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Granicus

(96 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γράνικος; Gránikos). River in Asia Minor which has its source in the Ida mountains (Kaz Dağları) and flows through the Troad along the Mysian border. North of Biga (where the river is known today as Biga Çayı) it flows into the Propontis. It is famous for the battle which Alexander the Great won here against the Persian satrap Memnon in summer 334 BC. The site of the battle is sought today not far from Biga, near the road from Zelia to Lampsacus. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 L. Bürchner, s.v. G. 3), RE 7, 1814f.

Pitane

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Pergamum | Aegean Koine (Πιτάνη/ Pitánē). Town with two ports in Mysian Aeolis (Hdt. 1,149; Str. 13,1,2; 51; 67; Aeolians [2]) situated in modern Çandarlı. P. was regarded as a legendary foundation of the Amazons (Diod. Sic. 3,55,6) and already existed in the Late Geometric Period according to finds in the necropolis (excavations by E. Akurgal between 1959 and 1965, still unpublished; description in [1]). There have not yet been any officia…

Astyra

(229 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἄστυρα; Ástyra). [German version] [1] Greek polis on the south-western coast of the Troad Greek polis on the south-western coast of the Troad (Scyl. 98), a member of the  Delian League. After that, the importance of the settlement declined (Str. 13,1,65). However, A. is still mentioned in the customs tables of Ephesus [2. 63]. The sanctuary of  Artemis Astyra in A. was subordinate to the nearby Antandrus (Str. ibid.; Xen. Hell. 4,1,41). An exact localization of A. has not yet been achieved [1. 267]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973 2 H. Engelmann…

Mysia

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μυσία/ Mýsía). [German version] A. Geography and ethnography Region in the northwest of Asia Minor, named after the Thracian tribe of the Mysi, which had probably migrated there by the 12th cent. BC. Their precise origin is unknown, but like the Phryges they may have migrated from the area of the lower Danube. If we may equate the Thracian Mysi with the later Moesi, then the site of their original settlement can be located south of the Danube in the area of northern Thrace (only in Hdt. 1,171,6 do we read that the C…

Lyrnessus

(116 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Λυρνεσσός; Lyrnessós). Settlement in the Mysian-Trojan border region not localized exactly. Attempts to locate it are based especially on Homer (Il. 2,690f.; 19,60; 20,92; 20,191; Str. 13,1,7; 61) and Pliny (HN 5,122), in whose time L. was destroyed. Older localizations: near Antandrus [1. 217-221], near Havran [2. 301], recently on the Ala Dağ [3. 70f.]. According to Hom. Il. 2,689ff. and 19,60, L. was destroyed by Achilles, who also killed king Mynes and abducted Briseis. Now in detail [3. 66-71]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Troy, 1912 2 H. …

Perperene

(183 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Περπερήνη/ Perperḗnē). City in Aeolian Mysia, probably on the road from Adramyttion to Pergamum near modern Aşağıbey (localization of [1] confirmed by [2]; plan in [2. vol. 1, 297]). Coin minting attests to the existence of P. from the 4th cent. BC (cf. [2. vol. 2, 308-325]). Thucydides did not, as Steph. Byz. (s.v. Παρπάρων/ Parpárōn) would have it, die in P. but probably in Hellanicus [1] around 400 BC (Suda s.v. Π.). At the time of Pliny the Elder (1st cent. AD), P. appears to have belonged to the conventus of Pergamum (HN 5,122,3; 5,126,9). The coins attest to a…

Marpessus

(108 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μάρπεσσος/ Márpessos; Marmessos, Marmi(y)ssos). Town in the Troad, regarded as the home of the Hellespontine Sibyl (Paus. 10,12,3). Its location is derived from Paus. ibid. (‘240 stadia from Alexandria [2] Troas ’) and Lactant. Div. inst. 1,6 ( circa oppidum Gergithum). After Leaf [1. 106] calculated this to be in the area of Ballı Dağı, a definite location seems now to have been established by Cook [2. 281-283] at Dam Kale near Zerdalli, approx. 8 km north of Gergis. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923 2 J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1…

Rhyndacus

(106 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥύνδακος/ Rhýndakos). River in the Troad, not regarded as a single body today (Koca Çay, Kocasu Çayı, Orhaneli Çayı). It rises in Mysia Abbaïtis and flows through Phrygia (Phryges). It formed the frontier between Mysia and Bithynia, forms lacus Apolloniatis (Uluabat Gölü), exiting the lake at the northwest and flowing into the Propontis south of the island of Besbikos (modern Imralı Adası). During the Roman Period, it formed the boundary between the provinces of Asia [2] and Bithynia. In 73 BC, Licinius [I 26] Lucullu…

Satnioeis

(96 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σατνιόεις; Satnióeis). River in Troas (Hom. Il. 6,34; 14,445; 21,87), modern Tuzla Çayı, rises on the southwestern slopes of the Ida [2], near Gargara. It was on the S. that Homer's city of Pedasus [3] is supposed to have been (cf. Str. 13,1,50). At Assus the S. is only about 2 km from the sea; it then proceeds west and reaches the sea between Hamaxitus and Larisa [5] near Gülpınar. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. S, RE 2 A 1, 79 f.  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 250-253  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 245 f.

