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Wettbewerbe, künstlerische

(3,099 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter | Paulsen, Thomas | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[English version] I. Szenische Wettbewerbe W., die im griech. Theater unter Einbeziehung der skēnḗ (des Bühnenhauses und des ihm vorgelagerten Podests für Schauspielerauftritte) stattfanden, also dramatische Aufführungen. Ursprünglich lag die skēnḗ abseits der orchḗstra (Theater I.) und diente lediglich dem Kostüm- und Maskenwechsel; sie wurde wohl erst 458 v. Chr. mit der ‘Orestie des Aischylos [1] in das Blickfeld des Publikums gerückt und ins Spiel einbezogen. Dennoch gelten auch die früheren dramatischen W. als szenisch. Blume, Horst-Dieter A. Griechenland …

Sulpicius

(4,630 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig | Schmitt, Tassilo | Müller, Christian | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg | Et al.
Name einer röm. patrizischen Familie, wohl aus Cameria stammend (daher das Cogn. Camerinus) und seit ca. 500 v. Chr. in den Fasten bezeugt. Das sonst seltene Praen. Servius erscheint häufiger und wird z. T. auch stellvertretend für das Gent. verwandt (Tac. hist. 2,48; Plut. Galba 3,1). Die Zahl der Cognomina innerhalb der Gens ist hoch, ohne daß sich größere Zweige ausmachen lassen. Die Verbindung der S. vom 3. ins 2. und 1. Jh. v. Chr. ist unsicher. Im 2. Jh. v. Chr. war der bedeutendste Zweig der der Sulp…

Turnus

(293 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[English version] [1] König der Rutuli Myth. König der Rutuli, Sohn des Daunos [2] und der Venilia, Bruder der Iuturna, aus der Stadt Ardea; regiert zu der Zeit, als Aeneas/Aineias [1] nach It. kommt. Nach einer (wohl älteren) Trad. kämpft er zusammen mit Latinus [1] gegen den Eindringling Aeneas. Als Latinus fällt, flieht er zu Mezentius, mit dem zusammen er den Kampf wieder aufnimmt, bei dem schließlich er selbst und Aeneas fallen (Cato HRR fr. 9-10). In einer anderen Variante kämpft er gegen Latinu…

Sulpicia

(525 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Eck, Werner
[English version] [1] Frau von Cornelius Lentulus Cruscellio, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Frau des Cornelius Lentulus Cruscellio (MRR 2, 391), der 43 v. Chr. proskribiert zu Sex. Pompeius [I 5] nach Sizilien floh. Als Dienerin verkleidet folgte sie ihm in die Verbannung (Val. Max. 6,7,3, App. civ. 4,39). Strothmann, Meret [English version] [2] Dichterin im Corpus Tibullianum Enkelin des Servius Sulpicius [I 23] (vgl. [3]), Nichte des M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus. Verfasserin eines kurzen, im Corpus Tibullianum (3,13-18) überl. Gedichtzyklus, in dem sie ihrer Liebe zu einem Mann …

Varro

(6,424 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner | Sallmann, Klaus | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[English version] [1] erwähnt bei Iosephus, bell. Iud. Bei Ios. bell. Iud. 1,398 als ἡγεμών ( hēgemṓn) von Syrien ca. 25-23 v. Chr. genannt. Die Identifizierung ist unsicher. Zuletzt dazu [1. 17 f.]. Eck, Werner Bibliography 1 E. Da̧browa, The Governors of Roman Syria, 1998. [English version] [2] V. Terentius, M. (Reatinus) röm. Universal­schriftsteller, 116-27 v. Chr. Der bedeutendste röm. Universalschriftsteller. M. Terentius Varro: Werkübersicht     Nr. (im Text)     Titel (lat.)     Deutscher Titel bzw. Thema     Erhaltungszustand1     Edition; Testimonia; Cata…

