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Mostene

(205 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μοστήνη; Mostḗnē). Lydian city (Ptol. 5,2,16), localised according to inscriptions and coins either at the eastern foot of Mount Sipylus near modern Çobanisa or Sancaklıboz or to the south of Thyateira or c. 40 km to the east of Magnesia [3] (modern Asartepe near Urganlı). In AD 17, M. was destroyed by an earthquake (Tac. Ann. 2,47,3). M. was one of 12 or 14 cities of the province of Asia that thanked Tiberius for help in rebuilding with honorary inscriptions and a monument in Rome (copy: Puteoli, CIL X 1624; I…

Idyma

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἴδυμα; Ídyma). Ancient Carian settlement (Ptol. 5,2,15; Steph. Byz. s.v. I.) on the eastern end of the gulf of Ceramus near Gökova, 4 km inland near İskele, by the river Idymus. Coins (from the 6th cent. BC onwards) showing a head of Pan and from the Hellenistic period with a Rhodian Apollo and fig leaf are preserved. In the mid-5th cent. BC I. was a member of the  Delian League and was ruled by Pactyes. In the 3rd/2nd cents. I. belonged to the Rhodian Peraea, was occupied in 201 …

Theangela

(390 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θεάγγελα/ Theángela). City in Caria (Cares), to the east of Halicarnassus, most eastern settlement of the Leleges; a precedessor settlement may have been Συάγγελα/ Syángela (S.), at the modern Alazeytin Kalesi to the west above Çiftlik [1. 112-116, 145-147; 2. 89-96], or on Mount Kaplan to the southwest of modern Etrim [3. 17 note 3, 224 note 33a]. In the 6th/5th cent. BC S. was in the hands of the Carian dynastic family of Pigres, who held a command…

Trapezopolis

(140 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τραπεζόπολις/ Trapezópolis). City in Caria (Ptol. 5,2,18; Cares) on the northern slopes of Mount Cadmus (modern Baba) in the Salbacus mountains (modern Akdağ); scant remains of the city are at Bolu to the west of Denizli. As well as in inscriptions and on coins (1st-3rd cents. AD) T. is particularly well attested in late Antiquity literary sources. T. was part of the Conventus of Alabanda (Plin. HN 5,109). T. enjoyed close relations with the neighbouring city of Attuda (modern Hasköy; cf. Homónoia coins under Antoninus [1] Pius). In the 4th cent. AD T. was …

Amyzon

(290 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἀμυζών/ Amyzṓn). City in Caria (Cares; cf. Str. 14,2,22; Ptol. 5,2,19), on the northern slopes of the Latmus [1] mountains 15 km to the northwest of Alinda (see vol. 15 addenda). A 6th cent. BC settlement which arose around a mountain sanctuary - in the middle of the 5th cent. possibly belonging to the Delian League (ATL 1, 521) - was expanded under Idrieus (351-344 BC) into a Greek-style city. It attained its peak in the 3rd cent. BC. A. was renamed Alexandria for a short time, w…

Cedreae

(271 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Education / Culture (Κεδρέαι, also Κεδρεῖαι, Κεδρεαί; Kedréai, Kedreîai, Kedreaí). Town in Caria on the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf, on the island of Şehir adası and on the mainland near Taşbükü. Originally, its population was purely Carian, later Carian-Greek (μιξοβάρβαροι, mixobárbaroi, Xen. Hell. 2,1,15). The inhabitants of C. spoke the dialect of Dorian Asia Minor (cf. inscriptions). At the end of the 6th cent. BC, Hecat. mentions C. as a town (FGrH 1 F 248); in the 5th…

Thyssanus

(109 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Θυσσανοῦς/ Thyssanoûs). Port in southern Caria (Cares; Mela 1,84; Plin. HN 5,104) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula on the Gulf of Syme (modern Sömbeki) at modern Ortaca. T. belonged to the Rhodean peraia, as a dámos ( demos [2] B) politically to Camirus on Rhodes, with a territory stretching as far as the southern and northern bays (e.g. with the remains of an acropolis at modern Cumhuriyet Mahallesi). After a temporary separation T. was returned to Rhodes by the Romans presumably c. 70 AD. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Blümel, Die Inschr…

