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Apsyrtus

(504 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Doyen-Higuet, Anne-Marie (Ciney)
(Ἄψυρτος [ Ápsyrtos], Lat. Absyrtus). [German version] [1] Son of Aeetes and Idyia The son of Aeetes and Idyia (correctly Tzetz. Lycoph. 798), and the brother of Medea. According to the older myth, Medea abducted him when he was still a small child, and, in order to stop the father's pursuit, threw his dismembered body into the water (Pherecyd. FGrH F 32; Apollod. 1,132 f.; or on the fields, according to Ov. Tr. 3,9). According to Sophocles (fr. 343 TrGF 4) and Callimachus (fr. 8), A. was killed in Aeetes' h…

Machaon

(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μαχάων; Macháōn). In Homer, M., like his brother Podalirius, is the son of Asclepius and like him is a ‘good physician’ and commander of 30 ships from Tricca, Ithome and Oechalia (Hom. Il. 2,729ff.) in Thessaly [1. 47ff.; 2. vol. 2, 17ff.; 3. vol. 1, 225ff.]; he cures Menelaus, who has been wounded by Pandarus, with herbs that Asclepius obtained from Chiron (Hom. Il. 4,192ff.); M. himself is wounded by Paris with an arrow (ibid. 11,505ff.) and revived by Hecamede with a mixed drin…

Helle

(164 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἕλλη; Héllē). Daughter of  Athamas and  Nephele, fled with her brother  Phrixus on a golden ram from her stepmother Ino and drowned in the sea, which from then on has been called  Hellespont (Pind. fr. 189; Aesch. Pers. 69f.) (Apollod. 180-182; Ov. Fast. 3,851-876; Hyg. Fab. 1-3; her tomb on the Chersonesus: Hdt. 7,58,2). Valerius Flaccus (5,476ff.; 2,611) associates H. and Phrixus more closely with the  Argonauts, by making Athamas the son of  Cretheus, rather than his brother, a…

Aeetes

(190 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Αἰήτης; Aiḗtēs). King of Aea/Colchis, son of Helios and Perse(is), brother of Circe, Pasiphae and Perses. Spouse of Idyia or Asterodeia (or Eurylytes: Naupact. fr. 6-7 EpGF), father of Chalciope (whom he married to Phrixus), of Medea, of Apsyrtus/Phaethon (as well as of Circe and Aegialeus in Diod. Sic. 4,45,3 and Dion. Scyt. fr. 20 Rusten): Hom. Od. 10,138 f.; Hes. Theog. 956 ff.; Apollod. 1,83, 129, 147; Apoll. Rhod. 3,240 ff. A. tries to kill Jason for the Golden Fleece, since his power depends on its possession (Val. Fl. 5,236 ff. = Diod. Sic.…

Argo

(176 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀργώ; Argṓ). Ship which carried the Argonauts (Hom. Od. 12,70). A ship with space for fifty oarsmen, constructed out of spruce wood from Pelion (Eur. Med. 3 f.) by Argus the son of Phrixus under the guidance of Athena (Apollod. 1,110). Named after her builder (Apollod. loc. cit.; Pherecydes FGrH F 106) or her speed (Diod. Sic. 4,41,3). The A. was granted the ability to speak (Pherecydes FGrH F 111a; Aeschyl. fr. 20 TrGF 3) by means of a piece of Dodonian oak that Athena set into t…

Nireus

(238 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Νιρεύς; Nireús). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and Canace Son of Poseidon and the Aeolian Canace (Apollod. 1,53). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Second most beautiful Greek in the Trojan War Son of Aglaia [2] and Charops [3], the ruler of Syme; weakling and (after Achilles) the second most beautiful Greek in the Trojan War, in which he took part with three ships (Hom. Il. 2,671ff.). N. is killed by his Trojan opposite number Eurypylus [2], the second most beautiful Trojan (Hom. Od. 11,522), (Quint. Smyrn. 6,3…

Mosella

(206 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (‘the little Maas’, diminutive of Mosa [1]). Lefthand, 545 km long tributary of the Rhine, today the Moselle. Its source was on the Vosegus in the territory of the Leuci, it flowed in the land of the Treveri through the provinces of Gallia Belgica and Germania superior, and its mouth was near Confluentes (Koblenz). Situated on the M. were Divodurum, Augusta [6] Treverorum and Rigodulum (cf. Tac. Ann. 13,53; Tac. Hist. 4,71; 77). The legate of Germania superior, L. Antistius Vetus,…

