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Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ al-Dihlawī

(269 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, or Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad al-S̲h̲āhd̲j̲ahānābādī, a traditionist and historiographer of Mug̲h̲al India who flourished in the 11th/17th century. The nickname “al Turk al-Buk̲h̲ārī” points to his origin from Central Asia. As a poet he adopted the pen name “Mas̲h̲riḳī”. He was the son of the scholar ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.] al-Dihlawī, a well-known s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the Ḳādiriyya order. Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ succeeded his father as a religious teacher and was appointed a judge at Agra under S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān. His death at Dihlī occurred in 1073/1662. In Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲ , Nūr al-Ḥaḳḳ enlarged the Tārīk̲h̲-…

Labībī

(454 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, the pen-name of a Persian poet who lived at the end of the 4th/11th and the beginning of the 5th/12th century. His personal name as well as almost any other particulars of his life are unknown. The Tard̲j̲umān al-balāg̲h̲a has preserved an elegy by Labībī on the death of Farruk̲h̲ī [ q.v.], which means that the former was probably still alive in 429/1037-8. A ḳaṣīda attributed to him by ʿAwfī is addressed to a mamdūḥ by the name of Abu ’l-Muẓaffar, who in that source is identified with a younger brother of the G̲h̲aznavid Sultan Maḥmūd. But it i…

Rind

(809 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(p.), a word applied in Persian with a contemptuous connotation to “a knave, a rogue, a drunkard” or “a debauchee”; in the terminology of poets and mystics it acquired the positive meaning of “one whose exterior is liable to censure, but who at heart is sound” (Steingass, s.v., after the Burhān-i ḳāṭiʿ ). The etymology of rind is unclear. It is not an Arabic loanword, in spite of the existence of the broken plural runūd , a learned form used next to the regular Persian plural rindān . The abstract noun rindī denotes the characteristic behaviour of a person thus qualified. Mediaeval historians r…

Sām

(1,147 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, legendary ruler of Sīstān [ q.v.] and vassal of the Kayānids, the epic kings of Īrān, was, according to al-T̲h̲aʿālibī and Firdawsī, the son of Narīmān, the father of Zāl-Dastān and the grandfather of Rustam [ q.v.]. This pedigree is the outcome of a long development spanning the entire history of the Iranian epic. In the Avesta, Sāma is the name of a clan to which T̲h̲rīta, “the third man who pressed the Haoma”, belonged as well as his sons Urvāk̲h̲s̲h̲aya and Kərəsāspa (Yasna 9. 10). Kərəsāspa (Persian Kars̲h̲āsp or Gars̲h̲āsp)…

K̲h̲araḳānī

(2,262 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad , Persian mystic who died on the 10th Muḥarram 425/5th December 1033 at the age of 73. The nisba refers to the village of K̲h̲araḳān situated in the mountains to the north of Bisṭām on the road to Astarābād (modern Gurgān). There are several variants for the vocalisation of this place-name even in the early sources for the life of this mystic. This confusion may very well be the result of the existence of other place names with the same consonant outline, such as K̲h̲a…

Takī Awḥadī

(447 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, or Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Ḥusaynī al-Awḥadī, Persian anthologist, lexicographer and poet. He was born at Iṣfahān on 3 Muḥarram 973/31 January 1565, into a family with a Ṣūfī tradition from Balyān in Fārs. One of his paternal ancestors was the 5th/11th-century S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abū ʿAlī al-Daḳḳāḳ. During his adolescence he studied in S̲h̲īrāz, where he presented his early poems to a circle of poets and was encouraged by ʿUrfī [ q.v.]. Returning to Iṣfahān, he attracted the attention of the young S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I and joined his entourage. In 1003/1594-5, Taḳī retired for six years to the ʿatabāt

Nāma

(445 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(p.). a Persian word, derived as an adjective from the common Iranian root nāman- , “name”. Already in Middle Persian the form nāmag can be ¶ found also as a substantive referring to an inscription, a letter or a book. In the orthography of Pahlavī, the word could be written either phonemically, as n’mk’, or by means of any of two heterographs: S̲H̲M-k’, which was based on the Semitic word for “name”, and MGLT’, i.e. the Aramaic m e gill e ta , “scroll” (cf. L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros , Leiden 1953, 1091). It occurs also in co…

Maḥmūd B. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Yaḥyā S̲h̲abistarī

(1,188 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, (or S̲h̲abustarī , according to modern Azeri writers) S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Saʿd al-Dīn, Persian mystic and writer. He was born at S̲h̲abistar, a small town near the north-eastern shore of Lake Urmiya. The date of his birth is unknown, but would have to be fixed about 686/1287-8 if the report that he died at the age of 33 (mentioned in an inscription on a tombstone erected on his grave in the 19th century) is accepted. He is said to have led the life of a prominent religious scholar at Tabrīz. Travels to Egypt, Syria and the Ḥid̲j̲āz are mentioned in the introduction to the Saʿādat-nāma

