguistic entity, part of the Luwian-sp…

Ravenna

(928 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome | Batavian Revolt Harbour city in the territory of the Boii on the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic). [German version] I. Foundation and Roman Period According to myth, R. was founded by Thessalians (Zos. 5,27); however, it was actually founded by Umbri in the 6th-5th cents. BC (Str. 5,1,2; 5,1,11; 5,2,1: Ῥάυεννα/ Rháuenna). The character of R.'s topography includes its proximity to the sea and protection by the natural geographic conditions - s…

Nikephorus

(505 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Νικηφόρος; Nikēphóros). [German version] [1] Patriarch of Constantinople, died 828 Patriarch. N. was born around AD 750 or 758 in Constantinople; he embarked on a magistrate's career at the imperial court which he represented in 787 at the Council of Nicaea. Around 797 he became a monk and ran a poorhouse in Constantinople. In 806 he was appointed patriarch of Constantinople and failed to end the so-called ‘Moechian controversy’ between Theodoros Studites and the government. In 815 he had to resign at th…

Germanus

(558 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Byz. general under Justin I Son of a sister of Justin I, cousin of Justinian I, Byzantine general, as magister militum per Thracias under Justin I he conquered the people of the Anti who had invaded the Empire from the lower Danube. As patricius and primus magister militum praesentalis, he successfully combated the military revolt of Stotzas in North Africa in 536-537, on the orders of Justinian I. In a deployment in 540 against the first assault by Chosroes [5] I after the ‘eternal peace’ of 532, a shortage of troops preven…

Panegyrics

(2,072 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] I. Greek The modern term 'panegyric' derives from πανηγυρικός ( panēgyrikós sc. λόγος/ lógos), a Greek term denoting a speech delivered during a πανήγυρις ( panḗgyris), a real or fictive 'festival', e.g. the Olympic Games. In the fictive sense →Isocrates was the first to call his fourth speech (389 BC) a Panēgyrikós (Isoc. Or. 59 and 84, 12,172; Letter 3,6; cf. Aristot. Rh. 1408b 15-17). In the broadest sense of the word, the forms of the epideictic genre ('display speech', epídeixis; → genera causarum) belong to panegyric oratory; in the rhetorical treatises of…

Iosephus

(1,520 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Ἰώσηπ(π)ος; Iṓsēp(p)os, Ιώσηφ(ος); Iṓsēph(os)). From Hebrew yosep yosipyah ‘may God add (further children)’, a prevalent Jewish name in memory of the biblical patriarch Joseph (Gen. 35; 37-50), e.g. in the Herodian family. [German version] [1] Uncle and brother-in-law of Herod [1] the Gr. Uncle and brother-in-law of  Herod [1]  the Great (Jos. Ant. Iud. 15,65; 81). He acted as his deputy for the duration of Herod's journey to M.  Antonius [I 9] in 34 BC. He became involved in the intrigues surrounding Queen  Mariamme, his wife Salome pr…

Callinicus

(455 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καλλίν(ε)ικος; Kallín(e)ikos: ‘The noble victor’). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet of  Heracles (Eur. Herc. 582; Aristid. Or. 40.15; OGIS 53; Iscrizioni di Cos ED 180,28ff.; SEG 28.616), according to Archil. fr. 324 IEG in a hymn used as a victory song in Olympia (Pind. Ol. 9,1ff. with schol.; according to schol. Aristoph. Av. 1764 composed in Paros: cf. IG XII5, 234); probably first used for Heracles as a victorious warrior (cf. the aetiologic myth in Apollod. 2.135), later often in an apotropaic epigram (Preger, Inscr. Graecae metricae 213; EpGr 1138). Willi, Andrea…

Pergamum

(5,864 words)

Author(s): Radt, Wolfgang (Istanbul) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Xenophon | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Oracles | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athletes | Education / Culture (Πέργαμον, ἡ Πέργαμος; Pérgamon, hē Pérgamos). [German version] I. Location City in Mysia, modern Bergama (at the foot of the ancient acropolis, partially on the remains of P.), in western Turkey, 110 km north of İzmir, c. 30 km from the coast at the edge of the plain of the Caïcus [1], modern Bakır Cayı. The ancient settlement was located on a 300-m high mountain ridge, surro…
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