Scepsis

(119 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League (Σκῆψις/ Skêpsis, Σκᾶψις/ Skâpsis). Aeolian settlement in the Troad, modern Kurşunlu Tepe, on the upper Scamander, according to Str.  13,1,52 founded by Hector's son Scamandrius. In the 5th cent. BC S. was probably colonised by Milesian settlers. By Antigonus [1] it was incorporated into Alexandria [2] Troas, and by Lysimachus [2] made independent again (Str. 13,1,52). Allegedly the libraries of Theophrastus and Aristoteles…

Cadi

(137 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Κάδοι; Kádoi). A city first named by Pol. 33,12,2 near today's Gediz in the headwaters of the Hermus, where the Roman board of ten met with  Attalus [5] II in 155/4 BC. According to Ptol. 5,2,16, C. is located in the border region of Mysia, Phrygia and Lydia. The origin of the city is unknown, probably non-Greek. It is possible that C. was inhabited by Macedonian veterans since the time of Alexander the Great (Plin. HN 5,111). Since Str. 12,8,12 assigns C. to the Phrygía Epíktētos, it is likely that the region of C. came under the rule of Pergamum in 188 BC. C. s…

Cebren

(263 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Κέβρην; Kébrēn). Town in the Troad, located on two hills, Çal Dağı and the Fuğla Tepesi near Akpınarköyü on the middle reaches of the Scamander. On the opposing bank of the river lay Scepsis with whom C. was in perpetual dispute. C. was the residence of one of Priam's illegitimate sons (Hom. Il. 16,738; Str. 13,1,33). It had been founded by Cyme (Ephor. FGrH 239 F 22); earliest pottery finds point to the 7th cent. BC [1. 333]. Cook,…

Cana

(94 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Κάνη, Κάναι; Kánē, Kánai). Frequently mentioned foothills (ἀκρωτήριον, Hdt. 7,42,3; Diod. Sic. 4,53,2; 13,97,4,1; Str. 10,1,5; 13,1,68; Καινὴ ἄκρα, Ptol. 5,2,6,1) with a settlement and a harbour in north-western Aeolis, at the southern end of the bay of Adramytteum, near the modern Kara Dağ. A decree from Demetrias [1] bestows honours on three citizens of C. (IG IX 2, 1105 I). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 20, 1844f. W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 335-337 Robert, Villes, 18 J. Stauber, Die Bucht von Adramytteion 1 (IK…

Thymbrius

(43 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Θύμβριος; Thýmbrios). Right-bank tributary of the Scamander, modern Kemer Suyu, after which the surrounding plain and possibly also the city of Thymbra are named. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 177-180  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 110-123.

Lecton

(105 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Λεκτόν, Λεκτός; Lektón, Lektós, Cape Lecton). Western foothills of the Trojan Ida, stretching to the Aegean sea (Hom. Il. 14,283; Hdt. 9,114; Thuc. 8,101; mainly Str. in book 13). The sources merely indicate that Cape L. or a town L. was situated near modern Babakale; no further details can be determined. Close by there was an archaeologically unverifiable altar for the Twelve (Olympian) Gods (Str. 13,1,48), which was erected by Agamemnon according to the legend. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 227 L. Bürchner, s.v. L., …

Aesepus

(98 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Αἴσηπος; Aísēpos). River in  Mysia, modern Gönen Çay, rising at Mount Cotylus in the  Ida mountains (Str. 13,1,43). It is already mentioned by Homer (Il. 2,825; 4,91; 12; 21). In its course to the north-east, it takes in the Caresus. After 500 stades, it flows into the  Propontis near the island of Halone (modern Pasalimani) (Str. 13,1,11). Even in Homer's times, the valley of the A. defined the eastern border of the  Troas (Str. 13,1,9), and was densely populated in its middle reaches (Str. 13,1,45). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the T…

Tragasae

(97 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τραγασαί/ Tragasaí). Settlement in southeastern Troad at modern Tuzla, to the north of Gülpınar. T. is named after Tragasus, whose daughter Philonomia was married to Tennes [1], the ruler of Tenedus (EM 763,25). Known for its salt springs (Str. 13,1,48), T. lies in the middle of the Plain of Tuzla (in Antiquity Ἁλήσιον πεδίον/ Halḗsion pedíon, 'Salt Plain', Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 34; Plin. HN 31,85). The springs were so profitable that Lysimachus [2] levied a tax on them (Ath. 3,73d). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 247 f. J. …

Nea Kome

(108 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] Neither the name nor the location of this settlement, only mentioned under this name by Strabo (13,1,45), can be precisely confirmed. The towns of Ἐνέα κώμη/ Enéa kṓmē (Str. 12,3,23) and Αἰνέα/ Ainéa (Str. 13,1,45) may have been identical with NK.   Néa kṓmē phroúrion Mysías, mentioned by Steph. Byz. s.v. Νέαι/ Néai, and the Nea or Nee mentioned in Plin. HN 2,210 and 5,124 may also be the same place. It must have been somewhere on the Aesepus, on the frontier between the Troad and Cyzicene (Cyzicus). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabon on the Troad,…

Scamander

(203 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σκάμανδρος/ Skámandros, Latin Scamander). River in Troas, modern River Menderes, which rises below the highest peak of the Ida [2]. Together with the Simoeis it forms the Plain of Troy (cf. Hom. Il. 5,77). Below Scepsis and Cebren a road leads along its bank into the interior of Asia Minor. In the Iliad the S. appears as a god; it is named S. only by humans, the gods call it Xanthus (Hom. Il. 20,73). As a son of Zeus (ibid. 14,434) and Idaea it is the father of  Teucer and hence an …

Paesus

(126 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Παισός; Paisós). Town in the Troas (Hom. Il. 2,822; 5,612), probably founded by the Milesians (Str. 13,1,19). P. was linked with the sea via the river of the same name. The position of P. is presumed to be near Fanar, north-east of modern Çardak [1. 99]. The neighbouring cities were Lampsacus and Parium, which like P. were conquered in 497 BC by Daurises, the son-in-law of Darius [1] I (Hdt. 5,117). In the Delian League, P. paid 1,000 drachmas (ATL 3,26, No. 135). At the time of S…
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