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(555 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Ῥοιμητάλκης). Könige von Thrakien (vgl. Stemma 22 in PIR2 P, Bd. 6, p. 233; Thrakes). [English version] [1] Rh. I. Röm. Vasallenfürst ab 22 v. Chr. Wechselte 31 v. Chr. von Antonius [I 9] zu Octavianus [1] (Plut. mor. 207a; Plut. Romulus 17,3); um 22 v. Chr. beerbte er als röm. Vasallenfürst seinen Schwager Kotys [I 6], für dessen Sohn Rhaskuporis [2] er die Vormundschaft übernahm; 19/8 v. Chr. half er M. Lollius [II 1] gegen die Bessi (Cass. Dio 54,20,3), die ihn 11 v. Chr. auf die Chersonesos zurückdrängen konnten (Ca…


(63 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[English version] (Πολεμοκρατεία, auch Πολεμοκρατία). Thrakische Königin, Gattin des Sadalas II. und Mutter von Kotys [I 6] (IGR I 775); für Kotys' Rettung und Wiedereinsetzung in die Herrschaft übergab sie M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus 43 v. Chr. den Familienschatz (App. civ. 4,75,319-320). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography R. D. Sullivan, Thrace in the Eastern Dynastic Network, in: ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 186-211, bes. 192.


(123 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀτέας; lat. Atheas, auf Silbermünzen ΑΤΑΙΟΣ). Skythischer König, der 339 v.Chr. über 90jährig im Kampf gegen den Makedonen Philipp II. am Istros fiel (Lukian. Macr. 12,10). Von Strabon (7,3,18) als Herrscher über große Teile der Barbaren an der nördl. Schwarzmeerküste bezeichnet, doch ist die Ausdehnung seiner Macht umstritten. Die Münzprägung des A. in Kallatis und die Konflikte mit den Triballoi (Frontin. strat. 2,4,20; Polyain. 7,44,1), Byzanz (Clem. Al. Stromateis 5,31,3) un…


(69 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Σπαράδοκος; Sparádokos). Brother of king  Sitalces [1] of Thrace and father of his successor Seuthes [1] (Thuc. 2,101,5; 4,101,5). His position in the Odrysae dynasty is debatable; he may have succeeded to Teres as ruler in southwestern Thrace. S. was the first of the Odrysae to mint silver coins of various face values. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography U. Peter, Die Münzen der thrakischen Dynasten (5.-3. Jh. v. Chr.), 1997, 62-75.


(124 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Κετρίπορις; Ketríporis). Thracian king, who followed his father  Berisades together with his brothers as rulers of western Thrace. They were supported by the Greek mercenary leader  Athenodorus [1] (Dem. Or. 23,10) and in 356 BC concluded -- together with Lyppeus of Paeonia and Grabus of Illyria -- an alliance with Athens against  Philippus II (IG II/III2 127; Syll.3 1, 196; StV 309; Tod 157) [1. 27]. However, the coalition was unsuccessful and C. became a vassal of the Macedonian king (Diod. Sic. 16,22,3). C. issued very beautiful b…


(39 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Prince of the rebellious Bessi, who was assassinated in 57 BC by the Macedonian governor L. Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus at the command of king Cotys [I 5] of Thrace (Cic. Pis. 84). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)


(191 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Δρομιχαίτης; Dromichaítēs; in Oros. 3,23,52 Dori or Doricetis). Ruler of the Getae at the end of the 4th/beginning of the 3rd cent. BC. Bitter political rival of  Lysimachus, who undertook two campaigns against D. probably in 297 and between 293-291 (chronology disputed); D. captured Lysimachus' son Agathocles [5] and then Lysimachus himself but released them both, in exchange for their withdrawal from conquered territories north of the Ister and for the pledge of marriage between…


(59 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὄλορος; Óloros). King of Thrace in the 2nd half of the 6th century BC, mentioned by Herodotus (6,39,2; 6,41,2) and Plutarch (Cimon 4,1); his daughter Hegesipyle married Miltiades [2]. O. probably ruled the Thracian Chersonesus [1]; the extension of his territory is controversial. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography Z.H. Archibald, The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace, 1998, 80, 113-114.


(293 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Σαδάλας; Sadálas). [German version] [1] King of the Odrysae, 87/86-80/79 BC King of the Odrysae in 87/86-80/79 BC, successor of Cotys [I 4]. Sadalas supported Cornelius [I 90] Sulla against Mithradates [6] VI at Chaeronea (Cic. Verr. 2,1,63; [1. 258; 318; 337; 2. 114; 3]). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) [German version] [2] King of the Odrysae, 45/44-42 BC Grandson of Sadalas [1], king of the Odrysae in 45/44-42 BC, who supported Pompeius [I 3] the Great at Pharsalus by order of his father Cotys [I 5] (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,3); Sadalas is attributed with the …


(162 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Ἀμάδοκος; Amádokos, on coins ΑΜΑΤΟΚΟΣ; AMATOKOS). [German version] [1] see Medocus The elder A. named by Isocrates (or. 5,6) is known as  Medocus (see there), Metocus, Amedocus, Amadocus. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) [German version] [2] Odrysian ruler (after 358 AD) Odrysian ruler, one of the successors of  Cotys I, who in 358 BC received the middle part of the kingdom (IG II/III2 126; Dem. Or. 23,8; 170; 173 [1. 303]). His brothers-in-law, Simon and Bianor, honorary citizen of Athens, helped A. after 354 in conflict with  Cersebleptes as mercenary commander…


(71 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολεμοκρατεία/ Polemokrateía, also Πολεμοκρατία/ Polemokratía). Thracian queen, wife of Sadalas II and mother of Cotys [I 6] (IGR I 775); in 43 BC, she handed over the family fortune to M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in order to rescue Cotys and have his kingdom restored to him (App. B Civ. 4,75,319-320). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography R. D. Sullivan, Thrace in the Eastern Dynastic Network, in: ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 186-211, esp. 192.


