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Libo

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period in the families of the Iulii, Livii, Poetelii and Scribonii, in the Imperial period in the Anni, Flavii, Livii, Scribonii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Imperios(s)us

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, designating excessive personal harshness, in the Republican period in the Manlii family ( Manlius) in the 4th cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 266.

Abbius

(92 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Oppianicus, Statius. Roman knight from Larinum. He tried to have his stepson A.  Cluentius Habitus poisoned and was therefore accused by him of murder in 74 BC, convicted, and died in exile in 72.  Cicero defended Cluentius against the counterclaim of the stepmother in 66 that Cluentius had tried to poison A. and accused the latter of the murder of other family members, falsification of the will, bribing of judges, and other crimes (Cic. Clu. passim). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography C.J. Classen, Recht, Rhet., Politik, 1985, 15-119 Nicolet 2, 755-756.

Gnipho

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from Greek Γνίφων; Gníphōn, ‘miser’), epithet of Mark Antony [I 12] G., the teacher of Caesar and Cicero. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Lars

(87 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Latin form of the common Etruscan praenomen lar and its variants (references: [4. 205-208]; the Latin form Lar is only uncertainly documented, Liber de praenominibus 4; [2]). Known bearers: L. Porsenna, king of Clusium 508 BC; L. Herminius Coritinesanus (?), cos. 448 BC, and L. Tolumnius, king of Veii (2nd half 5th cent. BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Rix, Das etr. Cognomen, 1963, 273, 348 2 O. Salomies, Die röm. Vornamen, 1986, 31f. 3 Schulze, 84 4 Thesaurus linguae Etruscae 1, 1978.

Tubertus

(18 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (connected with tuber, 'swelling'), Postumius [I 17]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 246.

Torquatus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (decorated with a Torque (I.)), prominent in the Manlii family (cf. Manlius [I 12; 14-21]). Legend on its origin in Liv. 7,10,11. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 346.

Gratidia

(61 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Sister of M. Gratidius [2] The sister of M. Gratidius [2], married to M. Tullius Cicero, the grandfather of the orator (Cic. Leg. 3,36). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] True name of the in Horace repeatedly named sorceress Canidia The true name of the sorceress  Canidia, who is repeatedly named in Horace. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tertullus

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Common Roman cognomen, derivative (diminutive) of Tertius . Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 270  Kajanto, Cognomina, 128; 292.

Sertorius, Q.

(533 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] B. 123 BC at Nursia (Samnium), of an equestrian family. He gained military experience in 105/4 under Q. Servilius [I 12] Caepio and C. Marius [I 1] in the wars against the Cimbri and Teutoni, and in 98-93 under T. Didius [I 4] in Spain, where he particularly distinguished himself and acquired intimate knowledge of the country. In 91, S. was quaestor in Gallia Cisalpina, after which he fought in the Social War [3]. In 89 or 88, his candidature for the people's tribunate was thwarte…

Lepidus

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, recorded in the Republican period for the Aemilii [I 7-17; II 7-9] and other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FC, 256.

Gallonius

(97 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Family name, also Galonius, Calonius (Schulze 171); bearers of this name are attested several times but are of little historical significance. [German version] [1] G., C. City leader of Gades 49 BC Roman eques, was sent by L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus to Gades to administer an inheritance in 49 BC, became city leader in the Civil War there, but withdrew in favour of Caesar (Caes. B Civ. 2,18,2; 20,2f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., P. Gourmet by Lucilius 1238 M. Made proverbial by Lucilius (1238 M.) as a gourmet and glutton. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Patulcius

(42 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Uncommon Roman family name. Its best-known representative, Q.P., and L. Cornificius brought a successful action against T. Annius [I 14] Milo in 52 BC for 'use of force' ( de vi) (Ascon. 54 C.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulze, 142.

Calvus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘bald-head’) of the Caecilii Metelli, Cornelii Scipiones, Licinii et al. (ThlL, Onom. 111f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 235.

