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Wolf, Ernst Friedrich

(227 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (Aug 2, 1902, Prague – Sep 11, 1971, Garmisch-Partenkirchen) received his Lic.theol. and habilitation from Rostock in 1925. In 1930/1931 he held a substitute position at Tübingen; in 1931 he was appointed professor of church history and Christian archaeology in Bonn. In 1935, as a prominent theologian of the Confessing Church, he was transferred to Halle for disciplinary reasons. After military service and imprisonment, he was appointed to a chair in Göttingen in 1945, from 1957 t…

Ragaz, Leonhard

(290 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (Jul 28, 1868, Tamins, Graubünden/ Grisons – Dec 6, 1945, Zürich), studied theology in Basel, Jena (under R.A. Lipsius), and Berlin (under O. Pfleiderer); he was pastor in Graubünden and Chur, then in 1902 at the Basel Minster, where he distanced himself from theological liberalism and relinquished its optimistic philosophy of history – which was much influenced by G.W.F. Hegel, R. Rothe, and A. Ritschl – in favor of a theology, eschatological in tone, in which the kingdom of God is “hope for the earth” and the purpose and goal of Christian ethics, and ¶ religion and the so…

Quervain, Alfred de

(181 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (Sep 28, 1896, La Neuveville, canton of Bern – Oct 30, 1968, Bern). After studying Protestant theology and philosophy at Bern, Basel, Marburg (P. Natorp), and Berlin and passing his state examination in Bern (1921), Quervain served as pastor in La Neuveville, Stuttgart, Elberfeld, and Laufen (canton of Bern). In 1919 he gained his Lic.theol. at Basel, where he also received his Habilitation and taught systematic theology as a lecturer. After 1935, while retaining his Basel appointment, he lectured at the seminary of the Confessing Church in …

Religious Socialists

(2,564 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut | Westhelle, Vítor
[German Version] I. Europe European Religious Socialists share the general view that the core statements of Christian faith and ethics have structural affinities to socialism and its politics, and that combining them should bring about the dismantling of old forms of social order and the construction of new ones, appropriate to human needs. Religious Socialists differ in their conceptual parameters, in the significance of this affinity, and in the development of praxis models. 1. Religious Socialism is rooted in biblical social norms, Christian traditions of the Middl…

Kirschbaum, Charlotte von

(190 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (Lollo; Jun 25, 1899, Ingolstadt, Germany – Jul 24, 1975, Riehen near Basel, Switzerland), collaborated with K. Barth and lived with him and his family from 1929 to 1966. At first, Kirschbaum was a theologically interested Red Cross nurse, company welfare worker, and secretary. She belonged to the circle around G. Merz in Munich, who introduced her to theology and then, after 1924/ 1925, to Barth's circle of friends. She accompanied Barth's theological development as an independen…


(3,591 words)

Author(s): Altvater, Elmar | Ruddies, Hartmut | Dorn, Jacob H.
[German Version] I. Terminology The word socialism can denote a theoretical school of thought, a political movement (Parties), and a way of organizing the state and society. As a theoretical school, modern (as distinct from premodern) socialism emerged in the 19th century as a response to the unreasonable demands of dynamically expanding capitalistic control of the means of production (Capitalism). All conceptions of socialism share rejection of the individualistic profit principle based on a private …

Keller, Adolf

(152 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (Feb 7, 1872, Rüdlingen – Feb 10, 1963, Los Angeles). After studying theology and philosophy in Basel, Berlin, and Geneva, Keller was assistant pastor in Cairo from 1896 to 1899, then pastor in Burg am Rhein and pastor of the German Reformed congregation in Geneva and Zürich. From 1920 onward, Keller was secretary of the Alliance of Swiss Protestant Churches, and from 1924 to 1945 first secretary general of the European Central Bureau for Inter-Church Aid. From 1925, he participat…

