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Theodamas

(58 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Probably an Indo-Greek king or prince, recorded only in one Kharoṣṭī inscription (known as the Bajaur Seal) as Middle Indian Theudama. It is by no means certain that the reading of the short inscription as "of the king Theodamas" is correct, but the name is certain.

Diomedes

(1,079 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Διομήδης; Diomḗdēs). [German version] [1] Cultic hero of the city of Argos Hero of the city of Argos in the Trojan War, as opposed to Agamemnon of Mycenae, the lord of north-eastern Argolis (Hom. Il. 2,559-568; cf. Il. 23,471f. [1; 2]). Son of Tydeus and Deipyle, the daughter of Adrastus. In his aristeia before Troy (Il. 5 and 6), he killed Pandarus, wounded Aphrodite when she tried to save Aeneas (Il. 5, 290-351), and later also wounded Ares (Il. 5, 825-863). As a friend of the family, he exchanged weapons with Glaucus the Lycian (on the side o…

Bucephala

(99 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Ἀλεξάνδρεια Βουκέφαλα; Alexándreia Bouképhala). City on the right bank of the Hydaspes (modern Jhelum), founded by Alexander [4] the Great on the site of the battle with Porus ( Porus) and named after his warhorse  Bucephalus (Arr. Anab. 5,19,4; Curt.). Still known in the early imperial period (Plin. HN; Peripl. m.r.; Ptol.). According to Lamotte mentioned in Buddhist literature as Bhadāśva [1]. Its exact location is disputed.…

Indo-Scythians

(59 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (in Chinese sources Yuèzhī) originally a Central Asian people, which migrated west in the 2nd cent. BC. The I. conquered  Graeco-Bactria and later moved to India, where they founded the powerful  Kushan dynasty ( Kanishka). Their Indian kingdom is called Indo-Scythia by Ptolemy and others.  Scythians Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography …

Chryse

(64 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Χρυσῆ χερρόνησος; Chrysê cherrónēsos). South-west Asian Peninsula (Peripl. m. r. 63; Ptol. 7,2,5, etc.), Lat. Promunturium Chryse (Plin. HN 6,20,55), probably on the modern Malacca Peninsula; cf. Sanskrit Suvarṇabhūmi ‘Land of Gold’ and Suvarṇadvı̄pa ‘Island of Gold’ in south-west Asia. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography P. Wheatley, The Golden Kh…

Phegeus

(304 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Φηγεύς; Phēgeús). [German version] [1] Son of Alpheius Son of Alpheius [2] (Hyg. Fab. 244), brother of Phoroneus; mythological king of Phegea in Arcadia, which was later called Psophis (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φηγεία; Paus. 8,24,2). He expiated the sin of Alcmaeon [1], who had killed his own mother, and married him to his daughter Alphesiboea (different name: Arsinoe [I 3]). However, Alcmaeon had to move on and then married Achelous' [2] daughter Callirhoe [2], for whom Alcmaeon deceitfully robbed P. of Harmo…

Taprobane

(343 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ταπροβάνη/ Taprobánē). The most common name for the island of Ceylon from the time of Onesicritus (in Str. 15,1,17 and Plin. HN 6,81) and Megasthenes (Plin. HN 6, 81) onwards, Ancient Indian Tāmraparṇi, Middle Indian Tambapaṇṇi. The unrealistic geographical ideas of Antiquity, which are probably based on Eratosthenes [2], are noteworthy: in all Greek and Latin sources T. is much larger than in reality and extends far to the west. Nevertheless, in Ptolemaeus [65] for instance, who devotes a whole chapter to T. (7,4…

Musicanus

(111 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μουσικανός/ Mousikanós). Indian king of the people of the same name ( Musicani) on the lower reaches of the Indus (Onesicritus in Str. 15,1,21f.; Arr. Anab. 6,15,5-17,2, also briefly Curt. 9,8,8-10). People have often tried to link the name wit the ancient Indian tribal name Mūṣika; however, they originated not in the north west, but in the south of India. M. had initially submitted to Alexander [4] the Great and had been received cordially, but after a failed revolt he was condemned to death. Onesicritus depicts his kingdom as a utopia steeped in Cynical philosophy. …

Zabii

(173 words)