Merenda

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Cognomen of M. Antonius [I 13] and among the Cornelii Cognomen of M. Antonius [I 13] and of the Cornelii family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 340. [German version] [2] see Meals see Meals.

Laetorius

(319 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin [1. 187; 200; 205]. The gens is attested firmly from the end of the 4th cent. BC; 5th century bearers of the name are annalistic inventions (the people's tribune 471 BC: Liv. 2,56, 6-15; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 9,46,1-48,5). Originally plebeian, the family was patrician from the time of Caesar or Augustus (Suet. Aug. 5,1; [2. 89f.]). [German version] [1] L., C. Curule aedile in 216 BC Curule aedile in 216 BC, propraetor in Gaul in 209, legate in Greece (?) in 205, in Upper Italy in 200, Triumvir at the foundation of the colony in Croton in 194 (Liv. 34,45,4). Elvers,…

Genucius

(698 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of an old family, perhaps immigrants from Etruria [1. 456f.]. One of the leading families of plebeian nobility in the 4th and 3rd cents. BC: G. [9] occupied the office of consul immediately after it was opened up to plebeians (in 367/6), G. [1] belonged to the first plebeian augurs. The historicity of the patrician name-bearers of G. [5]-[7] is contested [2. 111; 3. 12f.]. The family died out at the end of the 3rd cent. BC. [German version] [1] G., C. One of the plebeian augurs 300 BC One of the first plebeian augurs appointed following the lex Ogulnia of 300 BC (Liv. 10,9,2). The cognomen Aug…

Hirtuleius, L.

(123 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Probably quaestor in 86 or 85 BC (introduction of the dual accounting system for debts under the lex Valeria, Cic. Font. 2), 79-75 BC proquaestor of the renegade Q.  Sertorius in Spain and his most capable officer. In 79 he defeated the governor M. Domitius [I 11] Calvinus at the Anas, in 78 the proconsul of Gallia Transalpina, L. Manlius (MRR 2, 83; 87). In 76 he was defeated by Q. Caecilius [I 31] Metellus Pius near Ilerda and fell shortly afterwards together with his brother near Segontia at the…

Braetius

(63 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman personal name (ThlL 2,2163). [German version] [1] B. Sura, Q. Legate in Macedonia, 87 BC Legate ( pro quaestore) of C.  Sentius Saturninus in Macedonia, successfully fought against Mithridates VI's troops in Boeotia in 87 BC (H. Gaebler, Die ant. Münzen v. Makedonia und Paionia 1, 1906, no. 225; name: IG IX 2,613; Plut. Sull. 11,6-8; App. Mith. 113-115). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cynegius

(137 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (Maternus Cynegius, ILS 1273). Probably born in Spain, Christian. Under  Theodosius I in AD 381 vicarius (?), 383 comes sacrarum largitionum, 383/ 384 quaestor sacri palatii. As praefectus praetorio Orientis 384-388, C. is said to have improved the state of the municipal curiae on behalf of the emperor (Lib. Or. 39,3). On two trips through the east of the empire (in 384 and 388) he intensively fought pagan religious practice (probably without explicit imperial permission) (Zos. 4,37; Chron. min. 1,244f. Mommsen) and in s…

Gallius

(186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Latin family name (Schulze 424), possibly originally denoting descent from a Gallus. [German version] [1] G., M. Supporter of M. Antonius 43 BC Praetor in 44 BC or earlier, served under M. Antonius at Mutina in 43 [I 9] and also fought against Octavian; in his will he adopted the later emperor Tiberius (Cic. Phil. 13,26; Suet. Tib. 6,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Q. Defended by Cicero for bribing voters Aedilis plebis in 67 BC, held magnificent games in 66, as praetor he chaired the trial against C. Cornelius [I 2] in 65 and was probably s…