Sylten, Werner

(208 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (Aug 9, 1893, Hergiswyl, Switzerland – Aug 26, 1942, Schloß Hartheim concentration camp, Austria), Protestant clergyman. After studying in Marburg and Berlin (F. Siegmund-Schultze), he served his pastoral internship in Göttingen and Dannenberg. In 1922 he was appointed associate pastor at the women’s school in Himmelsthür outside Hildesheim. From 1925 to 1936 he served as pastor and director of the Thuringian home for girls in Bad Köstritz. In 1930 he joined the League of Religious Socialists in Thuringia (Emil Fuchs). From 1933 he served on the Thuringian ¶ Council …


(411 words)

Author(s): Fix, Karl-Heinz | Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] 1. Ludwig (Apr 2, 1846, Schwelm – Jan 29, 1922, Bonn), pastor and social policy maker. After studying in Bonn, Berlin, and Erlangen, Weber received his Lic.theol. from Bonn in 1868 and was appointed senior assistant at the Johannesstift in Berlin. In 1871 he was appointed assistant preacher in Iserlohn and in 1872 pastor in Dellwig. Especially as pastor in Mönchen-Gladbach (1881–1914), he organized workers’ groups (Workers’ movement, Protestant), morality societies, women’s associat…

Vogel, Heinrich

(226 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1902, Pröttlin, West Prignitz – Dec 26, 1989, Berlin). In 1927 Vogel became pastor in Oderberg and Dobbrikow (Mark Brandenburg). In 1935 he became a lecturer at the (illegal) seminary of the Confessing Church, which he headed from 1937 to 1941. He was a member of the church’s Council of Brethren, as well as a member of the Confessing Synods of the Reich and of Prussia, and of the provisional governing body of the Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union. As a leading f…

Weber, Otto Heinrich

(267 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (Jun 4, 1902, Mühlheim am Rhein – Oct 19, 1966, St. Moritz). After his theological internship, he was appointed lecturer at the seminary in Elberfeld in 1928, serving as its director from 1930 to 1933. In May of 1933 he joined the Nazi Party and the German Christian movement (Deutsche Christen). In 1933 he was appointed to the Geistliches Ministerium of the German Evangelical Church as a Reformed member and became its Minister of Church Affairs. After the November Berlin Sports Pa…

Niesel, Wilhelm

(422 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (Jan 7, 1903, Berlin – Mar 13, 1988, Königstein im Taunus) began his studies of Protestant theology in 1922 in Berlin (Neuwerkkreis study group associated with G.K. Dehn), Tübingen, and Göttingen (K. Barth). After his examinations in Berlin in 1926, he and Peter Barth edited the Opera Selecta of John Calvin between 1926 and 1936, and in 1928 a new edition of Calvin’s Institutio. In 1930 Niesel received his theological degree (Lic.theol.) under Barth in Münster, and became ordinary in the Nikolaikirche in Berlin and auxiliary preacher in Witte…

Siegmund-Schultze, Friedrich

(243 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (Jun 14, 1885, Görlitz – Jul 11, 1969, Soest), Protestant theologian and pioneer in social education. After studying in Tübingen, Breslau (Wrocław), Marburg, Halle, and Berlin, he received his doctorate in 1910 under W. Herrmann. In 1911 he founded and became the first head of the Soziale Arbeitsgemeinschaft Berlin Ost; in 1914 he was a joint founder of the World Alliance for Promoting International Friendship through the Churches and the International Fellowship of Reconciliation…

Stuttgart Confession of Guilt

(671 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] The historical roots of the Stuttgart Confession of Guilt issued by the council of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) on Oct 18/19, 1945, go back to the period following World War I. The declaration itself, as a confession of guilt, left the sheltered sphere of academic theological reflection in order to make a new beginning for the Evangelical Church in Germany (I) after 1945. Its aim was to address the meaning of supra-individual involvement in guilt in such a way that ever…

Kloppenburg, Heinz

(176 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] (May 10, 1903, Elsfleth, Wesermarsch – Feb 18, 1986, Bremen) studied theology from 1925 (principally in Marburg). Kloppenburg became pastor in Rüstringen in 1932, chairman of the Pastors Emergency League and leading member of the Confessing Church in Oldenburg (1937–1945), and a member of the Synod of Barmen in 1934 (The Barmen Declaration: I). Removed from office on Dec 1, 1937, Kloppenburg became liaison person for the Confessing Church after rehabilitation. A member of the High…