Olymus

(128 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ὄλυμος/ Ólymos or Ὄλυμον/ Ólymon?). City in Caria north-west of Mylasa; known only from inscriptions. In the 5th cent. BC, member of the Delian League ( Hýlimos); in the 3rd/2nd cents., O. merged with Mylasa in sympoliteía . A temple of Apollo and Artemis survives at modern Kafaca, 8 km north-west of Milâs. The inscriptions (end of 2nd cent.  - 70s of 1st cent. BC) very often relate to the selling or leasing of temple land and provide information about a privileged class constituted by the desce…

Tabae

(179 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τάβαι/ Tábai). City in southeastern Caria, in the south of the Plain of T. (Ταβηνὸν πεδίον/ Tabēnòn pedíon, cf. Str. 12,8,13) on a rocky elevation near modern Kale. From the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC onwards, T. had the constitution of a polis (before 269/8: [1. 321 no. 1]). In 189 BC T. capitulated to Manlius [I 24] Vulso (Liv. 38,13,11-13) and after 167 was a 'friend and ally' of Rome (IG XIV 695-696b). T.'s autonomy was confirmed by Rome in 81 BC in thanks for its loyalty in the First Mithridatic War, its territor…

Alabanda

(368 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (Ἀλάβανδα; Alábanda). C. 40 km south of the  Maeander valley in the middle Carian plain ( Caria) of Çine, its most important location in antiquity, on two hills lying close together (Str. 14, 2, 26) and in the subsequent plain to the north, on the left bank of the  Marsyas, today Araphisar. First mentioned in 480 BC (city tyrant Aridolis in Greek captivity: Hdt. 7,195 -- unclear how the news at Hdt. 8,136 is to be reconciled with …

Caryanda

(172 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (τὰ Καρύανδα; tà Karýanda). Carian (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 242; Scyl. FGrH 709 T 1f.) harbour town between Myndus and Bargylia (Str. 14,2,20), south of the modern Güllük körfezi, originally on an offshore island (Salih adası?), later relocated to the mainland. C. was a member of the  Delian League and home of the seafarer (Hdt. 4,44,1) and geographer  Scylax. On Salih adası, remains of a walled settlement have been found; the mainland settlement of C., incorporated into  Myndus in the 3rd cent. BC, should be located not far from Salih adası near…

Mocadene

(93 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μοκαδ(δ)ηνή; Mokad(d)ēnḗ). Region in eastern Lydia along the upper Hermus in Maeonia [1], on the border with Phrygia; its location was established through inscriptions naming places within it ( kṓmē Thermai Theséos, modern Kula Emir Hamamları; mētropóleis Silandus, modern Selendi, and Temenothyrae). It remains doubtful whether to associate Moccadeni, a dḗmos in Asia (incorrectly located in Bithynia in Ptol. Geog. 5,2,18), with Mocadene. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography K. Buresch, Aus Lydien, 1898, 186 with map  J. Keil, s.v. M., RE 15, 2113  Id., s.v.…

Ceramus

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Κέραμος; Kéramos). Town in south-western Caria on the northern coast of the gulf named after C. (Κεράμειος or Κεραμικὸς κόλπος; Kerámeios/ Keramikòs kólpos, sinus Ceramicus; modern Gökova körfezi), removed from the coast by the delta formation of the -- in the end subterranean -- Koca Çay (Str. 14,2,15), modern Kemerdere near Ören (Plin. HN 5,109; Ptol. 5,2,10; Paus. 6,13,3f.). Originally Carian, it was Hellenized from the 6th cent. BC (archaic kouros head, c. 540/530 [1]); in 454/3 BC, it was a member…

Mylasa

(878 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Diadochi and Epigoni | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (τὰ Μύλασα; tà Mýlasa). Main locality of the Cares in the land of Caria, modern Milâs. Place name pre-Greek, ancient cults of Carian Zeus in M. and environs (Hdt. 1,171; Str. 14,2,23). M. participated in the Ionian Revolt under the Carian Heraclides (the son of Ibanollis, tyrant of M.; Hdt. 5,37,121). In the middle of the 5th cent. BC, M. was a membe…