Cossus

(61 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen, maybe of Etruscan origin and probably initially a praenomen (Schulze, 158, 519; Kajanto, Cognomina 178). Nickname of one of the oldest branches of the Cornelii ( Cornelius [I 20-22]). Meaning as the nickname ‘woodworm’ is uncertain [1], in the early imperial period also a praenomen of some Cornelii Lentuli (Cornelius [II 26-27]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Walde/Hofmann 1,281

Dexter

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Widespread Roman cognomen in the families Afranius, Calpurnius, Cassius, Cestius, Claudius, Cornelius, Domitius, Egnatius, Nummius, Pomponius, Subrius, Turpilius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Rufillus

(44 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Fictitious Roman cognomen, affectionate form of Rufinus (as in Hor. Sat. 1,2,26 f.; cf. 1,4,92 for an overbred dandy). Rufilla was the name of an alleged lover of Octavianus (Augustus) (Suet. Aug. 69,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 27; 229.

Pansa

(78 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen; according to ancient tradition a reference to a ‘ flatfoot’ (Plaut. Merc. 640; Plin. HN 11,254; Quint. Inst. 1,4,25); very common in the Imperial period. Its most famous bearer was C. Vibius Pansa ( cos. in 43 BC); the addressee of Cato's [1] speech In Pansam is not known (ORF I4, fr. 205). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 261  Degrassi, FCap 147  Kajanto, Cognomina, 105; 241  H. Rix, Das etruskische Cognomen, 1963, 249f.  Schulze, 242; 365.

Chrysogonus

(69 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Influential freedman of Sulla (therefore his full name L. Cornelius C.), who enriched himself significantly during the Proscriptions. He had Sex. Roscius retroactively placed on the Proscription list for the purpose of acquiring his property for little money. According to Cicero that is why he backed the patricide trial of the victim's son, Sex.  Roscius in 80 BC (Cic. Rosc. Am. passim). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Apustius

(122 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Plebeian gentile name probably of Etruscan origin [1], inscriptions recorded up to the Imperial period (ThLL 2,294). [German version] [1] L. Legate 215 BC Legate 215 BC (Liv. 23,18,9; 11). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P. Envoy 161 BC In 161 BC delegate to Ptolemy VII Physcon together with Cn.  Cornelius Lentulus (Pol. 31,20,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Fullo, L. Cos. 226 BC cos. 226 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Fullo, L. Praetor urbanus 196 BC Probably son of no. 3, aedile in 201 BC, in 200 legate in Macedonia, 196 prae…

Rebilus

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen occurring in the Caninii family (Caninius [3-5]) until the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 265.

Geganius

(141 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a Roman patrician family, which according to tradition was politically significant in Rome during the 5th cent. BC, but then entirely disappeared. The gens supposedly came to Rome from Alba Longa under king Tullus Hostilius (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7); a later construction traced the family back to  Gyas, a companion of Aeneas (Serv. Aen. 5,117). [German version] [1] G. Macerinus, M. Cos III, censor 435 BC Consul I in 447 BC, II in 443 (triumph over the Volsci, InscrIt 13,1,67; Liv. 4,9f.), III in 437, censor in 435 with C. Furius [I 25] Pacilus; legate in 431. Elvers, Ka…

Curius

(291 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Plebian gentes name, attested from the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC onwards (ThlL, Onom. 2, 760-762). [German version] [1] Procos. between 47 and 45 BC Otherwise unknown proconsul between 47 and 45 BC (contact of Cic. Fam. 13,49). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., M. People's tribune 198 BC People's tribune in 198 BC, objected to the election of T.  Quinctius Flamininus as consul (Liv. 32,7,8). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] C., Q. Catalinarian, betrayed the conspiracy in 63 BC In 70 BC, as a former quaestor (?), he was expelled from the…

Musca

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Fly’) in the family of the Sempronii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 24; 85; 333.

