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Mare Nostrum

(941 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (μεγάλη θάλασσα/ megálē thálassa, Mediterranean). Because of various earth movements that are still ongoing (rising, sinking; formation of numerous islands, e.g. the archipelago between Greece and Anatolia and Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearic Islands; still active volcanoes and earthquakes) the appearance of the Mare Nostrum (MN) changed constantly (connections to the various adjoining seas, e.g. the Atlantic, the Miocene seas in the northern foothills of the Al…

Nesactium

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Settlement in Istria at modern Vizac̆e, approx. 8 km north-east of modern Pula/Croatia (Plin. HN 3,129). Suburb of the Histri on a bank with a sanctuary dated to 1,000 BC; conquered by the Romans in 177 BC (Liv. 41,11,1: oppidum Nesattium). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography K. Mihovilić, Rezultati sondanog istraivanja u sjevernoj bazilici u Nezakciju (1977 godine), in: Histria Archaeologica 15/6, 1984/5, 5-29  M. Zaninović, Apsorus, Crexa e Nesactium. Badò sulla rotta marittima adriatica, in: Quaderni dell' Antiquità di Venetia 10, 1994, 179-188  V.Ved…

Athenion

(484 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνίων; Athēníōn). [German version] [1] Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens (different from  Aristion [1. 341-343]), only known from the polemic party of  Posidonius (FGrH 87 fr. 36). Sent from Athens to  Mithridates VI in 88 BC, taken up by him among his φίλοι ( phíloi, friends), he won the support of the people with Mithridates' support and had as στρατηγὸς ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα ( strategòs epì tà hópla) a decisive influence on Athenian politics (‘tyrant’). A failed raid on Delos seems to have ended his political career. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Himeras

(83 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of two rivers in Sicily which, rising not far from one another in opposite directions on S. Salvatore (1910 m) near Polizzi (modern Imera Settentrionale, Imera Meridionale), were regarded as a single river and as the north-south central line of the island, although the eastern half of the island, thus divided, is almost twice as big as the western half. Evidence: Pol. 7,4,2; Liv. 24,6,7; Str. 6,2,1; Mela 2,119; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,7; Sil. Pun. 14,233. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Neapolis

(2,079 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις/ Néa pólis, Νεάπολις/ Neápolis, ‘New City’). [German version] [1] Town on the northern coast of the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia Town on the northern coast of the Aegean to the west of the mouth of the Nestus river, across from the island of Thasos, modern Kavalla (Str. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Scyl. 67), probably a Thasian colony but the exact period of foundation is unknown. Early in the 6th cent. BC, autonomous silver coinage modelled on that of Eretria [1] (HN 196…

Gaeson

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γαίσων; Gaísōn). Small river on the southern slopes of the Mycale mountains (Samsun Dağı), cf. Hdt. 9,97; Mela 1,87 ( Gaesus); Plin. HN 5,113 ( Gessus). Scolopoeis (Σκολοπόεις) with a temple of the Eleusinian Demeter was located at the G.; it was the location of the battle between Greeks and Persians in 479 BC (Hdt. 9,97). A lake named after the river (Γαισωνὶς λίμνη; Gaisōnìs límnē, Ath. 7,311e) is also to be located in the vicinity. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Orontes

(657 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ὀρόντης/ Oróntēs, MSS; Ὀρόντας/ Oróntas, OGIS 264,4; Ἀροάνδης/ Aroándēs, OGIS 390ff.). Armenian satraps and kings: O. [1-6]; the river O. [7]. [German version] [1] Relative of the Armenian royal family Relative of the royal family. After initial antagonism with Cyrus [3] the Younger, O. became his follower, and was subsequently convicted of treason and executed (Xen. An. 1,6; 9,29). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] O. I Persian governor of Armenia Son of the Bactrian Artasyras. As the Persian governor of Armenia, he married Rhodogune, the daughter of…

Isindus

(30 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴσινδος; Ísindos, Ἴσινδα; Ísinda). Place name ocurring with these two name forms only in Steph. Byz. s.v. Isindos as a town in  Ionia. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Amyntas

(921 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἀμύντας; Amýntas). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (end of 6th cent. BC) First historically verifiable king of Macedonia, friend of the  Peisistratids. Upon Darius' appearance in Europe he became his vassal-satrap and was rewarded with an expansion of his territory and the marriage of his daughter to a member of the  Achaemenids. His son  Alexander [2] invented a novelistic history (Hdt. 5,17 ff.), in order to make this credible for the Greeks. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Borza, 98 ff. E. Badian, Herodotus on Alexander I of Macedon, in: S. Hornblower (ed.), G…

Sebaste

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σεβαστή/ Sebast ). City in Phrygia, founded under Augustus by means of synoikismós (involving, i.a., Διοσκωπητεῖς/ Dioskōpēteís, probably also Φλημεῖς/ Phlēmeís; [1. 85 f. no. 16]) on the eastern edge of the valley of the Sinder (Σινδρός/ Sindrós, coins HN 684; modern Banaz river) (IGR IV 635; 682 l. 18). Hellenistic wall remains at modern Selçikler, 2 km to the southwest of Sivaslı (cf. name!) suggest that a polis already existed there. A portion of the ancient road to the east of Selçikler has been discovered. Bishopric in Late Antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 6…