Haemon

(380 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Αἵμων; Haímōn, ‘skilful’), name of heroes. [German version] [1] Eponym of the Thess. Haemones Eponym of the Thessalian Haemones, son of  Pelasgus, father of  Thessalus (Rhianus of Bene, FGrH 265 F 30), or son of Zeus and Melia (IG IX 2, 582: 1st cent. BC, Larisa [1]), or son of Ares (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,527e). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Founder of Haemoniae in Arcadia Son of  Lycaon, founder of Haemoniae in Arcadia (Paus. 8,44,1; Apollod. 3,97). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [3] Companion of Nestor Leader of the Pylians, companion of  Nestor (Hom. Il. 4,296). Dräg…

Amycus

(178 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Ἄμυκος; Ámykos). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Bithynian nymph Melia Son of Poseidon and the Bithynian nymph Melia; king of the Bebryians, who sacrifices all foreigners to Poseidon (Val. Fl. 4,99) or challenges them to a boxing match with leather gloves (he is credited with their invention) and kills them (schol. Pl. Leg. 7,796a). Defeated during the Argonaut journey by Polydeuces, the son of Zeus and, according to Apollod. 1,119 and Apoll. Rhod. 2,1, killed (according to Theoc. 22,17 ff.; 131 ff , allowed to live after swearing an oath). Dräger, Paul (Trier) …

Cretheus

(124 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κρηθεύς, as ke-re-te-u already Mycenaean). The son of  Aeolus [1] and Enarete (Apollod. 1,51), founder and ruler of  Iolcus. After the death of his first wife  Sidero, he married his ward Tyro, the daughter of his brother  Salmoneus and the mother of Pelias and  Neleus with Poseidon, with whom he begat  Aeson [1], Phere and  Amythaon (Hom. Od. 11,235ff.; Hes. fr. 30,29ff.; Apollod. 1,90ff.; 96); Val. Fl. 5,476ff. also makes  Athamas a son of C.; Pind. Nem. 5,26 speaks of a daughter…

Acastus

(139 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἄκαστος). Son of Pelias and Anaxibia (cf. Apollod. 1,95), probably an Argonaut from the beginning (Apollod. 1,112). A. institutes games to commemorate his dead father and expels Jason and Medea from Iolcus (Apollod. 1,144), of which he becomes king (Apollod. 3,164; cf. Diod. 4,53,1; Hyg. Fab. 25,5). Absolves Peleus of the murder which Astydameia, wife of A. (in Pind. this is Hippolyte) is vainly trying to bring about, then slanders him to A.; A. leaves Peleus unarmed in Pelion, w…

Iason

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἰάσων; lásōn). [German version] [1] Leader of the Argonauts Thessalian hero from  Iolcus, leader of the  Argonauts, participant in the Calydonian Hunt (Apollod. 1,68), son of  Aeson [1] and Polymela (Hes. Cat. 38-40; Apollod. 1,107) or  Alcimede (Pherecydes 3 F 104 FGrH; Apoll. Rhod. 1,47); brother of  Promachus (Apollod. 1,143); with  Hypsipyle, he fathered  Euneus [1] (Hom. Il. 7,468) and Nebrophonos (Apollod. 1,115), and with  Medea, he fathered Medeus (Hes. Theog. 1001),  Mermerus [3] and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Having been raised by  Chiron (Hes. Cat. 40), I. lives…

Euphemus

(310 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Εὔφημος; Eúphēmos). In older myth, the son of Poseidon and of the Boeotian Mecionice of Hyrie (Hes. fr. 253 M.-W.); husband of the sister of Hercules, Laonome, with the ability to walk on water (probably all in Hes. fr. 253), Argonaut (Apollod. 1,112), chariot victor at the funeral games for Pelias (Cypselus chest, Paus. 5,17,9), (illegitimate) progenitor of the Battiads whom he sired with an (anon.) Lemnian woman, i.e. first ancestor of the kings of Cyrene (cf. Βάττος ... Εὐφημίδ…