Asellus

(39 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Diminutive of asinus, nickname in the families of the Annians and Claudians, also common in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 87, 325. [German version] [2] see Donkey see  Donkey

Ahala

(45 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (= ala, the armpit), creation legend in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 12,4,4-5 [1]. Famous as surname of the Servilii in the 5th cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Mommsen, Röm. Forsch. 2, 1879, 209 ff. F. Münzer, s. v. Servilius, RE 2A, 1768.

Calvinus

(40 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Calvinus [1] see  Domitius [German version] Calvinus [2] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period particularly common in the  Domitii family, but also in the Sextii and Veturii (ThlL, Onom. 108). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 235.

Privernas

(24 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('Victor over“Privernum”'), byname of L. Aemilius [I 24] Mamercinus P. (perhaps invented later). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 182.

Nucula

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, probable origin as a nickname, ‘nut’ (Fest. 176 L.; cf. Cic. De or. 2,253), Numisius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 89; 337.

Aburius

(90 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] C., Roman envoy (171 BC) C., envoy to King Masinissa and the Carthaginians 171 BC; his offspring was possibly the mint master C. Aburius Geminus 134 (MRR 1, 418; RRC 276). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Tribunus plebis (187 BC) M., attempted as tribunus plebis in 187 BC to prevent the triumph of M. Fulvius Nobilior (Liv. 39,4-6); Praetor inter peregrinos 176 (Liv. 41,14; 15). His offspring was possibly the mint master M. Aburius Geminus 132 (MRR 2,369; 400; RRC 280). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Heius

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Latin proper name (Schulze 459). [German version] H., C. Around 75 BC a respected and rich citizen of the Sicilian city of Messana. Of his possessions  Verres stole four famous Greek statues and valuable carpets (Cic. Verr. 2,4,3-19; 27). In spite of this, in 70, on behalf of his community, he appeared in Rome for Verres as a witness for the defence but incriminated him in the cross-examination by Cicero (Verr. 2,2,13; 4,15-19; 150; 5,47). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Gurges

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Throat’, pejorative ‘Spendthrift’, Macrob. Sat. 3,13,7; cf. gurgulio), in the Republican period in the family of the Fabii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 269 Walde/Hofmann 1, 627f.

Lafrenius, T.

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] One of the twelve praetors of the insurgent Italians during the Social War [3]. L. fell in 90 BC, in the battle against Ser. Sulpicius Galba (App. B Civ. 1,181; 204-206; ILLRP 1089). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cn.

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Abbreviation of the uncommon Lat. Praenomen Gnaeus (Old Lat. Gnaivos, Oscan Gnaivs, Etruscan cneve), from (g)naevus, ‘birthmark’, also abbreviated as Gn. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann, 1, 613 Salomies, 29f.

Centho

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (perhaps of Etruscan origin) in the Claudian family [1. 149]; probably linked to cento ‘suit of rags’ [2. 200]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze 2 Walde/Hofmann I3.

Caedicius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a plebeian lineage, attestable from the 5th cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 18f.). [German version] [1] C., L. People's tribune in 475 BC People's tribune in 475 BC (MRR 1, 28). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., M. Roman, allegedly heard a divine voice near the Vesta temple in 391 BC allegedly heard a divine voice near the Vesta temple in 391 BC, warning him of the impending attack by the Gauls. In the same place, the sanctuary of  Aius Locutius was later erected. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] C., Q. Centurion against the Etruscans According to a later a…

Thalna

(17 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen probably of Etruscan origin, Iuventius [I 5-8]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulze, 94.

Annius Fetialis

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman historian, probably of the 1st cent. AD, often cited as a source in Pliny's HN (HRR 12 317). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schanz/Hosius 2, 649.

