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Pollis

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πόλλις/ Póllis). Spartan naúarchos ('naval commander') 396/5 BC, he fought in the Aegean Sea against Conon [1] (Hell. Oxy. 12,2 Chambers); in 393/2 BC he was epistoleús of the naúarchos Podanemus in the Corinthian War (Xen. Hell. 4,8,11). As emissary of Sparta in Syracusae, P. was supposed to secure the participation of Dionysius [I 6] I in the war against Athens and was accused of selling the philosopher Plato [1] into slavery in Aegina on the return trip (Plut. Dion 5; Diog. Laert. 3,19). As naúarchos he was defeated in 376 at Naxos by Chabrias (Xen. Hell. 5,4…

Harmostai

(273 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(ἁρμοσταί; harmostaí, Ionian ἁρμοστῆρες; harmostêres: Xen. Hell. 4,8,39). [German version] [1] Spartan military commanders Spartan military commanders responsible for the supervision of certain areas. The 20 harmostai of the Lacedaemonians, mentioned in the scholia to Pindar (Ol. 6,154), cannot be identified with certainty as supervisory officials over the poleis of the perioikoi and should rather be regarded as ‘governors’ residing outside the Spartan polis area [1. 11f.; 2. 62f.]. The harmostḗs (IG V 1,937), documented in the early 4th cent. for Cythera, proba…

Nabis

(677 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Νάβις; Nábis). Son of Damaratus; controversial representative of the last phase of the Spartan reform movement. After the death of Machanidas (207 BC), N. - apparently a member of a branch of the Eurypontidae - first became regent of Sparta. He consolidated his power by removing the young king Pelops (Diod. Sic. 27,1) and then took the title of king himself (Syll.3 584). Polybius (13,6,1-7,11) and later authors depict N. as a cruel tyrant (Diod. Sic. 27,1; Liv. 33,44,8; 34,32,3; Plut. Titus 13; Paus. 4,29,10). At first, his rule was suppor…

Panthoedas

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πανθοίδας; Panthoídas). Spartan commander who was sent to Byzantium in 403/2 BC with instructions to get rid of the Spartan ruler Clearchus [2] who had usurped power (Diod. Sic.14,12,4-7). He is probably the same person as P. the harmost (governor) who was killed in 377 BC at Tanagra in the battle against the Thebans under Pelopidas (Plut. Pelopidas 15,6). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Spartiatae

(338 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σπαρτιᾶται; Spartiâtai). Full citizens of Sparta, who attained this status at 20 years of age, and who from the 5th cent. BC saw themselves as homoioi [II] (peers), distinct from the perioikoi , and from the hypomeiones, who enjoyed only limited rights as citizens. The conditions for assuming this status included pure Spartan blood, completion of the agoge and participation in the syssitiai (Banquet [II. B]), to which they had to contribute. Their economic basis were the klaroi ( kleros ), which were worked by helots. The notion that all o…

Ephoroi

(670 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἔφοροι; éphoroi). ‘Custodians’; annual officials in Sparta and a number of Peloponnesian and Dorian poleis and colonies (e.g. Thera, Cyrene, Heraclea on the Siris). The most significant institution of this kind was that of the five Spartan ephoroi, who arrived at their decisions by majority and whose chairman (Plut. Lysander 30) gave his name to his year of office. According to ancient tradition, the Spartan ephorate was held to be an institution of Lycurgus (Hdt. 1,65), and it was later ascribed to king Theopompus …

Hetairia

(601 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(ἑταιρία/ hetairía, also ἑταιρεία/ hetaireía). [German version] [1] In Crete a sub-category of citizenry In Crete a sub-category of citizenry, with communal meals ( andreia or syssitia: Aristot. Pol. 1272a 12ff.; Ath. 4,143a-b = Dosiadas FGrH 458 F 2) and a common cult of Zeus Hetaireîos (Hsch. s.v. ἑταιρεῖος/ hetaireîos), but neither an association of family members nor part of a phyle, as was the hetairia in Thera or Cyrene (ML 5, l. 16). Acceptance into the hetairia took place after those fit for military service had left the   agélai and it was a prerequisit…

Xenelasia

(294 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ξενηλασία; xenēlasía). 'Expulsion of aliens' (Xenoi), traditionally incorrectly represented as a measure often repeated by the Spartans to protect their city from outside influences (Xen. Lac. 14,4), traced to Lycurgus [4] in the tradition in Plutarch (Lycurgus 27,7; Agis 9; Mor. 238d) and explained by scholars e.g. by an alleged internal change in Sparta in the 6th cent. BC. The first xenelasia is supposed to have been the expulsion of Maeandrius [1] of Samos (Hdt. 3,148); however, that was not a general prohibition of residence for fore…

Gymnasiarchy

(238 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (γυμνασιαρχία; Gymnasiarchía). Supervision of a  gymnasium by a gymnasiarchus, whose functions varied in scope and importance depending on the place and time. In Athens the gymnasiarchy in the 5th and 4th cents. BC was a one-year   leitoūrgía (λειτουργία; And. 1,132; Dem. Or. 20,21), the task being to train a certain number of runners for torch competitions at the Great Panathenaea, Hephaistia, Promethia and festivals of Pan and to supply them with all their requisites. At the end of the 4th cent. the gymnasiarchy be…

