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Cynosura

(346 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Κυνόσουρα; Kynósoura, ‘dog's tail’). Name of several headlands. [German version] [1] Promontory on the east coast of the island of Salamis Promontory on the east coast of the island of Salamis, 4 km long and narrow (Hdt. 8,76,1; 77,1). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 1, 870. [German version] [2] Narrow headland in the north-east of the bay of Marathon Narrow headland in the north-east of the bay of Marathon, where the Persian fleet landed in 490 BC (Paus. 1,32,3; 7), modern Cape Stomi. On C. there are walls of unknown d…

Oliaros

(85 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ὠλίαρος; Ōlíaros). Largest (38 km2) of the islands grouped around Paros, modern Antiparos (Str. 10,5,3; Mela 2,111). The Saliangos reef was the site of the earliest known late Neolithic settlement in the Cyclades. Early Cycladic graves have come to light on the neighbouring island of Diplo. The stalactite caves on O. were much frequented in ancient times already. In other respects the history of O. is closely connected with Paros. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography H. Kaletsch, s.v. Antiparos, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 121.

Lemnos

(813 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Λῆμνος; Lêmnos). [German version] A. Location Fertile L., which is, however, today almost treeless, is - at 477 km2 - one of the larger Aegean islands. Mainly consisting of slate with volcanic rock deposited in it, the low hill country reaches its highest elevation with the Skopia at 470 m. The rugged coast has bays that cut in deeply. The ancient capital cities were Myrina on the west coast (remains of a…

Gaurium

(105 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Γαύρειον, Γαύριον; Gaúreion, Gaúrion). The name of a settlement with a deep harbour on the north-western side of the island of Andros in the Cyclades. In the Hellenistic period, G. served as a port and is mentioned in association with various events in wars: Xen. Hell. 1,4,22; Diod. Sic. 13,69,4f.; Liv. 31,45,3ff.; GGM 1,500. Inland at Hagios Petros are the remains of a Hellenistic round tower, probably used to protect the nearby mines. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography J. T. Bent, Aegean Islands, 21966, 291ff. Lauffer, Griechenland, 230 L. Ross, Reisen…

Cythera

(756 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κύθηρα; Kýthēra, Lat. Cythera, the modern Kithira). [German version] A. Geography of the island Off the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese, 30 km long and 18 km wide, C. covers an area of around 262 km2, and is surrounded by several small, uninhabited islands. The coast consists mostly of steep cliffs, indented with small bays from which narrow, steep valleys lead into…

Callas

(43 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάλλας; Kállas). River on the northern coast of Euboea [1] near Histiaea-Oreos, probably identical with the modern Xerias or Xeropotamos (Str. 10,1,4). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 9, 82 Philippson/Kirsten 1, 574f.

Andros

(344 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἄνδρος; Ándros). With an area of about 384 km2, the second largest island of the Cyclades, seven nautical miles off Cape Caphireas (on the southern tip of  Euboea), mountainous (994 m) and abounding in water. The oldest settlement to date on A. has been discovered on its western coast, near Zagora (peak in the geometric period). In antiquity, its main town was located on the southern coast near Palaiopolis, where town walls, dwellings and a temple dating from the 6th/5th cents. BC have b…

Delos

(3,027 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Dark Ages | Commerce | Ionic | Marble | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Δῆλος; Dêlos), also Lesser D. (ἡ μικρὰ Δῆλος; hē mikrà Dêlos). [German version] I. Geography Island at the centre of the Cyclades, separated from Rheneia or Greater Delos (17 km2) by a channel 1 km wide. The small, now uninhabited island is some 6 km long and 1.2 km wide; it covers an area of 3.5 km2. D. is an elongated rocky ridge jutting from the sea, consisting mainly of gnei…

Caphereus

(43 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καφηρεύς, Καφαρεύς; Kaphēreús, Kaphareús). Much feared south-eastern cape of Euboea, modern Kavo Doro. Documentary evidence: Hdt. 8,7,1; Str. 8,6,2; Ptol. 3,14,22; Plin. HN 4,63; Mela 2,107. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 6f.

Caucasa

(47 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Καύκασα; Kaúkasa). Port on the northern coast of Chios (Hdt. 5,33,1); its inhabitants are epigraphically referred to as Kaukaseís (SGDI 5654; SEG 19, 575; Apollon Kaukaseus and Artemis Kaukasis in Erythrae, Syll.3 3, 1014a,19f.). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 6, 2292.