Calenus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (probably for descent from Cales) in the gens  Fufia in the 1st cent. BC; frequent epigraphical attestations in the imperial age (ThlL, Onom. 79). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Satureius

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Tr. pl. in 133 BC, in a fight was the first to hit Ti. Sempronius [I 16] Gracchus with a chair leg (Plut. Ti. Gracchus 19,10). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Carvilius

(362 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a plebeian (probably immigrant) family, attested in the 3rd-2nd cents. BC, but later disappeared (ThlL, Onom. 219f.; Schulze, 139, A.8; 403; 454). The quaestor and witness in the trial of Camillus in 391 BC, Sp. C. (MRR 1,93), may have been a later fabrication; there was also a chieftain of Britain by the name of C. (Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1). [German version] [1] C., L. Tribunus plebis 212 BC People's tribune in 212 BC, alongside Sp. C., perhaps his brother. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., Sp. Leader of a scribal school Freedman of Sp. C. Maximus Ruga, around 2…

Kaeso

(91 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (also Caeso). Uncommon Latin praenomen, perhaps of Etruscan origin, abbreviated K.; according to ancient etymology it indicates a child born by Caesarean section (Liber de praenominibus 6; Fest. 50L; Plin. HN 7,47). Because K. appears among patrician families only in the Fabii and Quinctii, who were the first to hold the priesthood of the luperci, according to Mommsen it may denote the ritual ‘striking’ ( caedere) at the festival of the Lupercalia and originally have been the name of a lupercus ( Lupercal). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Salomies, 26f.

Fimbria

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘fringe’, ‘curl’), attested in the Republican period in the family of the Flavii, also in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 223.

Laenas

(72 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, derived by Cicero (Brut. 56) from laena, the cloak of the flamines , but in fact of Etruscan origin and probably an ethnicon (cf. Asprenas, Maenas, etc.). In the Republican era it was the hereditary surname in the Popillius family (from cos. 359 BC on), in the Imperial period also in the Octavius and Vipsanius families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 210 Schulze, 83; 186; 530.

Hispallus

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Epithet (‘Spaniard’) of Cn. Cornelius [I 78] Scipio H. (cos. 176); taking the form of Hispanus with his son Cornelius [I 79]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Stolo

(40 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('runner', 'stolon'), according to Varro (Rust. 1,2,9) and Plinius (HN 17,7) 'somebody who prunes wild shoots'; recorded only for the Licinii family (Licinius [I 43-44; II 24]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 337  Walde/Hofmann 2, 599.

Delmaticus

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victor's name of L. Caecilius [I 24] Metellus D. ( cos. 119 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Ligus

(43 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Ligurian’), in the Republican period in the families of the Aelii (Aelius [I 5 and 6]), Octavii and other (unknown) families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 196 D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Onomasticon to Cicero's Letters, 1995, 63.

Balbus

(65 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Common Roman cognomen (‘the Stutterer’) in republican times among the Acilii, Cornelii, Laelii, Lucilii and other families (ThlL 2,1693f.). In imperial times the epithet of the following consuls: l. Cornelius B. (40 BC), l. Cornelius B. (32 BC), D. Laelius B. (6 BC), l. Norbanus B. (AD 19), Q. Iulius B. (AD 85), Q. Iulius B. (AD 129). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Verrucos(s)us

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('Wart-Bearer'). Epithet of Q. Fabius [I 30] Maximus and of Asinius Pollio V. (PIR A 1243, cos. in 81 AD). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 246.

Metellus

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen in the family of the Caecilii Metelli ( Caecilius [I 10-32]; [II 16]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Trio

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, describing the constellations of Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. The sole known bearer is the triumvir [4] monetalis in 136 BC, Q. Lucretius T. (RRC 239). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 338.

Cincinnatus

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘curlyhead’) of Cn.  Manlius C. ( cos. in 480 BC) and especially occurring in the Gens Quinctia; attested between around 460 and 360 BC, originally used to differentiate the brothers L.  Quinctius C. ( dictator in 458 BC) and T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus, then apparently passed down in the family. There must have been a patrician bearer of the name as late as the 1st cent. AD (Suet. Cal. 35,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 223.

