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(78 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Σόλλιον; Sóllion). Originally a Corinthian settlement (Thuc. 2,30,1: πόλισμα; Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.: πολίχνιον) with a harbour in the area of the Plagia peninsula, which is to the east of Leucas; unlocated (suggestions: [1. 21 f.]). Mentioned only when captured by the Athenians in 431 BC, after which S. was permanently annexed to Palaerus (Thuc. 2,30,1; 5,30,2). Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 M. Schoch, Beiträge zur Topographie Akarnaniens in klassischen und hellenistischen Zeit, 1997. Chr. Wacker, Palairos, 1999, 47-54.


(81 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Ὄλμωνες; Ólmōnes). Town in Boeotia to the north of Copais and east of Orchomenus [1], bordering in the south on Hyettus; identified with the kastro of Pavlon  ([2. 297f.; 3. 2491], contra: [1. 24-27]), limited remains. Described by Paus. 9,24,3 as a 'village' (κώμη/ kṓmē), but the ethnicon Olmṓnios (Ὀλμώνιος, IG VII 2808,13ff., 3rd cent. AD) may suggest later autonomy. Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 R. Etienne, D. Knoepfler, Hyettos de Béotie ..., 1976 2 Fossey, 296-299 3 E. Kirsten, s.v. O., RE 17, 2490ff.


(138 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Γραία/ Graía, Γραῖα/ Graīa). A settlement in Boeotia mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Il. 2,498), located between Oropus and Tanagra. Its location was probably known as far back as the archaic period but then lost. There were already several identifications in antiquity; possibly located on the Boeotian coast of the Euboean Gulf west of Oropus. References: Str. 9,2,10; Paus. 9,20,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γ., s.v. Ὠρωπός. Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography H. Beister, Auf der Suche nach dem homer. G. in Böotien, in: E. Olshausen (ed.), Stuttgarter Kolloq…


(150 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὑηττός; Hyēttós). A city in Boeotia north of the Copais, northeast of Orchomenus, east of modern Loutsi; localized by inscriptions for Septimius Severus and Caracalla (IG VII 2833f.). Settled at least from the archaic to the Byzantine periods, bishop's seat in the 5th and 6th cents. AD. Numerous remains, rich epigraphical material (IG VII and [1]). Member of the Boeotian League, provided two Boeotarchs in the 5th/4th cents. BC together with Orchomenus (Hell. Oxy. 19,3,390: Ὑσιαῖοι/ Hysiaîoi)…


(184 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἀνθηδών; Anthēdṓn). Harbour town in northern  Boeotia ((Hom. Il. 2,508 calls it ἐσχατόωσα; eschatóōsa, ‘the farthest’), situated on the foothills of Mount  Messapion, on the gulf of  Euboea, c.14 km west of  Chalcis, 2 km north of the modern Loukisia. It was inhabited from the Mycenaean period until at least into the 6th cent. AD; its main income derived from fishing and seafaring. Under the rule of Epaminondas (middle of the 4th cent. …


(129 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War (Ὄλπαι/ Ólpai, Ὄλπη/ Ólp ē). Fortified location on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Ambracia (Thuc. 3,105,1: τεῖχος ἐπὶ λόφου ἰσχυρόν/ teîchos epì lóphou ischyrón, 'strong wall on the crest of a hill'; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὄλπαι: φρούριον/ phroúrion, 'fort') in the territory of the Amphilochi (fortification, Dorian temple on the Agrilovouni near Arapi). O. also served as an arbitration venue (κοινὸν δικαστήριον/ koinòn dikastḗrion) in disputes between the Acarnanians and the Amphilochi (Thuc. 3,1…


(216 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Κῶπαι; Kôpai). Boeotian town located on a hill on the north-eastern shore of a lake named after it. The town was already listed in the catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,502, Str. 9,2,18; Paus. 9,24,1), today's Kastron (formerly Topolia). Populated since Proto-Geometric periods, the ancient remnants are mostly covered by modern buildings. The region of C. comprised the north-eastern bay of Lake C. with the still unidentified, late …


(180 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Σκῶλος; Sk ôlos). Settlement in Boeotia (Hom. Il. 2,498: kṓmē), to the south of modern Neochorakion, to the north of Asopus [2] (Paus. 9,4,4; finds from the Mycenaean to the Roman periods [2; 4; 5; 6; 7], otherwise [1; 8]; relocated in 395 BC: [3]). S. was in the territory of Thebae, but from time to time of Plataeae (Str. 9,2,23 f.; as pólis only in Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.). S. was part of a region of the Boeotian League that depended on Thebae. Its population was evacuated to Thebae in 43…


(141 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Τιλφώσ(σ)ιον, Τιλφούσιον; Tilphṓs(s)ion, Tilphoúsion). The northern part (up to more than 1000 m elevation) of the eastern Helicon [1] between Haliartus and Coronea. To the northeast of Alalcomenae [1] on the summit of Petra (ancient T.) was a pass controlling the most important east-west-route in central Greece. The well Tilphusa [1. vol. 2, 222-224; vol. 3, 60-62] and the grave of Teiresias (Ath. 2,41e; Apollod. 3,7,3) [1. vol. 3, 38 f.] were there, as was a fort fought over in th…