Sulpicius

(5,409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of a Roman patrician family, probably originally from Cameria (hence the cognomen Camerinus); documented in the fasti from c. 500 BC. The otherwise rare praenomen Servius appears comparatively frequently and at times is even used in place of the nomen gentile (Tac. Hist. 2,48; Plut. Galba 3,1). The number of cognomina within the gens is high, but it has been impossible to identify clear branches. The link between the S. from the 3rd to the 2nd and 1st cent. BC is unclear. In the 2nd cent. BC, the most important branch of the family was that of…

Terentius

(5,938 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile of Sabine origin. Its members begin to appear in the sources late in the 3rd cent. BC. Politically the most important branch was that of the Terentii Varrones which attained the ranks of the nobility with T. [I 14] Varro, consul in 216 BC. From the mid-2nd cent., several families of this branch were in simultaneous and unconnected existence. Cognomina showing geographical origins are widespread among the Terentii (Afer, Lucanus, Massaliota). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] As people's tribune in 54 BC, T. prevented…

Statilius

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A young friend of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato; in 46 BC he wanted to follow Cato into death, but allowed himself to be dissuaded by philosophical arguments (Plut. Cato Minor 65,10 f.; 66,6-8; 73,7). He then joined cause with M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who, because of S.' attitude towards tyrannicide, did not dare let him in on the plot against Caesar. S. was killed in 42 as a scout at Philippi (Plut. Brutus 51,6). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Roman equestrian and leading follower of Catilina (Cic. Cat. 3,6…

Volcacius

(263 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] V. Sedigitus Author of a didactic poem, 2nd cent. BC Author of a Latin didactic poem in senarii (Metre [VI.C.3].) on the history of literature (Plin. HN. 11,244), probably from the end of the 2nd cent. BC. Four fragments (in total 20 verses) are preserved (probably by way of Varro, De poetis) of the genre of the palliata (Comedy [II.C.]). They treat biographies of poets (fr. 2 FPL = 3 GRF on the death of Terentius [III 1]), questions of authenticity (in Gell. NA 3,3,1 on Plautus; fr. 3/4 on the alleged co-operat…

Serenus

(635 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[German version] [1] Quinctius S. Sammonicus Author of a collection of recipes (also Quintus Serenius). Author of the Liber Medicinalis, a collection of therapeutic recipes which can be neither dated nor identified; Q. has at times been identified with S. [2] Sammonicus or with his son (Septimius [II 6] S. Sammonicus; both died at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD). The collection (dating between the 2nd and 4th cents. AD) cannot be chronologically ordered with any accuracy. It is written in hexameters and contain…

Circles, literary

(764 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] When referring to antiquity, the modern term ‘literary circle’ describes the Maecenatic patronage of contemporary literature and the encouragement of young poets; however, generalizations and exaggerations (in the sense of the middle-class reading circles of the 19th cent.) have to be avoided (cf. gen.  Literary activity II.). Initially, these circles signify an acculturative boost following the conquest of Greece in the early 2nd cent. BC.   Nobiles such as M.  Fulvius [I 15] Nobilior [1. 536 f.] and L.  Aemilius [I 32] Paull…

Titius

(1,112 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, derived from the praenomen Titus II., recorded only in the 1st cent. BC; the bearers of the name are usually not related to each other. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Equestrian, orator and poet, 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC Roman equestrian of the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, orator (Cic. Brut. 167) and poet (Fronto p. 15,13 ff. v.d. Hout). Although T. lacked theoretical education and frequent practice of delivering speeches, his own speeches distinguished themselves by their…

Valgius

(303 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Valg(i)us Father-in-law (Cic. Leg. agr. 3,3) of Servilius [I 26] Rullus. Under Cornelius [I 90] Sulla V. had appropriated estates in Ager Hirpinus and in Casinum (ibid. 2,69; 3,8-14). He may be identical to the C. Quinctius Valgus recorded as patronus (D.) of the Hirpinian Aeclanum, as quinquennalis of a town near Frigento and as a duumvir of Pompeii and in Casinum (ILLRP 523; 565; 598; 645; 646). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography P. Harvey, Socer Valgus, Valgii and C. Quinctius Valgus, in: E. Borza, R. Carrubba (eds.), Classics and the Classical Trad., 197…