Atratinus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (probably designation of origins [1]) of the Sempronii in the 5th/4th cents. BC and in M.  Asinius A. ( cos. AD 89). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 184

Barbatus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Bearded’) of the Cornelii, Horatii, Quincti, Valerii and other families (ThlL 2,1746; Kajanto, cognomina, 224). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Glaucia

(39 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (the identification with the Greek proper name Γλαυκίας ( Glaukías) is disputed, [1]) in the family of the Servilii (known is the praetor in 100 BC C.  Servilius Glaucia). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze 343.

Luscinus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘one-eyed’, Plin. HN 11,150), in the Republican period in the Fabricii family (Fabricius [I 3 and 4]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Nerius

(99 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Rare Roman proper name (epigraphic evidence for praenomen, family name and epithet). Also the name of a Gaulish-Roman goddess (Néris-Les Bains). [German version] [1] Money Lender Well Versed in Law Money lender well versed in law (Hor. Sat. 2,3,69 with Porphyrio ad loc.; cf. Pers. 2,14). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] N., Cn. (?) Accused P. Sestius of corruption in 56 BC Accused P. Sestius of gaining office by improper means ( ambitus; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,3,5) in 56 BC; not identical with the quaestor urbanus 49 BC (RRC 441). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulz…

Glabrio

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘bald-head’, cf. glaber) in the family of the Acilii ( Acilius [I 10-13]; [II 6-9]), in the Imperial period also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 254 Kajanto, Cognomina 236.

Folius

(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman gentile name (older form epigraphically Foslius, InscrIt 13,1,37,  folius [3]), attested in the early Republic solely for the family of the patrician Folii, which died out at the end of the 4th cent. BC; later common proper name of non-senatorial families. [German version] [1] Pontifex maximus, killed by the Celts in 387 BC Pontifex maximus, remained in Rome with other old men when Rome was taken by the Celts in 387 BC and was killed (Liv. 5,41,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] F. Flaccinator, M. Consular tribune in 433 BC Consular tribune in 433 BC (Liv. 4,2…

Mancinus

(16 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the family of the Hostilii (Hostilius [7-9]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Poppaedius

(220 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (also attested epigraphically as Popaedius). Italian family name, possibly of Etruscan origin [2. 367]. It is well-known from Q. P. Silo, leader of the Marsi [1] in the Social War (Social Wars [3])of 90-88 BC and, with C. Papius [I 4] Mutilus, one of the two commanders-in-chief of the secessionists (Diod. Sic. 37,2,6; Str. 5,4,2; Liv. Per. 76 et passim; coins: [3; 4]). As a guest-friend of the people's tribune M. Livius [I 7] Drusus, he regarded the latter's murder as grounds for an uprising of the socii. As commander of the northern army, P. after fruitless nego…

Tertius

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman praenomen (the numeral often indicating birth-order), common cognomen and Roman slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 74; 292 2 Salomies, 17; 116-118 3 H. Solin, Die stadtrömischen Sklavennamen 1, 1996, 152 f.

Arruns

(129 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Etruscan first name (in inscriptions arnth, arunth, arenth), Lat. Ar(r)uns. Only Romans of Etruscan origin bore this name (abbreviation Ar.). Praenomen in the gens Tarquinia [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Legendary Etruscan Legendary Etruscan in the army of Tarchon who was allied with Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 11,759-867). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Son of Porsenna Son of Porsenna, friendly toward Rome, fell in the battle of Aricia (Plut. Poplicola 18-19; Liv. 2,14,5 among others). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] High-ranking Etruscan (Early…

Dolabella

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, became hereditary in the family of the Cornelii Dolabellae ( Cornelius [I 23-29]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Emperors, child

(228 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] The term child emperors (after Lat. principes pueri, SHA Tac. 6,5; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7, 533) has been applied, since Hartke [1], to the members of the Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (genealogical tree see  Theodosius) who ascended the throne as one- to eight-year-old boys: the sons of Valentinianus I, Gratianus [2] (born in AD 359; Augustus in 367), and Valentinianus II (born in 371; Augustus in 375); the sons of Theodosius I, Arcadius (born in 377; Augustus in 383) and Honorius (born in…

Vicellinus

(15 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of Cassius  [I 19] Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 163.