Eurypylus

(392 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Εὐρύπυλος; Eurýpylos). [German version] [1] Suitor to Helen Son of Euaimon; a Thessalian and suitor to Helen (Apollod. 3,131), a warrior at Troy: leader of 40 ships (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.); wounded by Paris (11,575ff.), healed by Patroclus (11,809ff; 15,390ff.); stranded in Libya on the journey home (Lycoph. Al. 901f. with schol.). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Telephus, the son of Heracles Son of  Telephus son of Heracles; king of the Mysians; sent to the aid of Troy (Acusilaus FGrH F 40) by his mother  Astyoche, sister of Priam (Apollod. 3,…

Paraebius

(103 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Παραίβιος; Paraíbios). Mythical slave or owner of a farm, whose story was told to the Argonautsby Phineus [1], thereby proving his visionary powers (Apoll. Rhod. 2,456ff. with scholia): P.' father had felled a tree, in spite of the pleas of the hamadryad who lived in it, thus bringing ill fortune on himself and his descendants. Phineus recognized the cause and placated the nymph with an altar, whereupon she became Phineus' friend and provider [1. 222f. n. 3]. On P. in art, see [2]. Dräger, Paul (Trier) Bibliography 1 U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hellenistische D…

Ananke

(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀνάγκη; Anánkē). The word attested in Homer as an abstract term (‘compulsion’) develops significance as a philosophical term from the pre-Socratics onwards [1. 5 ff.; 2. 147 ff.; 3. 103 ff.]: Thales (A 1, DK 71, 12 f.) preserves the oldest Greek speculation, ‘to bring to expression with ananke, i.e. natural necessity, the power which is active mechanically behind all phenomena and which compels the divine primal principle to appear in its multitudinous forms’ [1. 6]; ananke is frequently equated with εἱμαρμένη ( heimarménē) (e.g. Heraclid. A 5). The pe…

Phrontis

(175 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Φρόντις; Phróntis). [German version] [1] Son of Phrixus and Chalkiope, daughter of Aietes Son of Phrixus and Aeetes' daughter Chalciope [2], brother of Argos [I 2], Melas [2] and Cytissorus (Hes. Cat. 255; Apollod. 1,83). On Phrixus’ death the sons return to Hellas (Apollod. 1,120; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1141ff.) or remain in Colchis (Val. Fl. 5,460ff.). Only in Apoll. Rhod. 4,70ff. does Ph. play a role, when Medea calls to him as the youngest of Phrixus’ sons to help her escape and he responds. Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Helmsman of Menelaus Son of Onetor, helmsman of Menelau…

Tyro

(288 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τυρώ; Tyrṓ). The daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, famed for her very white skin (from tyrós, cheese) and her magnificent head of curls (cf. Hom. Od. 2,119 f.; Hes. Cat. 30,25; Pind. Pyth. 4,136, cf 109; Soph. fr. 648; Diod. Sic. 6 fr. 6,5; 7,2). After her parents were killed by Zeus, T. who had opposed her father's sacrilege, is taken to Thessalia to her uncle Cretheus and his wife Sidero. Here Poseidon, assuming the shape of the river god Enipeus, fathers her twins Neleus [1] and Pelias; At…

Minyades

(412 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μινυάδες, Latin also Minyeïades/singular Minyeïas or Minyeïdes/singular Minyeïs). The three daughters of Minyas, whose names were Leucippe (Leuconoë), Arsippe (Arsinoë [I 2]) and Alcathoë [1] (Alcithoë). Their myth, which is missing in Apollodorus, is found with variants in Ov. Met. 4,1ff., 389ff., Plut. Mor. 299e-300a (Qu. Gr. 38), Antoninus Liberalis 10 and Ael. VH 3,42. According to Antoninus Liberalis, who follows Nicander (Heteroioumena, B. 4) and Corinna (fr. 665 PMG), the Minyade…

Medea

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μήδεια/ Mḗdeia, Lat. Medea). Born in Aea/Colchis (M. Αἰαίη: Apoll. Rhod. 3,1136) as the daughter of Aeetes, who was the son of Helios and the brother of Circe, and the Oceanid Idyia (Hes. Theog. 956ff., 992ff., Apollod. 1,129) or Hecate (Diod. Sic. 4,45,3). Sister of Chalciope [2] and Apsyrtus [1] (Apollod. 1,83.132), betrothed to Styrus (Val. Fl. 5,257f.), wife of Jason [1] and by him the mother of Medeius (Hes. Theog. 1001) or Mermerus and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Subsequently s…
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