Eurybiades

(130 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐρυβιάδης; Eurybiádēs). Spartan commander of the fleet of the Greek confederation of 481 BC at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis in 480. After the Persians had overcome Leonidas' position at Thermopylae, E. took timely measures to lead the Greek fleet through the narrow sound of Euripus into Attic waters (Hdt. 8,4-21). At Salamis, against the vigourous protests of most leaders of the Greek naval contingents, he followed Themistocles' plan to give battle to the Persian fleet in…

Therimenes

(65 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Θηριμένης; Thēriménēs). Spartiate, in the late summer of 412 BC led a fleet taking help to the naúarchos Astyochus in Asia Minor; at Miletus he forced Athenian forces into retreat (Thuc. 8,26,1-29,2) and in the autumn negotiated for Sparta a second subsidy treaty with Persia. During his return in 411 he was killed in a shipwreck (Thuc. 8,36,2-38,1). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Ischagoras

(108 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσχαγόρας; Ischagóras). Spartan, was unable, in 423 BC, to carry out his task of bringing reinforcements to  Brasidas in Thrace because of countermeasures by Perdiccas of Macedonia. He managed to reach the war zone there with a few companions, and with the aid of Brasidas had Spartans installed as commanders in some of the poleis (Thuc. 4,132). Having signed the Peace of Nicias in 421 and overseen the execution of its provisions in Thrace, in the same year he gave his oath for the…

Cleora

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεόρα; Kleóra). Spartan, wife of Agesilaus [2] II, mother of Archidamus [2] III (Xen. Hell. 3,4,29; 5,4,25; Plut. Agesilaus 19). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Agiatis

(103 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγιάτις; Agiátis). Rich Spartan woman, heiress of the Spartan Gylippus, who died c. 241 BC. First married to the reform king  Agis [4] IV. After his death,  Leonidas II forced her to marry his still very young son, the later reform king  Cleomenes III. According to Plut. Cleom. 1,1-3; 22,1-3, who portrays her as beautiful and full of character, she is supposed to have convinced her second husband to take up Agis' reform plans by telling him stories about them. The significance of this emotional element for the initiatives of Cleomenes III is difficult to judge. Welwei, Karl…

Callicratidas

(431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Καλλικρατίδας; Kallikratídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch, 407/6 BC Spartan nauarch (naval commander) in 407/6 BC, was only able to relieve  Lysander of his command in the spring of 406 and was confronted through the latter's intrigues with extremely serious problems while preparing his operations. However, he was as unimpressed by these as by the affront he suffered from Cyrus the Younger. C. secured the finances for his warfare and took the initiative. After relocating his naval base from Ep…

Damaratus

(262 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Δαμάρατος, Δημάρητος; Damáratos, Dēmárētos). Spartan king, Eurypontid, son and successor (around 510 BC) of King Ariston. The turning-point in his life was brought about by the enmity with Cleomenes I, whose intention to establish a Spartan satellite regime in Athens, with the help of an army campaign in 506 he thwarted at Eleusis (Hdt. 5,74f.). We do not know whether Athenian investigations became known to the Persian satrap in Sardeis [3. 273-276]. In 491 D. plotted against Cleome…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Mamertini

(463 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Former Oscan mercenaries, predominantly from Campania, hired by Agathocles [2] of Syracuse. After his death (289 BC), they conquered the town of Messana between 288 and 283 BC. They called themselves M. after the war god Mamers, the Oscan form of Mars (Diod. Sic. 21,18,1; Cass. Dio fr. 40,8; Fest. 150,30-35), plundering a wide area and enforcing tributes (Pol. 1,7,2-5; 8,1; Plut. Pyrrhus 23,1). After the M. had conquered wide areas of Northern Sicily (Diod. Sic. 22,13,1-2), they c…

Sthenelaidas

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σθενελαίδας; Sthenelaḯdas). Spartiate, one of the éphoroi and the leader of the apella , who in 432 BC, with reference to the complaints of Spartan sýmmachoi (Peloponnesian League) and despite the warnings of the king Archidamus [1] II, called for an active containment of the power of Athens. Unusually, he held the vote not by acclamation but by calling for those for and against to stand in separate places, and was thus able to carry through the resolution that Athens had broken the 446 BC peace treaty (…

Epitadeus

(183 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιτάδευς; Epitádeus). An ephor from Sparta; according to Plutarch (Agis 5), out of anger against his son, he passed a law making it permissible to give away or pass on house and   kleros at will, no doubt with the aim of increasing the number of Spartiates. Plutarch dates this  rhetra vaguely to 404 BC, but cites this law as the reason for significant differences in wealth amongst the Spartiates in c. 250 BC. Aristotle (Pol. 1270a 15-34) seems to see the deplorable state of affairs in Sparta's cosmos in the mid-4th cent. BC as a consequence of this…
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