Maius

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman surname and cognomen [1. 61; 2. 13]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina 2 Walde/Hofmann 2.

Macedonicus

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victor's epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 27] Metellus M. ( cos. 143 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tertia

(39 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Woman's praenomen (Varro Ling. 9,60), more commonly a cognomen. The best-known bearers are Clodia [3] T., Iunia [2] T. and Mucia T. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 292 2 H. Solin, Die stadtröm. Sklavennamen 1, 1996, 153 f.

Iullus

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Name (also in manuscripts Iulus) of the son of Aeneas ( Iulus); epithet in the family of the Iulii [I 13-16]; first name of I. Antonius [II 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Saburra

(69 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] ( Saborra). Military commander of Juba [1] of Numidia, in 49 BC he helped to bring about the defeat of Caesar's governor C. Scribonius Curio, but was himself defeated and killed in 46 by the Caesarean P. Sittius (Caes. B Civ. 2,38-42; Bell. Afr. 48,1; 93,3; 95,1; App. B Civ. 2,181-186; 4,232; Frontin. Str. 2,5,40). For reasons of metre, Lucan (4,722) wrote Sabbura. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cispius

(97 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Plebeian family name, historically first attested in the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 460). According to later invention, a C. Laevius gave his name to the Cispius mons in the time of King Tullus Hostilius (Varro in Fest. p. 476). [German version] C., M. as people's tribune, called for Cicero's reappointment in 57 BC (Cic. Red. Sen. 21; Sest. 76). In 56 (?) he was accused of ambitus, defended by Cicero without success (Cic. Planc. 75f.) and went into exile. Perhaps he was a praetor under Caesar (ILLRP 383; MRR 2, 463). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Trigeminus

(15 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman Cognomen ('Triplet'), see Curiatius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 295.

Scipio

(36 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('gnarled stick, staff') in the Cornelii family (Cornelii [I 65-85] Scipiones); a representation of a staff was also used as the family emblem. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 19 f.; 91; 345.

Ravilla

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('grey-eyed'), byname of L. Cassius [I 17] Longinus R. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 228.

Bellienus

(130 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman proper name (also Billienus; Schulze 429; ThlL 2,1816; 1989). [German version] [1] see Annius [I 10]  Annius I 10 B. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Billienus, C. Praetor around 107 BC praetor around AD 107 (MRR 1,551), then legate and praetor pro consule (of Asia?, IDélos 1710; 1854; cf. MRR 3,34f.). According to Cic. Brut. 175, he did not receive the office of consul towards the end of the 2nd cent. because of C.  Marius' superior position. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] B., L. Praetor 105 BC in Africa praetor in 105 BC in Africa (Sall. Lug.…

Axilla

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘armpit’) used by the Sempronii, older form of  Ahala (Cic. Orat. 153). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Isauricus

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victory epithet (‘Victor of the Isauri’) of P.  Servilius Vatia (consul in 79 BC), bequeathed to his son P. Servilius I. (consul in 41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Mallius

(209 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman gens name (in manuscripts commonly confused with Manlius and Manilius). [German version] [1] M. Maximus, Cn. Homo novus, consul in 105 BC Homo novus (Cic. Planc. 12), praetor at the latest in 108 BC, consul in 105 together with P. Rutilius Rufus. The war against the Cimbrians ( Cimbri) in the Rhone area was assigned to him. Because his predecessor, proconsul Q. Servilius Caepio, did not want to obey his supreme command and provoked the Cimbrians to attack, their two armies were severely beaten at Arausio; M. last…

Atilia

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of an (Atilius) Serranus, first wife of M.  Porcius Cato (Uticensis), who separated from her in the early 60s BC (Plut. Cat. Min. 7,3; 24,6; family tree in [1. 333]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Münzer.

