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Camarina

(848 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | | Colonization | Punic Wars (Καμάρινα; Kamárina, Lat. Camarina, Camerina). Dorian town 60 km west of the southern tip of Sicily on a hillside of about 40 m in height, at the mouth of the Hipparis. The foundation by  Syracusae in 599 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3) marked the end of the Dorian-Syracusan expansion into the south-western hinterland. Its original foundation may have taken place from the sea; however, contact by land must soon have been established,…

Mons Neptunius

(49 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] Mountain range in north-eastern Sicily (Solin. 5,12), modern Monti Peloritani, named after the Temple of Poseidon which the mythical hunter Orion [1] is said to have erected on Mt. Pelorias (Hes. in Diod. 4,85,5). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2514.

Phalarium

(56 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φαλάριον; Phalárion). Fortress (φρούριον; phroúrion) near Gela in Sicily, probably the fortification complex discovered on Monte Desusino (429 m high), founded in the 6th cent. BC by Phalaris. Here Agathocles [2] was encamped in 311 BC in the battle against the Carthagians (Diod. Sic. 19,108,2). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 407f.; 10, 331-334.

Pantacyas

(71 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Παντακύας/ Pantakýas, Παντακίας/ Pantakías). River on the eastern coast of Sicily flowing into the Bay of Catane in the south near Brucoli, the modern Porcaria. In 729 BC. Lamis of Megara founded the settlement of Trotilum on the P. although it was abandoned shortly after. Other refererences: Thuc. 6,4,1; cf. Plin. HN 3,89: Pantagies; Ptol. 3,4,9: Παντάχου ποταμοῦ ἐσβολαί. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. P., RE 18, 686.

Eryce

(46 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐρύκη; Erýkē). Town in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐ., s.v. Παλική), located most probably in the mountainous area [1] of Ramacca [2]. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography 1 V. Tartaro, La montagna di Ramacca e l'antica città di E., 1980 2 E. Procelli, s.v. Ramacca, BTCGI 14, 549-554.

Megara

(2,675 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Creon (Μεγάρα/ Megára, Μεγάρη/ Megárē). Daughter of Creon [1] of Thebes, wife of Heracles [1] (Hom. Od. 11,269-270), who had received her hand in thanks for the liberation of Thebes from tribute to Erginus, and mother of some of the Heraclidae. Whereas the Thebans according to Paus. 9,11,2 tell of the insane Heracles' infanticide (on his insanity Cypria p. 40,28f. PEG) as nothing other than what Stesichorus (= 230 PMGF) and Panyassis (= fr. 1 PEG) relate, the version of P…

Macella

(84 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μάκελλα/ Mákella; Latin Macela, ILS 65, l. 4). Sicilian inland city, cannot be located. After the naval victory of Mylae in 260 BC, captured by C. Duilius [1], in the Second Punic War at times on the Punic side, in the Slave War in 102 BC a military base of Athenion [2]. Plin. HN 3,91 counts the Magellini among the stipendiarii. Evidence: Pol. 1,24,2; Liv. 26,21; Diod. Sic. 23,4,2; Cass. Dio fr. 93,4; Ptol. 3,4,14. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 300-304.

Pachynus

(236 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πάχυνος/ Páchynos). Promontory in the extreme south-east of Sicily (more precisely: 8 km northeast from there), today's Capo Pássero, 5 km southeast of today's Pachino. P. was of great importance for navigation as a landmark and measuring point (cf. Str. 2,4,3: distance from Crete; 6,2,11: from Malta; Plin. HN 3,87: from the Peloponnese). Because of the way the island was thought to be orientated, in antiquity P. was usually referred to as the east cape (Str. 6,2,1; Plin. HN 3,87;…

Iaitia

(28 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἰαιτία; Iaitía). Town in Sicily (Diod. Sic. 22,10,4; 23,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. I.; cf. HN 148), probably identical to  Ietae. Falco, Giulia (Athens)

Mons Nebrodes

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νεβρώδη ὄρη/ Nebrṓdé όrē). Densely-wooded mountains, which ‘rise opposite Etna, lower than it, but broader’ (Strab. 6,2,9); the modern Monti Nébrodi and Monti Madoníe in north-western Sicily (north-west of Etna), where according to Sil. 14,236f. both rivers known as Himeras rose. Probably named after nebrós/νεβρός, ‘stag’ (Solin. 5,12). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2157.

