Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Linde, Gesche" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Linde, Gesche" )' returned 7 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Philosophy of Science

(2,337 words)

Author(s): Linde, Gesche
[German Version] I. History The theory or philosophy of science is the theory of the conditions – in particular the structure, acquisition, and explication – of (institutionalized) scientific knowledge(Science); as such it is part of theoretical philosophy. There were already antecedents in antiquity, especially in Plato and Aristotle but also among the Stoics in the distinction (observed into the modern period) between immutable (true) knowledge, (variable) opinion, and belief. In the Middle Ages, as knowledge was institutionalize…

Imagination

(2,195 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Linde, Gesche
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Ethics – IV. Power of Imagination I. Philosophy Imagination or fantasy (Gk φαντασία/ phantasía, Lat. phantasia; Lat./Eng./Fr. imaginatio[n], “appearance, mental image, idea”; cf. also Gk φάντασμα/ phántasma, “appearance, dream image, vision”) is the primarily pictographic conception of things that dominates in memory and recreation (as in dreams). Its elementary activity also contributes to academic insights, technical inventions, and artistic production. Ever s…

Pragmatism

(3,095 words)

Author(s): Linde, Gesche | Pape, Helmut | Grube, Dirk-Martin | Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] I. The Term and Its Impact Though there was scattered use of the term in German historiography (Ernst Bernheim) and 19th-century German and French philosophy (Conrad Herrmann, M. Blondel), the concept and term go back to C.S. Peirce (see also II below), who introduced the concept in How to Make Our Ideas Clear (1878), the term in 1902 in J. Baldwin’s Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, and both orally between 1871 and 1873 ¶ in the Metaphysical Club in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He used t…

Rationality

(2,088 words)

Author(s): Fricke, Christel | Petzoldt, Matthias | Huxel, Kirsten | Linde, Gesche
[German Version] I. Philosophy Rationality is derived from Latin ratio (“calculation, consideration, reason”) and medieval Latin rationalitas (“reason, capacity for thought”). The term denotes various intellectual capacities that distinguish human beings as “rational animals” from the other more highly developed animals. In German, from the 18th century, these…

Theory and Praxis

(4,249 words)

Author(s): Linde, Gesche | Figal, Günter | Westhelle, Vítor | Herms, Eilert | Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences The distinction between theory as a consistent linguistic or symbolic system of ordered statements about a par-¶ ticular subject area or phenomenal domain and practice (praxis) as technical action to produce quantifiable phenomena in an experiment, or at least observation against the background of a theory, is fundamental to the modern natural sciences, although the precise definition of the relationship between the two is disputed and is addressed by the philosophy of science. Usually the relationship between theory and praxis is described by saying that theory provides a causal explanation and description of praxis by formulating rules or natural laws (Natural law/Law of nature), determining their implications (axiomatic method), usually using auxiliary hypotheses, and making predictions for practice, while practice collects the data to be explained in the form of reproducible experimental results and is thus called upon to test theories or announce the need for new theories if irregularities appear. In physics the distinction between these two areas of responsibility, each associated with particular technological and methodological demands, has led to the division of the field into theoretical and experimental physic…

Signs

(2,878 words)

Author(s): Esterbauer, Reinhold | Alles, Gregory D. | Kober, Michael | Ochs, Peter | Linde, Gesche | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology The term sign usually means something perceptible to the senses that signifies something else, which give…