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Idrias

(134 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἰδριάς; Idriás). Mountainous region in Caria with the Marsyas valley east of Mylasa (Hdt. 5,118; Str. 14,5,23), with the like-named Carian city. Its allegedly older name, Chrysaoris (Steph. Byz. s.v. I.; s.v. Chrysaoris), is also attributed to the city of Stratoniceia and its countryside (Paus. 5,21,10), probably in the sense that I. lay in an area where the villages had joined together in the Carian league of Chrysaoreis around the sanctuary of Zeus Chrysaoreus; the city of Strat…

Curupedion

(72 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κούρου or Κόρου πεδίον). Plain in Lydia north of Magnesia on the Sipylos, east of the confluence of the Hyllus [4] and the Hermos [2] (Str. 13,4,5; 13), where Lysimachus was defeated in 281 BC by Seleucus (Porphyrius FGrH 260 F 3,8), and Antiochus [5] III was defeated in 190 BC by the Romans (Liv. 37,37-39). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography H. Bengtson, Griech. Gesch., 51977, 389, see n. 4, 481.

Silandus

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Σίλανδος/ Sílandos). City in eastern Lydia, at a northern tributary of the Hermus [2] (e.g. river god Hermus in coin images). Under Domitianus [1] (AD 81-96) S. became a civitas , issuing coins (until Severus [2] Alexander); at the same time Mocadene was divided into the territories of the cities of S. and Temenothyrae, the two cities then being called mētropóleis. S. was near modern Kara Selendi (to the west of Selendi). Bishops of S. took part in the Councils of Nicaea in 325 and Cha…

Calynda

(248 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (τὰ Κάλυνδα; tà Kálynda). Settlement on the south-western coast of Asia Minor, taken as being part of Caria as well as Lycia, 60 stades inland from the coast on the Axon (modern Kargın çayı) east of the  Indus [2] (Hdt. 1,172; Str. 14,2,2; Plin. HN 5,103; Ptol. 5,3,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. C.). In 480 BC, it was under the rule of  Damasithymus (Hdt. 8,87f.), in the middle of the 5th cent. a member of the  Delian League (as Klaÿnda); Ptolemaic in the 3rd cent. In 166 BC, C. was subordinate to  Caunus [2…

Myndus

(497 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μύνδος; Mýndos). City in southwestern Asia Minor on the western coast of the peninsula stretching from  Halicarnassus to M., modern Gümüşlük. Its predecessor was a fortified highland settlement of the Leleges (Old ‘M.’, Plin. HN 5,107) on Mount Boz (3.5 km to the south). In the 5th cent. BC, M. was a member of the Delian League. In about 360, the town was abandoned or relocated to a harbour protected by foothills. The refoundation, probably under  Maussollus, was simultaneously connected with a synoikismós of six settlements around Halicar…

Cnidus

(445 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Colonization | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κνίδος; Knídos, Lat. Cnidus). City of the Carian or Dorian Chersonesus (now the Reşadiye peninsula). Dorian settlement (Hom. Il. 1,43; Hdt. 1,174); member of the Dorian Pentapolis. C. probably stood originally in the middle of the peninsula near today's Datça. Historical dates: About 580 BC it participated in the colonization of Sicily (Thuc. 3,88) and in the Hellenion in Naucratis (…

Blaundos

(240 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Βλαῦνδος; Blaûndos). City in eastern  Lydia on the border with Phrygia, to which it is therefore also assigned (Ptol. 5,2,25: Βλέανδρος; Bléandros); south of Inay (cf.  Klannudda) near the modern Sülümenli (also Sülünlü) on a narrow spur between two ravines flowing into the Hippurius (the modern Köprülü Çay), a northern tributary of the upper Maeander [2]. Indigenous place name in 2nd cent. BC still Mlaundos (on coins). From its official designation Blaundeī́s Makedónes (coins, inscription IGR 4, 717, 3rd c…

Telandrus

(135 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (Τήλανδρος; Tḗlandros). City in the border region of Caria (Cares) and Lycia (Lycii) on the River Glaucus (Plin. HN 5,101;  Quint. Smyrn. 4,7); hardly to be correctly located in the ruin sites of modern Nif on the upper River Nif  (ancient Glaucus?), rather, as a member of the Delian League, to be found near the coast: the Telandrii, who were included in the tribute lists for the years 453/2-425/4 BC ( Phóros C.; cf. ATL 1, 555), probably inhabited the island of Telandria (modern Tersane) o…

Labraunda, Labranda

(312 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Λάβραυνδα, Λάβρανδα; Lábraunda, Lábranda). Locality and sanctuary of the Carian Zeus Stratios (also Labrandos), situated on a southern spur of Mt Latmus. Connected by a sacred road to Mylasa, to which it belonged as kṓmē together with the later settlement (Str. 14,2,23). Place name and name of the god are pre-Greek. The double-headed axe ( lábrys) of L. was believed to have been taken over from the Amazons or the Lydian Heraclid kings (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 45). The cult statue ( xóanon ) with the shouldered lábrys is depicted on coins of the 4th cent. BC. The shri…

Klannudda

(134 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κλαννούδδα/ Klannoúdda; Tab. Peut. 9,4: Clanudda). City in eastern Lydia, c. 55 km east-north-east of Philadelphia [1], north of the Persian royal road. K. is probably the site of ruins at Hacet Kalesi near Kışla, where Hellenistic wall-ruins were identified, on the north-west edge of the plain of İnay (ancient Náïs). Coins in the 2nd/1st cents. BC ( Klannoudda; [1]; HN 650). K. was probably established as a Seleucid fortress, like neighbouring Blaundos, 15 km to the south, and absorbed by it at the start of the Roman Imperial period. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliogr…