Endesa

(100 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] Siculan town [1] in the territory of Himera, mentioned in a dedication to Hera Thespis (rather than to Leukaspis [2]) inscribed on both sides of a relief. It was found in the Heraion of Samos and shows on one side a round shield and on the other the bow of the ship Samaina. The dedication was probably presented by citizens of Samos when they besieged Endesa (500 BC). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography 1 M. Massa, s.v. E., BTCGI 7, 1989, 181 2 G. Manganaro, Una dedica di Samo rivolta non a Leukaspis, ma a Hera Thespis?, in: ZPE 101, 1994, 120-126.

Eryx

(583 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(ὁ Ἔρυξ/ ho Éryx, Lat. Eryx, Erucus, Erycus). [German version] [1] Mountain in western Sicily High, isolated mountain in western Sicily (751 m), now Monte San Giuliano. Settled even in prehistoric times, with a famous sanctuary to the probably Phoenician goddess of E., identified as Aphrodite by the Greeks, later (Thuc. 6,2,3) became a polis of the  Elymaeans. The attempt by Dorieus to establish a Greek colony (around 510 BC) ended in his destruction by the Phoenicians and the Elymaeans of Segesta (Hdt. 5,43-4…

Motyum

(62 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυον; Mótyon). Fort in the region of  Acragas, occupied by Ducetius in 451 BC, reconquered by Acragas the following year (Diod. 11,91,1; 4). Possible location at modern Vassallaggi. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Tigano, Vassallaggi: nuove ricerche e nuovi dati, in: P. Melli, G. Cavaleri (eds.), Atti Convegno su Antichità e Storia della bassa Valle dell'Himera, (1987), 1993, 191-204.

Engyon

(119 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔγγυον; Énguon). City in the interior of Sicily, supposedly founded by Cretans (Diod. Sic. 4,79; Plut. Marcellus 20), taken by Timoleon from the tyrant Leptines (Diod. Sic. 16,72); in the 2nd Punic War on the side of Carthage and yet treated gently by Marcellus (Plut., ibid.); according to Cic. Verr. 3,103 a civitas decumana, according to Plin. HN 3,91 stipendiarii; the sanctuary of the ‘mothers’ (Plut. ibid.) was famous, in Cic. Verr. 2,4,97 of the Mater Magna, 2,5,186 Mater Idaea, with relics of Meriones and Odysseus. Undoubtedly identical with Troina [1. 13013; 2]. F…

Sicily

(3,857 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
(Σικελία/ Sikelía, Sicily). The largest island in the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum; cf. Str. 2,5,19; differently Hdt. 1,170 and Timaeus FGrH 566 F 65): 25,460 km2, including the offshore islands such as the Insulae Aegates, Ustica, the Aeoli Insulae, Cossura, Lopadusa (present-day Lampedusa), Aethusa (present-day Linosa) and Melite [7] 25,953 km2. [German version] I. Name The island was originally called Trinacria (Τρινακρία/ Trinakría, Hellanicus FGrH 51 F 79b), later Sicania (Σικανίη/ Sikaníē, Hdt. 7,170; Σικανία/ Sikanía, Thuc. 6,2,2) and only then Sicelia (Σικελία)…

Sileraioi

(83 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Σιλεραῖοι/ Sileraîoi). Ethnic name probably of Italic mercenaries from the region of the Sila Mountains (Sila [1], Bruttium), who up to the death of Dionysius [1] I in 367 BC minted Syracusan bronze coins in the 'drachma' series with the legend SILERAION and an attacking warrior. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Garraffino, La monetazione dell'età dionigiana. Contromarche e riconiazioni, in: Atti dell'VIII Convegno del Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici Napoli 1983, 1993, 191-244, especially 224  G. Tagliamone, I figli di Marte, 1994, passim.

Entella

(209 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Ἔντελλα; Éntella), modern Rocca d'Entella west of Corleone. City of the  Elymi in the west of Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,3), often named in the wars of Dionysius I and of Timoleon with the Carthaginians (Diod. Sic. 14,9; 48; 61; 15,73; 16,67; 73), numbered by Cic. Verr. 2,3,103 among the civitates decumanae, by Plin. HN 3,91 to the stipendiarii, not destroyed until the 13th cent. by Frederick II. The investigation of the settlement and of the area belonging to it (begun in 1983) has brought finds to …

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Merusium

(39 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μερούσιον; Meroúsion). Settlement of unknown location, 70 stadia (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 189) from Syracuse, probably in the vicinity of a sanctuary of Artemis Meroessa (Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 567.
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