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Eboracum

(258 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Britannia | Christentum | Coloniae | Handel | Legio | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Roma | Roma | Straßen (h. York). Die strategisch günstige Lage im Herzen des Vale of York empfahl E. den Römern als Basis für die mil. Kontrolle von Nord-Britannia. Die früheste Garnison in E. wurde unter Q. Petilius Cerealis 71/74 n.Chr. stationiert [1]. Das Legionslager ( legio IX Hispana) war ein Holz/Erde-Kastell der 70er Jahre; der Umbau in Stein wurde im frühen 2. Jh. vorgenommen. Die legio VI Victrix ersetzte die legio IX Hispana zw. 109 u…

Iceni

(168 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] Kelt. Stamm im Gebiet von Norfolk und Suffolk (SO-England). Erstmals erwähnt unter dem Namen Cenimagni als einer der Stämme, die sich Caesar 54 v.Chr. unterwarfen (Caes. Gall. 5,21,1). Zur Zeit der claudischen Eroberung (43 n.Chr.) waren sie bereit, die Allianz mit Rom zu akzeptieren. 47 n.Chr. rebellierten sie und wurden unterworfen, blieben aber im Status eines verbündeten Königreiches (Tac. ann. 12,31). Nach dem Tod ihres Königs Prasutagus ca. 59 n.Chr. wurde ihr Gebiet in die…

Ordovices

(109 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] Britannisches Volk, bewohnte das Gebiet zw. Snowdon-Massiv und dem Severn-Tal (Ptol. 2,3,18); ein Zentralort ist nicht bekannt. Sie widersetzten sich der röm. Invasion unter Nero (50 n.Chr.), wurden aber von Iulius Frontinus und Iulius [II 3] Agricola zw. 74 und 79 n.Chr. unterworfen (Tac. ann. 12,33); nach Tac. Agr. 18,2 wurden sie von Agricola aufgerieben. Immerhin überlebte ihr Name z.B. in Dinorwig und Rhyd Orddwy (Wales). Britannia (mit Karte: Die indigenen Stämme) Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography M.G. Jarrett, J.C. Mann, The Tribes of Wales, in: We…

Magnae

(136 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] (oder Magni). Röm. Kastell am Hadrians-Wall in Nordengland (Not. dign. occ. 40,43; Geogr. Rav. 107,11) wohl aus flavischer Zeit (69-96 n.Chr.), h. Carvoran, inschr. lokalisiert ( numerus Magn(c)es(ium) [1. 1825]), evtl. Teil der traianischen Grenzlinie im frühen 2. Jh., bevor M. nach 122 n.Chr. in den hadrianischen Limes eingefügt wurde [2. 192-196]. Ausnahmsweise wurde das Kastell nicht in das vallum eingegliedert, sondern verblieb südl. davon. Unter Hadrianus und später war die cohors I Hamiorum hier stationiert, bis zum 3. Jh. durch die cohors II Delmat…

Britannia

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] A. Name Urspr. war die Insel unter dem Namen Albion geläufig (Avien. ora maritima 108f. geht wohl auf Pytheas, ca. 325 v.Chr. zurück). In den ältesten griech. Quellen erscheint B. als Βρεταννικαὶ νῆσοι ( Bretannikaí nḗsoi), die Einwohner als Βρεττανοί ( Brettanoí, Strab. 2,1,18; 2,5,12). Bei lat. Autoren ist die Form B. seit dem 1.Jh. v.Chr. üblich (Caes. Gall. 2,4,7ff.; 4,20ff.; 5,2ff.; Cic. fam. 7,6ff.). Der Oberbegriff für die Insel ist eine Schöpfung klass. Autoren [1]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) [English version] B. Rom und Britannia Die ersten Kontakte zw. B.…

Lactodurum

(47 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] (h. Towcester/Northamptonshire; Itin. Anton. 2; 6). Späteisenzeitliche Ansiedlung; seit Mitte 1. Jh.n.Chr. eine röm. Militärstation. Die Stadt war im 2. Jh. mit Wall und Graben, im 3. Jh. durch eine Steinbefestigung gesichert. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A.L.F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 382f.

Habitancum

(113 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] Römisches Lager beim h. Risingham (Northumberland), einer der Vorposten nördl. des Hadrianswalls im Tal des Rede. Die frühen Phasen der Besetzung liegen im Dunkeln; es gibt keinen Beweis dafür, daß das Fort zur selben Zeit wie der hadrianische Grenzwall gebaut wurde. Ein Lager existierte sicher in den 140er J.; in severischer Zeit war es ein Hauptstützpunkt der Besetzung des Nordens. Die Garnison von H. war im 2. Jh. die cohors IIII Gallorum, im 3. Jh. die cohors I Vangionum, begleitet von einem numerus exploratorum und einer vexillatio Raetorum Gaesatorum. Im Inn…

Trinovantes

(79 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic people, settled in the region of modern Essex in the late Iron Age. In the middle of the 1st cent. BC they were under pressure from the neighbouring Catuvellauni (Caes. Gall. 5,20) and for some time were dependent on them. Under their king Cunobellinus ( c. 10-40 AD) they were again independent and dominant in southern Britain. Their largest oppidum was Camulodunum. Britannia (with map) Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography R. Dunnett, The T., 1975  S. S. Frere, Britannia, 31987.