Astypalaea

(185 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀστυπάλαια; Astypálaia). Dodecanese island (97 km2; circumference according to Plin. HN 4,23: 88 milia passuum), situated between  Amorgos,  Anaphe and Calymnus. A. consists of two parts, joined only by a 100m wide isthmus. Evidence of early Bronze-Age settlements has been found on the eastern part, especially in the bay of Vathy. Mycenaean chamber tombs have been excavated in the western part and also near Armenochori. The location of the ancient polis was that of the modern capital of Chora.…

Lebinthos

(60 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Λέβινθος; Lébinthos). Island of the Sporades east of Amorgos, modern Lévitha, length 7 km, 15 km2 in size, several bays, surrounded by a series of small islands, uninhabited today. Evidence: Str. 10,5,12; Plin. HN 4,70; Mela 2,111; Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21; Ov. Met. 8,222, Ars am. 2,81. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 4, 155f.

Ceos

(652 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] [1] One of the Cyclades (Κέως; Kéōs). Northernmost of the western Cyclades (Xen. Hell. 5,4,61: Κέως; Hdt. 8,76; Bacchyl. 6,5; 16: Κέος; Kéos; Liv. 36,15: Cia), modern Kea. Twelve nautical miles off the southern tip of Attica, from which it is separated by the island of Makronisos. C. has an area of 131 km2, is mountainous (Prophitis Elias 567 m), and predominantly consists of crystalline slate. Silver deposits at the Hagios Symeon, where copper slags have also been found [9. 88f.]. On the Kephala promontory at the north-western tip of the island was a late …

Aegiale

(79 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] [1] City on Amorgos (Αἰγιάλη; Aigiálē). One of the poleis of this island was situated in the north of  Amorgos (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἄμοργος; Ámorgos). Remains of the sprawling town were found in the villages of Tholaria and Langada. Known as Giali in popular tradition, the place is today once again called A. (coins: HN 481). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography H. Kaletsch, s. v. A., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 83. [German version] [2] see  Aegialea see  Aegialea

Cerea

(104 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κέρεια; Kéreia). Island of the Cyclades (15 km2, height of more than 200 m) between Naxos and Amorgos, modern Keros (Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21: Cerus). In 425/4, it was a member of the Delian League (tribute of 630 drachmas, [1. vol. 1, 231, 308f., 501; vol. 3, 198]). Excavations uncovered an important early Cycladic settlement. Idol finds in the National Museum in Athens. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 ATL. L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 11, 253 Philippson/Kirsten vol. 4, 146f. E. Karpodini-Demetriade, Die gri…

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Cenaeum

(121 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κήναιον, Kḗnaion; Lat. Cenaeum). The north-western foothills of  Euboea, modern Cape Lihada, a flat alluvial promontory of a Neocene coastal terrace, with a sanctuary of Zeus Kenaios (Scyl. 58). The sanctuary which was probably fortified in Hellenistic times did not have a temple. On C. were the towns of Athenae Diades and Dion. In 427/6 BC, an earthquake caused parts of the peninsula to disappear into the sea (Demetrius of Callatis, FGrH 85 F 6). Sources: H. Hom. 1,219; Thuc. 3,93,…

Anaphe

(234 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀνάφη; Anáphē). Island of the Cyclades (35 km2), east of  Thera (Steph. Byz. s. v. A.), mountainous (Mount Vigla 582 m). Its Greek name has been explained as a derivation from ἀνάπτειν ( anáptein, ‘to flare up’ or ἀναφαίνεσθαι, anaphaínesthai, ‘to appear’), because, when viewed from the ancient settlement of  Thera, A. seems to be lit up by the low sun, giving rise to the legend that  Apollo made the island appear to the  Argonauts, when they were in distress at sea on their return from  Colchis (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1709).…

Casos

(163 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κάσος; Kásos). Southernmost island of the Dodecanese, 27 nautical miles from Crete, neighbouring island to Carpathus; with a total area of 66 km2, it is 17 km long and 6 km wide, mountainous, its highest peak Mount Prionas at 600 m. Its population was of Doric origin. Some remains of the ancient town have survived near the modern Polio above the modern Fri. C. was a member of the  Delian League with a tribute of 1,000 drachmas (ATL 1,302f.; 2,80; 3,24; 210). Later, C. became Rhodian, as did Carpathus…

Aegean Sea

(158 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Αἰγαῖον πέλαγος; Aigaîon pélagos). The ‘Aegean Sea’ (AS), first mentioned in Aesch. Ag. 664; Hdt. 2,97; 4,85; 7,55; Ps.-Scyl. 58, extended according to Hdt. 2,113; Str. 10,4,2 from the opening of the Hellespontus to the island of Crete. According to other sources, it extended only as far as the island of Cos (Str. 7,7,4; 2,5,21), or ended west of Sounion (Plin. HN 4,9,19). Str. 2,5,21 reports the AS to be 4,000 stades ( c. 708 km) long and 2,000 stades wide ( c. 354 km). The frequent separation of the Icarian Sea defines the south-eastern extent along the arch…
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