(47 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἡγησιπύλη; Hēgēsipýlē). Daughter of King Olorus of Thrace. Married  Miltiades [2] in c. 515-513 BC and bore him a child  Cimon (Hdt. 6,39,2; Plut. Cimon 4,1). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography C. Feretto, Milziade ed Egesipile. Un matrimonio d'interesse, in: Serta Historica Antiqua [1], 1986, 77-83.


(106 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μόστις/ Móstis). King, who probably ruled the Caeni in southeastern Thrace in the last quarter of the 2nd/beginning of the 1st cent. BC (earlier dating refuted). He is known only through tetradrachmai attesting to a 38 year reign, bronze coins and two inscriptions (BE 1972, 284; Moretti 2, 116; SEG XXXIV 696 and XXXVII 602; [3. 190]). He may have been a confederate of Mithradates [6] VI. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1 F. de Callataÿ, L'histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies, 1997, 258-259 2 J. Jurukova, Monetite na trakijskite plemena i…


(141 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτέας; Atéas; Lat. Atheas, on silver coins ΑΤΑΙΟΣ). Scythian king, who in 339 BC at an age of more than 90 years fell in battle against the Macedonian Philip II near the Ister (Lucian Macr. 12,10). Designated by Strabo (7,3,18) as ruler over large sections of the Barbarians on the northern coast of the Black Sea, but the extent of his power is disputed. The minting of A. in Callatis and the conflicts with the  Triballi (Frontin. Strat. 2,4,20; Polyaenus, Strat. 7,44,1), Byzantium (C…


(85 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀριαπείθης; Ariapeíthēs). King of the Scythian, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC, murdered by Spargapeithes, the king of the Agathyrsi. He had three sons from his three marriages: with the daughter of the Thracian ruler Teres  Octamasades, with a Greek woman from Histria  Scyles and with the Scythian woman Opoea Oricus. Thymnes, the confidant of A., was an oral source of Herodotes (Hdt. 4,76-80). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography J. R. Gardiner-Garden, Dareios' Scythian Expedition and its Aftermath, in: Klio 69, 1987, 326-350, 345-349.


(45 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Θαγιμασάδης/ Thagimasádēs, also Θαγιμασάδας/ Thagimasádas). Presumed ancestor and protector of the 'Royal' Scythae (Scythae II.); they alone worshipped T. as a horse and water deity, which was identified with the Greek Poseidon (Hdt. 4,59). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography S. S. Bessonova, Religioznye predstavlenija skifov, 1983, 50-53.


(234 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Τήρης; Tḗrēs). Popular Thracian (ruler's) name. [German version] [1] T. (I) The first powerful Thracian king, who, after the retreat of the Persians in the first half of the 5th cent. BC, obtained for the Odrysae dominion over the largest part of Thrace (Thuc. 2,29). In the southeast he advanced presumably as far as the Propontis  (cf. Xen. An. 7,2,22), in the north as far as the Danube. His daughter married king Ariapeithes of the Scythae (Hdt. 4,80). He lived 92 years (Theop. FGrH 115, fr. 310) and was …


(93 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὀκταμασάδες; Oktamasádes). King of the Scythae, known through Herodotus (4,80), son of Ariapeithes and of a daughter of the Odrysian king Teres. In about the mid-5th cent. BC, O. succeeded as ruler his half-brother Scyles, who after being deposed had fled to the Thracian king Sitalces, whose brother had in turn sought refuge with O. The Thracian-Scythian conflict was resolved peacefully through an exchange of prisoners; after being handed over, Scyles was immediately killed by O. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography Z.H. Archibald, The Odrysian Kingdom of Thra…


(154 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μήδοκος/Mḗdokos). Appearing as Μήτοκος/Mḗ́tokos on silver and bronze coins, in ancient and modern literature also known as Ἀμά- or respectively Ἀμήδοκος ( Amá- or Amḗdokos, I or the Elder, Isoc. Or. 5,6; Harpocr. s.v. Ἀμάδοκος). Odrysian king (Xen. An. 7,2,32; 7,3; 7,11) c. 410/05 to c. 387 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,94,2), successor to Seuthes I. His residence was presumably located on the upper course of the Hebrus (Xen. An. 7,3,16-17). He was a friend of Alcibiades [3] (Diod. Sic. 13,105,3). M. supported his co-ruler Seuthes II (…


(217 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Σιτάλκης/ Sitálkēs). [German version] [1] King of Thrace, second half of the 5th cent. BC King of Thrace in the second half of the 5th cent. BC, son of Teres, the founder of the Odrysae kingdom, brother of Sparadocus. The Thracian-Scythian conflict with his nephew Octamasades was resolved by S. handing over Scyles. In 431 BC his brother-in-law Nymphodorus from Abdera mediated a treaty between S. and Athens and one between Perdiccas [2] and Athens (Thuc. 2,29; cf. Aristoph. Ach. 141-153; Diod. Sic. 12,50,3; St…
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