Catuvellauni

(83 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Powerful tribe in Britannia north of the lower Thames, who most likely had links with the Gallic Catualauni. Their most influential rulers were Tasciovanus and his son  Cunobellinus [1]. Following the conquest of Britannia by Claudius (Cass. Dio 60,20,2), the C. were organized as a civitas with  Verulamium as its centre (Tac. Ann. 14,33). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 S. S. Frere, Britannia, 31987, 44f. S. S. Frere, Verulamium Excavations 1, 1972 R. E. M. and T. V. Wheeler, Verulamium, 1936 K. Branigan, The C., 1985.

Sabrina

(60 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] River rising in Mid-Wales and flowing into the Bristol Channel (Tac. Ann. 12,31; Ptol. 2,3,3), modern Severn. Its valley played an important role in the period of the Roman conquest, with legionary bases at Glevum and Viroconium (modern Wroxeter). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 450 f.

Cilurnum

(117 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman camp on the western bank of the North Tyne, where Hadrian's wall crosses the river, modern Chesters; built in around AD 125 as a replacement for tower 27a [1. 89-91]. Garrison of the ala II Asturum in the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VII 585); prior to that, the camp may have accommodated cavalry (including Sarmatae). The camp gates are extant, as are principia, praetorium, two soldiers' quarters, extra-mural thermae, and the foundations of a bridge. South of the camp was an extended vicus [2].  Limes Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 D. J. Breeze, The Northern Frontier…

Lactodurum

(65 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Present-day Towcester, Northamptonshire; It. Ant. 2; 6. Late Iron Age settlement; from the mid 1st cent. AD a Roman army station. The town was protected in the 2nd cent. by the construction of a rampart and ditch; stone fortifications were added in the 3rd cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 382f.

Verulamium

(212 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Britannia | Britannia City above the south bank of the River Ver at modern Saint Albans to the northwest of Londinium (modern London), settlement centre since the 1st cent. BC of the Catuvellauni [1]. The settlement expanded into the valley, where after AD 43 the Romans built a fort [2]. A municipium possibly since the Flavian period (Tac. Ann. 14,33), affected by Queen Boudicca's uprising in 60/1, V. was given a forum (cf. [3]) in AD 79 or 81 and public buildings c. 100. In about 155 parts of the city…

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Habitancum

(126 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman camp near modern Risingham (Northumberland), one of the outposts north of Hadrian's Wall in the Rede valley. Little is known about the early phases of occupation; there is no evidence that the fort was built at the same time as Hadrian's boundary wall. A camp certainly existed in the 140s; in the Severan period it was a major base for the occupation of the north. The garrison of H. was the Cohors IIII Gallorum in the 2nd cent . and the cohors I Vangionum in the 3rd cent., accompanied by a numerus exploratorum and a vexillatio Raetorum Gaesatorum. Inside the camp there is…

Tamesa

(54 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Tamesis). River in southeastern Britain, modern Thames (Caes. Gall. 5,11,8; Tac. Ann. 14,32; Cass. Dio 40,3,1; 60,20 f.; 62,1). At the mouth of the T., an excellent natural harbour, was Londinium (modern London). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography M. Förster, Der Flußname Themse, 1942 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 466.

Camulodunum

(222 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pertinax | Britannia | Britannia The largest iron age oppidum in Britannia was situated on the lower reaches of the river Colne in Essex; under the rule of kings Dubnovellaunus and  Cunobellinus [1]. C., modern Colchester, developed. In its heyday (from about AD 10 to 40), the oppidum comprised 30 km2 within a system of protective dykes. As an important centre of power, C. attracted the import of luxury goods from Gaul and Italy. A richly decorated r…

Caledonii

(196 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Ancient authors applied the name C. variously: either to the inhabitants of Scotland north of a line from the Forth to the Clyde (Tac. Agr. 25), or to a tribe in the region of the Great Glen (Ptol. 2,3,8), or to a group of tribes in northern Scotland (Cass. Dio 76,12). The reference to Caledonia in Tac. Agr. 27 and to silvae Caledoniae in Plin. HN 4,102 suggests that the C. settled across a large area of eastern Scotland. Almost unknown prior to the Roman invasion, they offered fierce resistance to it, before they were decisively defeated by…

Britannia

(1,099 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] A. Name Originally the island was known as Albion (Avien. Ora maritima 108f. probably goes back to Pytheas, c. 325 BC). In the oldest Greek sources, B. appears as Βρεταννικαὶ νῆσοι ( Bretannikaì nêsoi) and the inhabitants as Βρεττανοί ( Brettanoí, Str. 2,1,18; 2,5,12). In Latin authors the form B. is common from the 1st cent. BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,7ff.; 4,20ff.; 5,2ff.; Cic. Fam. 7,6ff.). The general term for the island was coined by classical authors [1]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) [German version] B. Rome and Britannia The first contacts between B. and the Mediterra…

South Cadbury

(53 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Iron Age hill fort in Somerset, used for a short time in the middle of the 1st century AD by the Roman army. Resettled and fortified in the late 5th century. Ceramics were imported from the Mediterranean, other goods from Gaul. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography L. Alcock, Cadbury Castle, 1995.
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