Arvina

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (from arvina, ‘bacon’) in the families of the Cornelians and Papirians. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 91, 340.

Canuleia

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] According to Plutarch (Numa 10,1), one of the first Roman Vestals installed by king Numa. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Rutilus

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('red haired') found in several noble families (Cornelii, Marcii, Nautii, Sempronii, Verginii) in the Republican Period. It became very common in the Imperial Period in the fuller form Rutilianus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 230.

Aviola

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from avis) used by the Acilii and the Calpurnii amongst other families (ThLL 2,1431). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Mus

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman Cognomen (‘Mouse’) in the family of the Decii (Decius [I 1-3]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 328.

Thorius

(234 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Th., Sp. People's tribune in the period after the death of C. Sempronius [I 11] Gracchus in 121 BC and author of an agrarian law (Agrarian laws) which brought to an end the work of the Gracchian commission for distributing the ager publicus . The identification and dating of the author and the precise content of the law are unclear: according to Cicero (Brut. 136, cf. De or. 2,284), T. freed the a ger publicus "from leasehold by means of a damaging and worthless law" or "with a lease by means of a damaging and worthless law". According to Appian (B C…

Cloelius

(386 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a Roman patrician clan (also Cloulius, RRC 260, 332 and Cluilius) that was reputed to have moved to Rome (Liv. 1,30,2) after the destruction, by King Tullus Hostilius, of Alba Longa, of which a C.C. had sovereignty (Liv. 1,22,3f.). According to later tradition, the clan was descended from a companion of Aeneas (Fest. p. 48) and was accorded particular respect in the earliest Republic. The connection between this family and the bearers of this name in the later Republic is unclear. [German version] [1] Commander of the Volscians in 443 BC Commander of the Volscians in 443 BC, def…

Regillensis

(47 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen in the family of the Postumii (Postumius [I 13-15]); tradition has it that it was granted to the first Postumius to bear it for his victory in the battle at Lacus Regillus in 496 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 183.

Tadius

(73 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Italian family name, in inscriptions also Taddius. There is literary evidence in the Republican period only of P. T., a businessman and the legate of C. Verres in Sicily 73-71 BC (Cic. Verr. 2,2,49; 2,5,63) - perhaps identical with the acquaintance of T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus (Cic. Att. 1,5,6; 1,8,1) - and Q. T., his relative (brother?), who also had business with Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,1,128; 2,1,130; 2,4,31). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Fidenas

(66 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘victor over Fidenae’), transmitted for the Sergii and Servilii of the early Republican era (5th/4th cents. BC); the dictator Q.  Servilius Priscus allegedly captured the town of Fidenae in Latium in 435 and subsequently was given the epithet (Liv. 4,45,5). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 181 F. Münzer, s.v. Servilius, RE II A 2, 1789f.; 1803f. W. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilicia, 1956, 55.

Plancus

(28 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('wide-footed'), hereditary in the family of the Munatii (Munatius [I 2-5], [II 6]); fem. form Plancina (Munatia Plancina). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 241.

Lamponius, M.

(131 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Leader of the Lucanians in the Social Wars [3] 90 BC, and one of the twelve praetors of the league (App. B Civ. 1,181). Under the command of Pontius Telesinus, L. fought successfully against P. Licinius [I 15] Crassus (App. B Civ. 1,184; cf. Frontin. Str. 2,4,16). L. continued the fight until 87 in Bruttium, and then allied himself with the Marians. In 82, he and others vainly attempted to free C. Marius (cos. 82), who had been surrounded in Praeneste by L. Cornelius [I 90] Sull…
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