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Paulus

(5,982 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
see Iulius [IV 15] (poet); see Iulius [IV 16] (jurist) [German version] I Greek (Παῦλος; Paûlos). [German version] [I 1] Bishop of Antioch [1], died after 272 Bishop of Antiochia [1] († after AD 272). P., who was probably born in Samosata and grew up in modest circumstances, succeeded Demetrianus in 260/1 and quickly antagonized influential parts of the Antioch community with his teachings and conduct of his office. According to Eusebius [7] (account of P.: Eus. HE 7,27-30), the presbyter Malchion, head of a school of r…

Methodists

(841 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] 1st-century AD medical school. Its representatives explicitly defined themselves as Methodists (μεθοδικοί; methodikoí), as it was their goal to base the practice of medicine on a single simple method (μέθοδος; méthodos) that they could teach to anyone in just a few words. Extant are only the gynaecological treatise of Soranus,a Latin translation of his pathological writings by Caelius [II 11] Aurelianus and doxographic fragments, e.g. POxy. 3654 [1. 382-386, 388-390], probably a medical textbook from the time of Galenus. …

Physica Plinii

(336 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Renaissance title of a Latin book of formulae, based largely on the Medicina Plinii and written in the 5th/6th cents. AD. There are three recensions: 1. Sangallensis (6th/7th cents.) in three books (not yet published; titles of the chapters: [6. 41-55]; contains numerous incantations [5]); 2. Bambergensis [3], dated to the 5th/6th cents., but possibly more recent, and divided into three books; 3. Florentino-Pragensis [11; 10; 7] in five books (including the Medicinae ex oleribus et pomis of Gargilius [4] Martialis and the Liber dietarum diversorum medicorum by …

Kollyrion

(385 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (κολλύριον; kollýrion, Lat. collyrium and βάλανος/ bálanos: Caelius Aurelianus, De morbis acutis 2,83; De morbis chronicis 2,39). Pharmaceutical form for administering medicinal substances, in local applications. These were pulverished and made into a uniform paste with binders, as is evident from the etymology ( kollýra: small, round bread roll without yeast [2. 145], bread dough [1. 556]). The kollyrion's two main types of use determine its form and function: a small cone was formed for insertion into anatomical or pathological orifice…

Statilius

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A young friend of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato; in 46 BC he wanted to follow Cato into death, but allowed himself to be dissuaded by philosophical arguments (Plut. Cato Minor 65,10 f.; 66,6-8; 73,7). He then joined cause with M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who, because of S.' attitude towards tyrannicide, did not dare let him in on the plot against Caesar. S. was killed in 42 as a scout at Philippi (Plut. Brutus 51,6). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Roman equestrian and leading follower of Catilina (Cic. Cat. 3,6…

Scribonius

(2,206 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably from Caudium (CIL I2 1744 f.) and attested from the time of the 2nd Punic War. The branch of the Libones (S. [I 5-7; II 4-7]) attained the consulship with S. [I 7] and was part of the Roman high nobility in the early Imperial period. The Curiones (S. [I 1-4]), prominent in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC, disappeared with the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S. Curio, C. As aedile in 196 BC, he built the Temple of Faunus on the Tiber Island. Praetor urbanus in 183 and the second plebeian to be elected curio [2] maximus

Infibulation

(133 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (κρίκωσις; kríkōsis, κρικοῦσθαι; krikoûsthai, infibulare). Placement of a ring (κρίκος; kríkos) or a fibula, minor surgery on the penis described by Celsus (7,25,2) and by Oribasius (50,11). The operation entailed tightening a thread through perforations in the foreskin until it would close no farther. A ring (or fibula) was then attached to prevent exposure of the glans. In some cases at least, it could be removed. Celsus considers the operation to be much more frequently useless than necessary and sees behind it health motives and an attempt t…

Ichor

(165 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (ἰχώρ; ichṓr). The word has been connected to the Aramaic or Hebrew root meaning ‘dignity’, ‘splendour’, with possible etymological overlap of the Sumerian root meaning ‘blood’ and the Akkadian root meaning ‘to pour’. In Homer (Il. 5,340; cf. 416), the word denotes the lifeblood of the gods as opposed to regular blood that is produced by eating bread and drinking wine. Ichor also appears in Aeschylus (Ag. 1479f., 458 BC), where the word denotes a fluid which is discharged from wounds that will not close. In the 4th cent., it is more common …

Disease

(3,935 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] A. Terminology Νόσος/ nósos (Ionic νοῦσος/ noûsos, ‘D’.; etym.: ‘being weakened’) describes disease in an imagery of aggression, which remained in use for a long time [17], as a result of external (divine) or internal origin, which ‘ruled over people and struck them down’ (e.g.: ἱερὰ νόσος; hierà nósos, ‘the sacred disease’, epilepsy). From about the 5th cent. BC, the term was increasingly rivalled by the derivation nósēma [30], perhaps an expression coined by the Sophists; in any case, it rapidly spread through the medical world. It does not hav…