Hiera Kome, Hierocaesarea

(272 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἱερὰ Κώμη; Hierà Kṓmē, Ἱεροκαισάρεια; Hierokaisáreia). Settlement in Lydia on the ancient Pergamon-Sardis road east of the  Hyllus near modern Sazova or Beyova. Hiera Kome (HK) developed around a sanctuary of  Anaetis; this cult, which was introduced under the Persians, was found throughout the Lydian Hermus valley and because of its strangeness (fire worship, Magi priests) was still commented upon by the Greeks in the 2nd cent. AD  (Paus. 5,27,5ff.; 7,6,6). In 201 BC a victim of the …

Castolus

(154 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Καστωλός; Kastōlós). Town (and river?) in Lydia. The ‘plain of C.’ (Καστωλοῦ πεδίον; Kastōloû pedíon) was the perpetual rallying-point for the Persian army when on alert (cf. Cyrus the Younger:Xen. Hell. 1,4,3; Xen. An. 1,1,2; 9,7). The plain cannot be localized with certainty, but should be not far from Sardis, near the Persian royal road: according to inscriptions, possibly the plain of Burçak around Söğüt çayı; C. would then be the modern Bebekli. Formerly independent (Ethnika IG II2 3059; 3233) with fortifications ( tetrapyrgia) around its plain, in imperia…

Mardi

(244 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μάρδοι; Márdoi). Near Eastern tribes in Armenia (Ptol. Geog. 5,12,9), Media and Hyrcania south of the Caspian Sea in the modern Elburz Mountains/northern Iran (Str. 11,13,3), called Amardi here (Str. 11,6,1; 7,1; Plin. HN 6,36; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀμαρδοί/ Amardoí, s.v. Μ.), in Margiane (Str. 11,8,8; Plin. HN 6,47); also one of the four Persian nomadic tribes (Hdt. 1,125,4) living above the Elymaïs region (Str. 11,13,6; Plin. HN 6,134; Arr. Ind. 40,6) in modern Ansan. Persian M. served in the Achaemenid army (Hdt. 1,84,2…

Lagina

(208 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (τὰ Λάγινα; tà Lágina). Location, north of Stratoniceia, of a sanctuary of the Carian Hecate (modern Leyna, near Turgut); annual Panegyris (Str. 14,2,25; 29), procession with the sacred key, mystery plays, penteteric agons. In 81 BC, it was established as Hekatesia Rhomaea, the right to grant asylum given by the Senate later confirmed by Caesar, Augustus and, in AD 22, Tiberius (Tac. Ann. 3,62,2). Archaeological findings: square, lined by Doric stoai, surrounding a pseudodipteros temple wit…

Cenchreus

(175 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κέγχρειος, Κέγχριος; Kénchreios, Kénchrios, Cenchreus). Stream south-west of Ephesus (Alexander Aetolus fr. 2 Powell; Str. 14,1,20; Paus. 7,5,10; Tac. Ann. 3,61,1), modern Arvalia Çayı (not the Değirmen dere, but cf.[1]); it rises at Mount Solmissus (modern Agadağ), and before its sedimentation flowed into the bay of the Caystrus, nowadays from the left into the  Caystrus [1] itself. The C. ran through the Ortygia, the grove in which Leto allegedly gave birth to Apollo and Artemis (S…

Arconnesus

(91 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἀρκόννησος; Arkónnēsos). ‘Guardian island’ (according to Str. 14,12,16; Steph. Byz. s.v.A.). Long-stretched-out island off the coast of  Caria, which protects the harbour bay of  Halicarnassus and which was fortified in ancient times; modern Kara Ada. During the siege by Alexander the Great in 334 BC, the Persians retreated to A. (Arr. Anab. 1,23,3 Ἀκρόνησος). Plin. HN 5,133 [1. 257] mistakenly placed  Ceramus on this island. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 G. Winkler, R. König, C. Plinius Secundus d.Ä., Naturkunde (Lat.-Ger.), book 5, 1993. Trav…
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