Eurotas

(200 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Εὐρώτας; Eyrṓtas, ‘the abundantly-flowing’). The 82 km-long river (mythological derivation from king E. in Paus. 3,1,1f.) rises with its source-streams on the flat valley-watershed of the Alpheius between Mt. Parnon and Mt. Taygetus on the Asea plain, and in the north-western foothills of the Arcadian Mt. Parnon (the presumption of subterranean links in the region of its source between the E. and Lake Taka, made in Paus. 8,44,4, is improbable), and, following a tectonic depression (‘the E. trough’), enters the 18 km-long and c. 10 km-wide Laconian basin north o…

Philadelphia

(469 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Φιλαδέλφεια/ Philadélpheia). [German version] [1] Lydian town founded by Seleucus I This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Education / Culture Lydian town founded by Seleucus I (cf. SEG 35, 1985, 1170 [2. 180139; 3. no. 20]) or by Attalus [5] II Philadelphos (who definitely gave the town its name). It lay at the northeast foot of Mt. Tmolus in the fertile valley of the river Cogamis (cf. the coins in HN 655, present-day Alaşehir Çayı), a southern tributary of the Hermus, in southern Catacecaumene [1] on the …

Limes

(12,382 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. General In the religious and administrative theory of the land surveyors, the Latin word limes denoted the path marking the boundary between two pieces of land, while in military and political usage (Tac. Ann. 1,50; Frontin. Str. 1,3,10) it meant the border between Roman and non-Roman territory (SHA Hadr. 12). Over recent years, research has led the military connotation of the term limes, which has been used almost exclusively from the 19th cent., to be expanded to comprehend also the historico-geographical and socio-economic fields. Where the limites were origin…

Netum

(172 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νέητον, Νεαίτιον/ Néēton, Neaítion; Latin Netum). City of the Siculi in the southeastern part of Sicilia (Plin. HN 3,91: Netini; Ptol. 3,4,13), modern-day Noto Antica, located on the upper course of the Asinaro on a steep, heart-shaped bluff (420 m high), 16 km to the northwest of Noto. At the beginning of the 1st Punic War in 263 BC N. was awarded by Rome to the kingdom of Syracuse (Diod. 23,4,1: Νεαιτῖνοι; StV 3, No. 479). As part of the Roman province, N. was one of the favoured municipalities ( civitates foederatae) and expressly exempted from providing grain shipments ( cu…

Pyrgi

(667 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Πύργοι/ Pýrgoi). [German version] [1] Port of Caere This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Phoenicians, Poeni (Πύργοι/ Pýrgoi). Probably the most frequented port of ancient Caere, near modern Santa Severa. Literary evidence points to a sanctuary to Eileithyia (Str. 5,2,8) or Leucothea (Ps.-Aristot. Lin. insec. 2,1349b;  Ael. VH 1,20;  Polyaenus, Strat. 5,2,21) there, possibly identical to the remains excavated mid 20th cent. near a bay on the Tyrrhenian coast: a témenos (holy district) with two archaic temples (single cel…

Polichne

(171 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Πολίχνη; Políchnē). [German version] [1] Settlement in the Olympieum in the SW of Syracusae Settlement in the Olympieum, a sanctuary of Zeus on the right bank of the Anapus in the south west of Syracusae, where in 414 BC Gylippus stationed part of his cavalry to hamper the Athenians on the Plemmyrium from foraging in the Syracusan hinterland (Thuc. 7,4,7; Diod. Sic. 13,7,5; cf. [1. 41, 4110]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H.-P. Drögemüller, Syrakus (Gymnasium Beiheft 6), 1969. [German version] [2] Town in NW Crete This item can be found on the following maps: Crete Town …

Prophthasia

(105 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander (Προφθασία/ Prophthasía, Str. 11,8,9; 15,2,8; Ptol. 6,19,4; 8,25,8 N.; Isidorus of Charax, Stathmoí Parthikoí 16 = GGM 1,253: Φρά/ Phrá in Ἀναύων χώρα/ Anaúōn chṓra that is otherwise unknown; Plin. HN 6,61: P.). Possibly the city of Φράδα/ Phráda (Charax of Pergamum FGrH 103 F 20) renamed in this way by Alexander [4] the Great probably in 330 BC in the region of Drangiana, generally identified with modern Farāh in Afghanistan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. …

Zakoria

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Station on the Pontic coast road (Arr. Per. p. E. 21: Ζάγωρα/ Zágōra; Tab. Peut. 10,1; Geogr. Rav. 2,17: Agoria; 5,10: Z.; Guido, Geographica 101) from Sinope to Trapezus between Gurzubathon (modern Kurzuvet) and Zaliches (at modern Alaçam), presumably at modern Çayağzı at the mouth of the Aksu. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caecinus

(67 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καικῖνος; Kaikînos). According to Paus. 6,6,4, the C. is the border river between  Locri and Rhegium, where the Athenians under  Laches [1] defeated the Locrians under Proxenus (Thuc. 3,103,3) in what is today Amendolea/Sicily. The Locrian fist fighter Euthymus was worshipped at a hero-shrine and regarded as the son of the river god C. (Ael. VH 8,18). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 955.

Laevi

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian (Liv. 5,25,2; Plin. HN 3,124) or Celtic (Cato in Plin. l.c.; Λάοι, Pol. 2,17,4) tribe which founded the city of Ticinum (modern Pavia), together with the Matrici; Ticinum later fell under the rule of the Insubres (Ptol. 3,1,33). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 179.
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