Abissareans

(56 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Called Abhisāra in Old Indian, a mountain people of northern Pakistan (Megasthenes at Arr. Ind. 4,12), on the Soanos river, an eastern tributary of the Indus River (nowadays called Sohan or Suwan [1. 1100 f.]), with King  Abisares. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 G. Wirth, O. by Hinübe…

Muziris

(145 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with | Mauryas (Μουζιρίς; Mouzirís). Sea port on the south-western coast of India in modern Kerala; the Indian Muciri of the Tamil Sangam poems [1]. Both Greek and Tamil sources describe M. as one of the most important southern Indian port and trading cities. An important trading route to the eastern coast of India originated from M. A papyrus deed (PVindob. 40822) from Egypt …

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Calatiae

(67 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Hecat. in Steph. Byz. FGrH; Kallatiai in Hdt. 3,38). Indian ethnic group whose members according to Hdt. used to eat their parents -- an ethnological curiosity that in another citation (Hdt. 3,99) was attributed to another Indian people, the Padaioi, likewise to the Iranian Massagetae (Hdt. 1,216) and the  Issedones (Hdt. 4,26). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography …

Porus

(484 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Attic Paralia(?) deme of the Acamantis phyle (Πόρος/ Póros). Attic paralia(?) deme, Acamantis phyle, from 307/6 BC Demetrias, three bouleutaí. Location unknown, but certainly not in Laureum or Metropisi (otherwise [1; 2]), since no mining is recorded for P. …

Malli

(81 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μαλλοί; Malloí). Indian people at the confluence of the Punjab rivers Hydaspes, Acesines [2] and Hydraotes, with several fortified cities. In league with the Oxydracae, they violently resisted Alexander the Great. They are probably the ancient Indian Mālava who later emigrated to the east and are attested numismatically and epigraphically in Rājasthān (2nd cent. BC) and in Madhya Pradesh. Their name there is still preserved as Mālwā. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography K. K. Das Gupta, The Mālava, 1966.

Larice

(61 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indian region in Gujarāt, bordering on Indo-Scythia in the west, with the capital Ozene (Ptol. 7,1,62f., see also Peripl. m.r. 41 (Ariake) and Ptol. 7,1,4f.). The name is obviously related to Old Indian Lāṭa, South Gujarāt. In this country the famous harbour town of Barygaza was situated. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Wecker, s.v. L., RE 12, 837f.

Heliocles

(97 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (called Díkaios, Middle Indian Heliyakriya). Greek king of Bactria in the 2nd cent. BC, attested only by his coins. According to Tarn [1] son of Eucratides I and the last Greek king of Bactria, overthrown by nomads in 141/128. Narain [2] and Bopearachchi [3] differentiate between two H.s on numismatic grounds. The second was supposedly a son of the first and ruled in the south of the Hindu Kush. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 W. W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India, 21951 2 A. K. Narain, The Indo-Greeks, 1958 3 Bopearachchi, 74-76, 222-225 (H. I.), 9…

Sambus

(143 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Tributary of the Ganges (Σάμβος/ Sámbos). Tributary of the Ganges (Arr. Ind. 4,4: Megasthenes), possibly identical to the Sarabus (Ptol. 7,1,29; 2,13) corresponding to the Sarayū (Agoranis). Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) [German version] [2] Indian king, 4th cent. BC (Σάμβος/ Sámbos in Arr. Anab. 6,16,3 f., Σάβος/ Sábos in Diod. Sic. 17,102,6 f. and Str. 15,1,33, Σάββας/ Sábbas in Plut. Alexander 64, Sambus in Curt. 9,8,13 and 9,8,17, Ambus in Just. Epit. 12,10, etc.). Indian king; his kingdom, with its capital at Sindimana, lay in the mountain …

Indus

(317 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἰνδός; Indós). [German version] [1] The Indus The River Indus. Probably from Old Indian Sindhu (for the etymology cf.  India); the Indian name is better attested as Sindus in Plin. HN 6,71, than Σίνθος; Sínthos in Peripl. m.r. 38; 40 and as Σίνδων/Σίνθων; Síndōn/ Sínthōn in Ptol. 7,1,2 (here a branch of the delta). According to general Greek opinion (with the exception of  Megasthenes), the I. is the largest river in India, known to the Greeks since the end of the 6th cent. BC (Scylax in Hdt. 4,44). The lower reaches for instance downstr…
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