Gerga

(269 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γέργα; Gérga). Village in northern  Caria, south-east of Eskiçine on the Marsyas [4], near Incekemer (formerly Gâvurdamları). The name G. (also Gergas, G. kṓmē) is to be found many times in uniquely large clumsy Greek (on one occasion also Latin) letters on boulders, rock stelae hewn in a pyramid shape and idol-like colossal statues (fragmentary) in the vicinity of a small temple (?) built of solid granite blocks, on the temple itself and carved into one of the low well-houses (?). Several parts that h…

Tmolus

(290 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Τμῶλος/ Tmôlos). [German version] [1] Mountain chain in Lydia Mountain chain (up to 2157 m elevation) in Lydia, snow-covered in winter (Hom. Il. 2,866; 20,385), modern Bozdağ. The T. mountains were the source of the Pactolus, which in Antiquity bore auriferous sand; Sardis was on its banks (Plin. HN 5,110). In the T. mountains, vines were cultivated (Str. 14,1,15; Plin. HN 14,74; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,12), they were known for fields of saffron (Verg. G. 1,56; 4,380; Solin. 40,10). The T. were the residence…

Gygaie limne

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γυγαίη λίμνη; Gygaíē límnē). Lake in Lydia north of  Hermus and of  Sardis, to which in the south adjoin the Lydian royal necropolis (modern Bintepe, ‘Thousand Hills’) with the tomb tumuli of  Alyattes,  Gyges and other princes (Hipponax fr. 42 Masson); possibly called after the ancestors of  Gyges (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 46) by the same name or a legendary figure. Gygaiae limne (GL) is already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 20,390f.; cf. 2,865), mythographical fantastic stori…

Saittai

(256 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαΐτται; Saḯttai). Town in eastern Lydia (Maeonia [1]; Ptol. 5,2,21: Σέτται, Σάετται), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, cf. Hyllus [4], c. 12 km on the west) and the Hermus [2]; present-day Sidaskale near İçikler. Representations of the river gods Hyllus and Hermus are found on coins of the Imperial Period . S. was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In AD 124, the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. Cult of the Men Axiottenus. Among others, …

Pactolus

(126 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Πακτωλός/ Paktōlós). River in Lydia, originates at the Tmolus mountianrange (Boz Dağları), flows through Sardis and into the Hermus [2]; modern-day Sart Çayı. It was famous for the electron and gold dust washed out near the source (Hdt. 1,93,1; 5,101,2; Plin. HN 5,110), to which the Mermnad kings (Mermnadae) owed their legendary wealth (Archil. fr. 22 D.; Hdt. 6,125). Smelteries were located on the P. in Sardis. By the 1st cent. BC the gold of the P. was exhausted, it seems (Str. 13,1,23; 4,5). Quartz sand containing gold was also found in neighbouring streams. Kaletsch, …

Mastaura

(117 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Μάσταυρα; Mástaura). Town in Lydia on the southern slopes of the Mes(s)ogis (Str. 14,1,47; Plin. HN 5,120; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Anth. Pal. 11,230, with a pun on the place-name), ruins to the north of Nazilli. From the Roman period, municipal institutions and cults are known from inscriptions and coins. In Christian times an episcopal see, it was represented at the councils of Ephesus (431) and Calchedon (451) (Hierocles, Synekdemos 659,8; Not. episc. 1,101; 3,21; 7,91; 8,108; 9,15; 10,156). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensb…

Aperlae

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ἀπέρλαι/ Apérlai). Settlement on the southern coast of Lycia (Lycii, Lycia; Plin. HN. 5,100), in the northeastern corner of a westward opening bay, modern Sıcak İskelesi. In the 5th cent. BC Lycian city coins, in the 1st cent. BC Lycian League minting, and again c. AD 240 (HN 694). In the Roman period A. was the chief town of a sympoliteia of three neighbouring communities in the Lycian League (IGR 3, 692 f.): Apollonia (modern Kılınçlı), Isinda [1] (near…

Sardiane

(110 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαρδιανή; Sardianḗ). Town territory of Sardis (with map; Str. 13,4,5; cf. Xen. Hell. 3,4,21; Xen. Ages. 1,29). Besides the valley of Pactolus, it included the fertile plain around the middle course of the Hermus [2] (Σαρδιανὸν πεδίον/ Sardianòn pedíon, Hdt. 1,80,1; Plut. Agesilaos 10; Str. loc.cit.), about east of Salihli up to Turgutlu [1. 499, 501], its exact boundaries being unknown. The Roman judicial district of Sardis ( Sardiana iurisdictio, Plin. HN 5, 111) stretched far beyond S., especially towards the east. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 G. …

Alinda

(318 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Ἄλινδα/ Álinda). City in northern Caria (Cares; Ptol. 5,2,20). In the Delian League in the middle of the 5th cent. BC (ATL 1, 467 f.); in 341/40 the only fortress remaining to the princess Ada, which in 334 BC she handed over to Alexander [4] the Great, only to receive it back by adopting him (Arr. Anab. 1,23,8; Diod. 17,24,2). After that A. was for a short time renamed Alexandria on the Latmus [1]; the city is supposed to have…

Loryma

(161 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Λώρυμα; Lṓryma). Town on the south coast of Caria (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 247), east of the southern tip of Boz Burun in the heart of the peraea of Rhodes, belonged to Kasara (modern Asardibi), modern Bozuk Kale (‘castle ruin’). On the headland (Str. 14,2,4; 2,14; Larumna, Mela 1,84; Plin. HN 5,104; Ptol. 5,2,8; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.) over the approach to the bay lie the ruins of a Rhodian fortress (3rd/2nd cent. BC); on the southeastern side, rock inscriptions for Rhodian Zeus At…
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