(145 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Τέγυρα, Τεγύρα; Tégyra, Tegýra). Place in Boeotia to the north of Orchomenus [1] on the northwestern bay of the Copais at modern Poligira (name of a piece of farmland and a stream) about 2 km to the north of modern Dionisos (earlier Tsamali; [1. 45-50; 3. 323, 325-328; 4. 104-109]; an earlier approach assumed T. to be  Aspledon, see [2. 360-373]). It was there that Pelopidas was victorious over two Spartan mórai ( Móra [1]) in 375 BC. At T.: temple of Apollo and oracle (closed after t…


(189 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Σαλγανεύς/ Salganeús). Site on the east coast of Boeotia between Chalcis [1] and Anthedon, on a hill whose modern name is Lithosoros (documented as Solganiko until the 19th cent.), 2.5 km west of modern Drosiá (Ephor. FGrH 70 F 119; Heracl. 1,26). S. was the name of the Boeotian pilot who guided the Persians through the Strait of Euripus [1] (Str. 9,2,9; cf. [1.13-15]) and whom they rashly executed there in 480 BC. The site was settled from the Neolithic until the Late Mycenean Period [2.79 f.; 3]; in the Hellenistic Period it played a role…


(377 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars (Φοινίκη; Phoiníkē). Polis of Epeirotic Chaones near modern Finiq (Albania), on a hill protruding steeply out of the Bistrica Valley and stretching from the north-west to the south-east, c. 5 km north-east of the harbour of Onchesmus that belongs to it, c. 17 km north of Buthrotum. Settlement is evidenced from the 5th cent. BC to the Byzantine period [1. 219ff.]. P. appears in the 4th cent. BC on theōrodókoi lists from Epidaurus (IG IV2 1,95,29) and Argos (SEG 23, 189 I 12). After the fall of the kingdom …


(112 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Θούριον; Thoúrion). Chain of mountains (511 m high) in western Boeotia between Lebadea and Chaeronea; modern T. In a depression on the northwestern edge there is a temple to Apollo Thourios [1. 383 f.; 2. 43 f.]. Part of the Orthopagus (Plut. Sulla 17,4; modern Agios Demetrios), the northwestern section of the T., and rising above Chaeronea (Paus. 9,41,6) is Petrachus, where Cornelius [I 90] Sulla was victorious over Archelaus [4] in the first of the Mithridatic Wars (86 BC; Plut. Sulla 17,4-19,5; Paus. 9,40,7). Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey 2 Sch…


(61 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Ἴσος; Ísos). Location uncertain, at the time of Strabo already a desolate area (ἴχνη πόλεως, Str. 9,2,14) near Anthedon in Boeotia. Vestiges at the north-east end of Lake Paralimni can probably be identified as I. ([1. 457f.; 2. 257-261], contrastingly [3. 62f.]). Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Noack, Arne, in: MDAI(A) 19, 1894, 405-485 2 Fossey 3 P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia 1979.


(98 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Τευμησσός; Teumēssós). Town or mountain in Boeotia (Hom. h. ad Apollinem 224), modern Mesovouni; about 7 km to the northeast of Thebae [2] ([2. 212-217]; contra [4. 96-98]: about 4 km to the southeast of this near the district of Soula on the modern Paliobouna) on the route to Chalcis [1] (Paus. 9,19,1); evidence of a sanctuary of Athena Telchinia without cult image [3]; cf. Str. 9,2,24; Steph. Byz. s. v. T., further sources in [1]. Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 C. Fiehn, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 1134 f. 2 Fossey 3 Schachter, vol. 1, 129; vol. 3, 40 4 P. W. Wallace,…


(182 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Boeotia, Boeotians (Αὐλίς; Aulís). Boeotian coastal town on the Euboean Gulf, c. 3 km south of Euripus; with Artemis sanctuary. In the north of A. lies a smaller, in the south, c. 1 km away, a larger bay (βαθὺς λιμήν, bathỳs limḗn). In the epic tradition, the collection point of the Greeks for the journey to Troy and the place where Agamemnon sacrificed his daughter  Iphigenia to Artemis to ensure favourable winds for the journey. In 396 BC, demonstrative starting…


(64 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Τράφεια; Trápheia). Polis in Boeotia (Nic. Ther. 887-889), known for cattle breeding (Steph. Byz. s. v. T.), either where the combined Rivers Ismenus and Thespius flow into the southeastern bay of Hylice, where there was an extensive settlement [1. 244-246], or on the other bank at the kastron of modern Hylike [2. 2222]. Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey 2 E. Kirsten, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 2221-2223.