S̲h̲ahriyār

(547 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Sayyid (or Mīr) Muḥammad Ḥusayn , a modern Persian poet. He was born about 1905 at Tabrīz as the son of a lawyer, and belonging to a family of sayyid s in the village of K̲h̲us̲h̲gnāb. In his early work he used the pen name Bahd̲j̲at, which he later changed to S̲h̲ahriyār, a name chosen from the Dīwān of Ḥāfiẓ, who was his great model as a writer of g̲h̲azal s. He read medicine at the Dār al-Funūn in Tehran, but left his studies unfinished to become a government clerk in K̲h̲urāsān. After some time he returned to Tehran, where for many years…

K̲h̲argird

(801 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
ou Ḵh̲ard̲j̲ird était le nom d’au moins deux localités du Nord-est de la Perse, mais il n’est plus donné aujourd’hui qu’à une seule d’entre elles. I. Ḵh̲argird, dans le s̲h̲ahristān de Turbat-i Ḥaydariyya ou, plus précisément, le dihistān de Rūd-i miyān-i Ḵh̲wāf, est située à environ 6 km. au Sud-ouest de cette dernière ville. C’est maintenant une petite agglomération dont les habitants vivent de la culture des céréales et du coton ainsi que du tissage. Des vestiges archéologiques trahissent cependant un passé beaucoup plus prospère, a…

Sām

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, souverain légendaire du Sīstān [ q.v.] et vassal des Kayānides, rois épiques de l’Īran, était, ¶ selon al-T̲h̲aʿālibī et Firdawsī, le fils de Narīmān, le père de Zāl-Dastān et le grand-père de Rustam [ q.v.]. Cette lignée est le résultat d’un long développement qui recouvre l’histoire entière de l’épopée iranienne. Dans l’Avesta, Sāma est le nom d’un clan auquel appartenait T̲h̲rīta, «le troisième homme qui exprima l’Haoma», ainsi que ses fils Urvāk̲h̲s̲h̲aya et Kərəsāspa (Yasna, 9.10). Kərəsāspa (persan Kars̲h̲āsp ou Gars̲h̲ās…

S̲h̲ams-i Ḳays

(979 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, forme courante du nom S̲h̲ams al-dīn Muḥammad b. Ḳays Rāzī, auteur du plus ancien ouvrage sur la poétique en persan, al-Muʿd̲j̲am fī maʿāyīr as̲h̲ʿār al-ʿAd̲j̲am, qui recouvre la gamme complète de l’érudition littéraire traditionnelle. Les seuls éléments que l’on possède sur sa vie sont issus de ses propres affirmations, provenant pour la plupart de l’introduction du seul de ses ouvrages qui ait subsisté ( Muʿd̲j̲am, 2-24). Sa ville natale était Rayy, où il est sans doute né autour du début du dernier quart du XIe siècle. Il vécut de nombreuses années en Transoxiane, au Ḵh̲wārazm et dan…

S̲h̲ifāʾī Iṣfahānī

(528 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥakīm S̲h̲araf al-dīn Ḥasan, médecin et poète persan de la période ṣafawide. ¶ Il est né en 956/1549 (Gulčīn-i Maʿānī) ou 966/1558-9 (Ṣafā) à Iṣfahān. Son nom de plume fait allusion à la profession médicale qui était une tradition dans sa famille. Il étudia aussi le mysticisme spéculatif mais fut essentiellement renommé en tant que poète. Son œuvre littéraire consiste en g̲h̲azals et ḳaṣīdas, écrits respectivement dans le style de Bābā Fig̲h̲ānī et Ḵh̲aḳānī (cf. Rypka, 300), et en poèmes sous différentes autres formes comprenant une série de mat̲h̲nawīs. Son poème le plus célèbre est le m…

Sanāʾī

(2,296 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Mad̲j̲dūd b. Adam al-G̲h̲aznawī, poète persan. Dès les anciennes sources, la kunya Abū l-Mad̲j̲d est parfois ajoutée à son nom. Son pseudonyme ¶ était Sanāʾī, et rarement Mad̲j̲dūd, ou Mad̲j̲dūd-i Sanāʾī. Le premier pourrait venir de Sanāʾ al-Milla, un des laḳabs du sultan gljaznawide Masʾūd III, mais la relation du poète à son souverain n’est pas claire, car aucun panégyrique directement à son intention n’a été conservé. En fait, il n’existe aucune donnée biographique digne de foi extérieure à l’œuvre du poète. Néanmoins, les nombre…