Competitions, artistic

(3,335 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Paulsen, Thomas (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] I. Stage competitions Competitions, which included the   skēnḗ (the stage and the podium in front of it for the actor's appearance) in Greek theatre, that is dramatic performances. Originally, the skēnḗ was away from the orchḗstra ( Theatre I) and was used only for changing costumes and masks; it probably was not moved into the audience's view and integrated into the play until 458 BC with the ‘Orestia’ of  Aeschylus [1]. Nevertheless, early dramatic competitions are also thought to have been staged. Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) A. Greece [German version] 1. Developm…

Verrius

(729 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
Roman nomen gentile, perhaps of Etruscan origin (Schulze, 287), first recorded in the 1st cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [1] M. V. Flaccus Latin grammarian, Augustan era [German version] I. Life V. was the leading grammarian of the generation after Varro [2], born in Praeneste after 60 BC. Suetonius' biography (Gram. 17) reveals competition with Varro: the freedman ( libertinus) V. stands in opposition to the Roman equestrian ( eques Romanus), the grammarian to the philosopher and poet ( philosophus et poeta), the politician and soldier. V. became famous through h…

Votienus Montanus

(165 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] Famous (Tac. Ann. 4,42,1) orator of the early Imperial period from Narbo (modern Narbonne). Accused in his home city by P. Vinicius [II 4], he had to answer to Tiberius [1] (Sen. Controv. 7,5,12); convicted in AD 25 of insulting the emperor (Tac. loc.cit.) and banished, he died in 27 (Jer. Chron. p. 173b H.) or later [3]. Despite his polemics against the fashion for declamationes (Sen. Controv. 9, pr. 9,6,10), V. was not able to entirely withdraw from the activities of the school, as citations in Seneca [1] the Elder show ( ibid. 9,1-6; 10,2-3). His style was considered s…

Vacca

(127 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] It is only from the 12th cent. onwards that traces of a V. as an expositor Lucani are found in a commentary on the poet Lucanus [1]. The scholia ascribed to him are characterized by mediaeval amplifications of earlier material. Therefore, not unlike Cornutus in the case of Phocas, Persius and Iuvenalis (cf. Cornutus [4]), V. cannot be considered either as an ancient commentator on Lucan or as the author of the Vita at the beginning of the Adnotationes super Lucanum ([1; 2]; contra [3]); we are probably dealing with a mediaeval mystification. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliog…

Terentianus Maurus

(183 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] African grammarian around the middle of the 3rd cent. AD (later, acc. to [4]), author of three didactic poems, dedicated to metre, in the tradition of the derivation theory (Caesius [II 8] Bassus): a) De litteris (v. 85-278; articulation of the letters of the alphabet), b) De syllabis (v. 279-1299; metrical qualities of letters and syllables), c) De metris (v. 1300-2981; on metre itself), according to [2. 566 f.] the praefatio (V. 1-84) also belonged to this. Other (lyrical?) poems are lost. The instructive poem, much used in late Antiquity, rema…

Togata

(348 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] Type of Roman comedy; unlike the variation later called palliata , it was not associated with Athens but with a Roman setting. By the term togata (= play with Roman private individuals in everyday dress; toga ), it is distinguished from praetexta (= action by persons in political/military official dress), cf. Hor. Ars P 288; Varro suggested to replace togata with tabernaria and to use it as a collective term for all plays in a Roman setting [2], but this usage did not gain general acceptance (but cf.  Juv. 1,3). While Roman and Greek elements were used alike in the c…

Trabea

(230 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Festal form of the toga Roman garment, a festal form of the toga , differing from it only in colour. It was dyed purple-red, with scarlet or white stripes ( clavi) and was worn on official occasion by equestrians and Salii [2]. Originally it was the dress of Roman kings and was then taken over by consuls, but they wore it only on special occasions (e.g. opening of the Temple of Janus). Other wearers of the trabea in the early period were the augures and the Flamines Dialis and Martialis (priests of Jupiter and Mars), who then wore the toga praetexta from the 3rd cent. BC onw…
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