Zeuxis

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
(Ζεῦξις/ Zeûxis). [German version] [1] Greek painter and sculptor, c. 435/25-390 BC Greek painter and sculptor, active between c. 435/25 and 390 BC. He was one of the pioneers of the great era of Greek painting which would retain its high standards for over a century. 'Heraclea', which Plin. HN 35,61 gives as his place of origin, seems more likely to be the Sicilian Heraclea [9] Minoa ([1. 382]; but [2]: Heraclea [7] Pontica?) than Heraclea [10] in Lucania [3. 60], since Z. was the pupil of an otherwise unknown ma…

Palladius

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Παλλάδιος; Palládios). [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, 4th cent. Greek rhetor of the first half of the 4th cent. AD (Suda s.v. P. gives his prime as under Constantinus [1] I) from Methone (probably the Messenian one). According to the Suda, in addition to declamations he wrote in all three rhetorical genres ( genera dicendi ) and also an antiquarian work on the festivals of the Romans (FGrH F 837). Whether P. is identical with one of the numerous Palladii mentioned in the letters of Libanius and if …

Medicina Plinii

(278 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Compilation of medical texts written in Latin and attributed in the MSS to an otherwise unknown Plinius Secundus Iunior. Mentioned by Marcellus [8] Empiricus, it is generally accepted to date back to the early 4th cent. AD or even slightly before that. The compilation starts with the author's declaration of his intention to prevent the counterfeiting of medicinal products whose ingredients he then lists together with the relevant composition. The work consists of three books. Bk. 1-2: medicinal preparations, ordered accor…

Serenus

(635 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[German version] [1] Quinctius S. Sammonicus Author of a collection of recipes (also Quintus Serenius). Author of the Liber Medicinalis, a collection of therapeutic recipes which can be neither dated nor identified; Q. has at times been identified with S. [2] Sammonicus or with his son (Septimius [II 6] S. Sammonicus; both died at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD). The collection (dating between the 2nd and 4th cents. AD) cannot be chronologically ordered with any accuracy. It is written in hexameters and contain…

Placitus Papyriensis

(271 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Name of the author to whom is ascribed the Liber medicinae ex animalibus from the corpus also containing Ps.-Musa, De herba vettonica, Ps.-Apuleius, Herbarius, the anonymous treatise De taxone and Ps.-Dioscorides, De herbis feminis. As the work borrows from Marcellus' [8] De medicamentis, it would appear to date from the 1st half of the 5th cent. AD. The author, who is sometimes confused with Sextus Platonicus, is unknown and may be historically dubious, especially since text [5. 233-286] and illustrations [6] are atteste…

Philtron

(194 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (φίλτρον/ phíltron, Latin philtrum; also στέργηθρον/ stérgēthron and θέλκτρον ἔρωτος/ thélktron érōtos; Latin amatorium, pocula desiderii or amoris). Generally a love charm, more often instruments of such a charm (e.g. the tunic of Deianira, Soph. Trach. 584, 1144), usually made from plants, sometimes with mineral and animal substances. Phíltra were used in two ways: 1. The substances were burned in a magical ritual carried out by a professional sorcerer using additional materials (lead plates carrying magical formulae, a statu…

Vettius

(1,947 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
Widespread Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., L. Roman equestrian from Picenum, c. 106-59 BC. In 89 BC, V. probably served on the staff of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo (ILS 8888; [1. 161 f.]) and subsequently enriched himself as a favourite of L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla (Sall. Hist. 1,55,17). He later joined the conspiracy of Catilina (Q. Tullius Cic. commentariolum petitionis 10), but betrayed it to Cicero in 63 BC (Cass. Dio. 37,41; Oros. 6,6,7). In 62, it seems that opponents o…

Iatromathematics

(982 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] A. Definition Iatromathēmatiká (Herm. 1,387,1 Ideler) or nosoúntōn perignostiká ek tês mathēmatikês epistḗmēs (ibid. 1,430,2-3) etc. is the term for the medical implications of astrology, i.e. the recognition of a nosological predisposition of patients or a prognosis of current illnesses, connected with prevention or therapy, depending on the case. Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) [German version] B. Sources The books on which iatromathematics is based are the alleged revelations of  Hermes, who was possibly assisted by Asclepius. These revela…

Pedanius

(1,688 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Pedanius Dioscorides Author on medicines, 1st cent. AD (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης; Pedánios Dioskourídēs). [German version] I. Life The author of the treatise Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς/ Perì hýlēs iatrikês ( De materia medica, 'On Materia Medica') hailed from Anazarbus (Cilicia) and dates to the 1st. cent. AD: in his preface (§ 4), he refers to a certain Laikanios Bassos, whom he describes as krátistos (‘the highest’), now assumed to be C. Laecanius Bassus, senator and consul of AD 64. Pliny makes no reference to this work in his Naturalis historia (completed in AD 77 acc…

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Heliodorus

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος; Heliódōros). [German version] [1] Chancellor under Seleucus IV, 2nd cent. BC Son of Aeschylus of Antioch on the Orontes, was educated with Seleucus IV and was a courtier (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) and well-respected chancellor (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) under him in 187-175 BC (IG XI 4,1112-1114, or OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). When financial difficulties after the defeat of Seleucus' father Antiochus III against the Romans (190/188), in conjunction with internal Jewish intrigues, had led to special…
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