Kās̲h̲īf

(308 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Muḥammad S̲h̲arīf b. S̲h̲ams al-dīn al-S̲h̲īrāzī (vers 1001 - après 1063/1592-1653), prosateur et poète persan qui utilisa le tak̲h̲alluṣ de Kās̲h̲if (on trouve également les formes de Kās̲h̲if-i Kumayt [cf. Rosen, Manuscrits persans, 285], et S̲h̲arīfā Kās̲h̲if [cf. Tad̲h̲kira-i Naṣrābādī dans le synopsis de A. Sprenger, Catal. Oud̲h̲., 91]); il vécut à Iṣfahān et plus tard à Rayy où il exerça les fonctions de ḳāḍī pendant 15 ans. Ses frères Ismāʿīl Munṣif et Muḳīma sont également connus comme poètes. De l’œuvre de Kās̲h̲if, il ne subsiste apparemment que …

Muḥtas̲h̲am-i Kās̲h̲ānī

(877 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, S̲h̲ams al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ Kamāl al-dīn, poète persan des débuts de la période ṣafawide qui naquit vers 905/1500 à Kās̲h̲ān et, d’après les sources les plus sûres, mourut en 996/1587-8 (en 1000/1591-2, selon Abū Ṭālib al-Iṣfahānī [voir Storey, 1/2, 878], ce qui est moins vraisemblable). Il fut pendant quelque temps marchand de tissus ( bazzāz), comme son père, mais il abandonna ce métier pour embrasser la carrière plus avantageuse de poète professionnel. Son œuvre était appréciée à la cour ṣafawide à Ḳazwīn, mais il semble avoir continué à résider à …

K̲h̲amsa

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, terme technique des littératures persane et turque désignant un ensemble de cinq mat̲h̲nawīs [ q.v.]; il s’applique en premier lieu aux cinq poèmes épiques de Niẓāmī [ q.v.] de Gand̲j̲a composés entre 570/1174-5 environ et 600/1203-4. Cet ensemble contient un poème didactique, le Mak̲h̲zan al-asrār sur le mètre sarīʿ-i maṭwī-yi mawḳūf, trois pièces romantiques: Laylā u Mad̲j̲nūn en hazad̲j̲-i musaddas-i maḳbūḍ-i maḥd̲h̲ūf, Ḵh̲usraw u S̲h̲īrīn en ¶ hazad̲j̲-i musaddas-i mahd̲h̲ūf et Haft Paykar en I k̲h̲afīf-i mak̲h̲būn-i maḳṣūr, et enfin l’ Iskandar-nāma en mutaḳārib-i mut̲h̲…

Rind

(803 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(p.), désigne avec une nuance de mépris un coquin, un filou, un ivrogne, un débauché. Dans la terminologie des poètes et des mystiques, il acquiert la signification plus positive de personne dont le comportement extérieur est blâmable, mais dont le cœur est sain (Steingass, s.v. d’après le Burhān-i ḳāṭiʿ). L’étymologie de rind est obscure. Ce n’est pas un emprunt à l’arabe, malgré l’existence d’un pluriel interne runūd, forme savante employée à côté du pluriel régulier persan rindān. Le nom abstrait rindī désigne la conduite spécifique d’une personne ainsi qualifiée. Les historiens …

Muḥtas̲h̲am-i Kās̲h̲ānī

(875 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, S̲h̲ams al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ Kamāl al-Dīn , Persian poet of the early Ṣafawid period, born ca. 1500 in Kās̲h̲ān. According to the most reliable sources, he died in 996/1587-8; a ¶ less likely dating of his death, given by Abū Ṭālib Iṣfahānī in K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār (see Storey i/2, 878), is 1000/1591-2. For some time he was a draper ( bazzāz ) like his father, but he abandoned this trade for the more profitable career of a professional poet. His work was appreciated at the Ṣafawid court at Ḳazwīn. He seems to have continued, however, to l…

ʿUbayd-I Zākānī

(909 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. De
, or Niẓām al-Dīn ʿUbayd Allāh al-Zākānī, Persian poet of the Mongol period who became especially famous for his satires and parodies. He was born into a family of scholars and state officials descending from Arabs of the Banū Ḵh̲afād̲j̲a [ q.v.] settled in the area of Ḳazwīn since early Islamic times. In 730/1329-30 the historian Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī described him as a talented poet and a writer of learned treatises. A collection of Arabic sayings by prophets and wise men, entitled Nawādir al-amt̲h̲āl , belongs to this early period. When later in the same …
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