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(5,804 words)

Author(s): Webster, John C.B.
The Niraṅkārīs, so-called because of their emphasis on the formless nature of God, are a small and little known group of Sikhs whose distinctive origins lie in 19th-century Punjab. There are few primary sources for their early history, the earliest of which are descriptive accounts provided by Protestant missionaries who visited them at their headquarters in Rawalpindi. These were followed by sets of instructions given by Niraṅkārī gurūs, and then by official government reports. Only in the 1920s did the Niraṅkārīs begin to write their own histories. This accou…
Date: 2020-06-02

Goodness of God

(1,251 words)

Author(s): van den Brink, Gijsbert | Webster, John | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics I. Philosophy of Religion In philosophy of religion, the divine bonitas is considered from a metaphysical, a theological, and a moral perspective. In its metaphysical sense “goodness” is a transcendental term, i.e. a concept that transcends every ontological category. As such, goodness is co-extensive with existence: to exist is a good in itself. However, not everything that exists has being and goodness in the same degree. The quality of goo…


(8,918 words)

Author(s): Neu, Rainer | Fabry, Heinz-Josef | Alkier, Stefan | Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Evers, Dirk | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Fundamental Theology – VII. Dogmatics – VIII. Education and Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islamic Theology I. History of Religions Miracles are extraordinary, mystifying human experiences that cannot be explained by normal causes, which in many cases suggest the intervention of a deity or superhuman power. Miracles are found in all cultures and are among the traditions of almost all religi…

Kenotic Christology

(1,099 words)

Author(s): Webster, John
[German Version] Narrowly defined, kenotic Christology is dogmatic exegesis of the statement in Phil 2:7 concerning the self-emptying (Gk κένωσις/ kénōsis) of Christ; more generally, it attempts to reconcile the deity of Christ with the limitations of his humanity by arguing that the act of incarnation involves the non-exercise, suspension or abandonment of divine attributes considered irreconcilable with integral human existence. The naive, non-speculative understanding of kenotic Christology found in early Christian writers such as Ignatius (Ign. Pol 3.2; Ignatian Epis…


(6,443 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Seybold, Klaus | Oegema, Gerbern S. | Porter, Stanley E. | Webster, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In comparison with expiation (I), reconciliation is defined more specifically; as a rule, its goal is to restore a personal relationship undermined by guilt or sin. In reconciliation we are dealing with a category rooted in ¶ the Judeo-Christian tradition that cannot be translated readily into other contexts. In comparison with Western Christianity, the understanding of reconciliation in Judaism displays several distinctive features. As in Christianity, the concept of reconciliation is complementar…

England, Theology in

(1,913 words)

Author(s): Webster, John
[German Version] A distinct English theology only comes into existence near the end of the 16th century. A number of Western Catholic theologians in the Middle Ages were of English origin or held academic or ecclesiastical office in England (Anselm of Canterbury; John of Salisbury; Robert Grosseteste; Thomas Bradwardine; William of Occam; John Wycl…

Macquarrie, John

(617 words)

Author(s): Webster, John
[German Version] (Jun 27, 1919, Renfrew, Scotland – May 28, 2007, Oxford, England). John Macquarrie was educated at the University of Glasgow. He worked as an army chaplain and parish minister before doctoral work at Glasgow on the relation of M. Heidegger and R. Bultmann. He was lecturer in theology at Glasgow (1953–62), and then professor of systematic theology at Union Theological Seminary, New York, from 1962 to 1970. In 1965 he became an Anglican priest, and from 1970 to 1986 was Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity at the University of Oxford. A pro-¶ lific author, his publications …


(5,862 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Seybold, Klaus | Oegema, Gerbern S. | Porter, Stanley E. | Webster, John | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionsgeschichtlichIm Vergleich zur Sühne (: I.) ist V. spezifischer bestimmt und zielt in der Regel auf die Wiederherstellung einer durch Schuld oder Sünde zerrütteten personalen Beziehung. Bei V. handelt es sich um eine Kategorie aus der jüd.-christl. Tradition, die nicht ohne weiteres auf andere Kontexte übertragbar ist. Im Vergleich zu christl.-abendländischen Ausprägungen zeigt das Verständnis von V. bereits im Judentum erhebliche Besonderheiten. Zwar erscheint auch hi…


(7,812 words)

Author(s): Neu, Rainer | Fabry, Heinz-Josef | Alkier, Stefan | Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Evers, Dirk | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich W. sind außergewöhnliche und Verwunderung auslösende Erfahrungen von Menschen, die sie aus ihrem Verständnis von Normalität nicht erklären können und die für sie in vielen Fällen auf das Eingreifen einer Gottheit bzw. außermenschlichen Macht verweisen. W. treten in allen Kulturen auf und gehören zum Traditionsgut nahezu aller Rel. Nach ihrem Verständnis, Wertschätzung und Funktion können ihnen jedoch je nach ihrem hist., rel. und kulturellen Kontext recht unterschiedliche Bedeutungen zukommen. Die Auffassung, ethnische Rel…