(576 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Πτώιον/ Ptṓion, Πτῷον/ Ptôion, Πτῶν/ Ptôn). Mountain range in north-eastern Boeotia, stretching east of Lake Copais to the Gulf of Euboea (cf. Boeotia, map), height in the east reaching 781 m (Petalás), in the west the main massif at 725 m (Hagia Pelagia). Below this to the west, at the crossing of important pass roads by the powerful spring of Perdikovrysi near Acraephia, was the sanctuary of Apollo Ptoios, whose oracle was said never to lie (Paus. 9,23,7). Ptous was the name of a lo…


(286 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import (Πάλαιρος; Pálairos). City in western Acarnania, to the east of Leucas (Str. 10,2,21) on a mountain spur of the mostly impassable peninsula of Plagia, which at the time P. was at its zenith predominantly belonged to its territory; the name is Illyrian. The citadel in the modern district of Kechropoula (epigraphical identification: [2]) commands the fertile plain of Zaverda (modern P.) to the east and the south. In 431 BC the Corinthian town (πόλισμα/ pólisma) of Sollium and…


(399 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] (Κωπαίς; Kōpaís). Northern Boeotian basin, formerly with a lake that had no drain above ground. The rivers  Cephis(s)us [1] (therefore Κηφισίς ( Kēphisís), Hom. Il. 5,709; Paus. 9,24,1) and Melas as well as the streams and revmata from the surrounding mountains flowed into it. It was named after the city of  Copae on the north-eastern shore; the existence of different regional parts named after the main cities along the shore is documented [2. 16]. The area of the C. plain comprised c. 350 km2, the expansion of the lake had strong seasonal variations and did not exceed c. 2…


(743 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Pompeius | Attica | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Τάναγρα/ Tánagra). City in east Boeotia on the eastern foothills of the Ceryceum mountains, north of the point where the Laris flowed into the Asopus [2], c. 4,5 km southeast of modern T. (formerly Vratsi). The extensive remains have not been systematically excavated [1; 6]. The Mycenaean settlement and the necropolis near Vratsi, with its many la…


(202 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Δήλιον; Dḗlion). The name of several sanctuaries of Delian Apollo. [German version] [1] Sanctuary of Apollo with small settlement This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War Sanctuary to Apollo with a small settlement (πολίχνιον) and harbour on the Boeotian east coast, south-east of the modern Dilesi; a Theban, later Tanagran possession. The town was settled from the Mycenaean to the Byzantine period; few traces survive. Shared cult with Artemis and Leto. Frequently mentioned by sources, in particular ow…


(132 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] River in Boeotia (Θερμώδων; Thermṓdōn). River (Hdt. 9,43,2: potamós; Paus. 9,19,3: cheímarros, ‘torrent’) of uncertain location in Boeotia, between Tanagra and Glisas, probably closer to Glisas. Possibly the modern Kalamítis, which flows on the south side of the Hypatus mountains (modern Sagmatás) and passes Glisas to the south [1. 222f.]. Identification with the Haemon [6] (Plut. Theseus 27,6; Plut. Demosthenes 19) is incorrect. Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey. [German version] [2] River in Asia minor Coastal river (modern Terme); r…


(329 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Tausend, Sabine | Fell, Martin (Münster)
(Θεράπναι/ Therápnai). [German version] [1] City in Crete City in Crete, probably in the central north (presumably between Eleutherna and Cydonia; [cf. 1. 198]), reckoned one of the island's more important towns (Mela 2,113; Plin. HN 4,59). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P. Faure, La Crète aux cents villes, in: Κρητικὰ Χρονικά 13, 1959, 171-217. [German version] [2] Place in Laconia This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta Cult site in Laconia (Laconica) on the left bank of the Eurotas, c. 2 km to the southeast of Sparta on a foothill of the Parnon…


(543 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] [1] River in central Greece (Κηφισ(σ)ός; Kēphis(s)ós). Main river of central Greece (Pind. Ol. 14,1; Pind. Pyth. 4,46). Its perennial main source is in  Lilaea (Phocis) at Mount Parnassus (Hom. Il. 2,523; Str. 9,2,19; Paus. 9,24,1; 10,33,4f.; Plin. HN 4,27; around the spring was an important sanctuary whose priests were eponymous for Lilaea: FdD 3,4,2, p. 206-209, no. 132-135); further non-permanent sources were in Doris. The C. passes through Phocis and Boeotia, and flows at Orchomenus…


(6,143 words)

Author(s): Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Fell, Martin (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Klodt, Claudia (Hamburg) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Et al.
[German version] [1] City in the 4th upper Egyptian nome This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | Commerce | Egypt The Egyptian Thebes, city in the 4th upper Egyptian nome. Quack, Joachim (Berlin) [German version] I. Names Actually Ws.t ('the strong'), from which derived, no later than the 17th dynasty, a female personification Ws.t nḫ ('victorious Thebes'). Beginning with the Middle Kingdom ( c. 1990-1630 BC), often called simply njw.t, 'the city (par excellence)' - from which also the Hebrew form no (Ez 30:14 f.; Jer 46:25; Nahum 3:8) and Assyrian Ne [10. 260] -- o…
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