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Libethria, -um

(111 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Λειβήθριον, Λιβήθριον; Leibḗthrion, Libḗthrion). Boeotian mountain range with a cult cave and spring sanctuary of the Muses and ‘L(e)ibethridian’ nymphs c. 7 km from Coronea; either the part of Helicon situated in the south-west between the mountains Megali Lutsa (1,548 m) and Paliovuna (1,747 m) or the mountain range stretching from modern Coronea east to modern Petra. Sources: Paus. 9,34,4; Str. 9,2,25; 10,3,17; Verg. Ecl. 7,21 with Serv. Ecl. 7,21. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862, 236 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίο…

Hysiae

(210 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ὑσίαι; Hysíai). Boeotian town on the northern slope of the  Cithaeron east of Plataeae, west of Erythrae (Eur. Bacch. 751; Thuc. 3,24,2; Paus. 9,1,6), c. 2 km east of modern Erythres (formerly Kriekouki) near the church of Pantanassa. Before the battle of Plataeae in 479 BC, the Persian encampment on the Asopus stretched from Erythrae through H. to Plataeae, whereas the Greek army initially took up a position near Erythrae, then moved via H. to the sanctuary o…

Messapium

(77 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Μεσσάπιον; Messápion). Mountain chain (modern Ktypas) in the northeast of Boeotia, the eastern edge of which separated the mainland territory of Chalcis on Euboea from the rest of Boeotia. Sources: Aeschyl. Ag. 293 (with schol.); Aeschyl. fr. 55,10 Mette; Strab. 9,2,13; Paus. 9,22,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography S. C. Bakhuizen, Salganeus and the Fortifications on Its Mountains, 1970 Philippson/Kirsten 1,2, 497f. P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979, 61.

Glisas

(158 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Γλίσ[σ]ας/ Glís[s]as, Γλισ[σ]άς/ Glis[s]ás). Town already mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Il. 2,504), located on the southern slope of the Hypatus mountain range by modern Hypaton (formerly Sirtzi) c. 10 km northeast of Thebae, to which G. belonged (Hdt. 9,43,2; Str. 9,2,31; Paus. 9,19,2f.; Stat. Theb. 7,306; Steph. Byz. s.v. G.); settlement traces reach back into the Neolithic period; extant are graves from the Early Helladic, geometric and c…

Oeroe

(57 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὠερόη/ Ōeróē). River (present-day Livadostras) which rises on the northern slope of Mt. Cithaeron at Plataeae and flows into the bay of Creusis in the Corinthian Gulf. References: Hdt. 9,51,2; Paus. 9,4,4. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. O., RE 17, 2031-2033  H.G. Lolling, Reisenotizen aus Griechenland: 1876 und 1877, 1989, 556-562  Müller, 528f.

Oedipodia

(58 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] also Oedipodeia (Οἰδιποδ(ε)ία/ Oidipod(e)ía). Spring (modern-day Hagioi Theodori) located northwest of Thebes on the road to Chalcis [1] (Paus. 9,18,5f.; Plin. HN 4,25; Solin. 7,22); here Sulla celebrated his victory over Archelaus [4] with a festival held in 86 BC (Plut. Sulla 19,11,464f.). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography N.D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις, vol. 5, 21981, 118-121.

Hypatus

(64 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὕπατος; Hýpatos). Located above Glisas, modern Sagmatas, southern ridge of Mt. Messapion in Boeotia, on which there was probably a shrine to Zeus Hypatos (Paus 9,13,3) on the site of the monastery (with many ancient re-used stones). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 223-225 H. G. Lolling, Reisenotizen aus Griechenland (1876 and 1877), 1989, 506f. N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ελλάδος Περιήγησις 5, 21981, 122-125.

Oenophyta

(86 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Οἰνόφυτα/ Oinóphyta). Hamlet, c. 10 km to the southeast of Tanagra and to the north of the Asopus [2] near modern Inofita (once Staniates). Here, the Athenians defeated the Boeotians (Boeotia) in the battle of 457 BC, thus gaining supremacy over central Greece (Thuc. 1,108,3 with schol. 4,95,3; Diod. Sic. 11,83,1; Pl. Menex. 242b; Aristot. Pol. 1302b 29; Plut. Mor. 345d; Aristeid. 1,221; 3,328; 13,28; schol. Aristoph. Lys. 801; SEG 19, 363). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 58-60  E. Kirsten, s.v. O., RE 17, 2257f.

Psaphis

(33 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ψαφίς; Psaphís). Place mentioned only in Str. 9,1,22, belonging to Oropus, near which was the main sanctuary of Amphiaraus. For its location cf. [1]. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey, 38-40.

Eleutherai

(193 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Ἐλευθεραί; Eleutheraí). A settlement of Boeotian origins on the pass-route across Mt. Cithaeron from Eleusis [1] to Thebes, near the mod. Kaza; after the cult of Dionysus Eleuthereus was relocated from E. to the southern slopes of the Acropolis in Athens [1] in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC, it belonged to Attica, without, however, ever forming an independent   dḗmos ; Source references: Eur. Supp. 757ff.; Xen. Hell. 5,4,14; Str. 9,2,31; Plin. HN 4,26; Paus. 1,38,8f.; Arr. Anab…

Coralius

(83 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κωράλιος; Kōrálios, Κουράλιος; Kourálios). River north-east of  Coronea. The river's banks were home to the Boeotian central sanctuary of Athena Itonia (Alc. 3 D.; Alc. 4). Callim. H. 5,64 calls it Kurálios. Str. (9,2,29; 33; 9,5,14; 17) confuses the C. and the other river by the same name near the sanctuary of Athena Itonia in Achaea Phthiotis with the Kuarios, a tributary of the river Peneius in Thessaliotis. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979, 116.

Hippocrene

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱπποκρήνη; Hippokrḗnē, Ἵππου κρήνη; Híppou krḗnē, ‘horse spring’; on the names, see [5. 1853]). A well, modern Kriopigadhi, below the eastern peak of the  Helicon to the west of the chapel of Agios Ilias which is built from ancient re-used architectural fragments [1. 186f.; 2. 239f.; 3. 97-99; 4. 621-624]. Documented as early as in Hes. Theog. 1ff. as a place of the Muses and poetic inspiration. From the Hellenistic period, the creation of the well was put down to a kick from the hoof…

Gargaphia

(70 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Γαργαφία; Gargaphía). Source fountain near  Plataeae, from which the Greek army drew water before the battle in 479 BC until it was filled in by the Persians (Hdt. 9,25,2; 49,2-51,1; 52; Paus. 9,4,3; Plin. HN 4,25); located by [2. 557; 3. 113-115]; regarding G.'s identification as the place where  Actaeon surprised Artemis while bathing [1. 757]. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Bölte, s.v. G. 2), RE 7, 757 2 Müller 3 Pritchett, 1.

Eilesium

(83 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Εἰλέσιον, Εἱλέσιον, Εἰρεσίαι, Εἰρέσιον, Ἐρέσιον; Eilésion, Heilésion, Eiresíai, Eirésion, Erésion; on the names: [2. 106f.]). City mentioned already by Homer (Il. 2,499; H. in Apollinem 32) in the south-east of Boeotia near modern Asopia (formerly: Khlembotsari) [1. 127-130]; a description of the ancient remnants (with a different identification) also in [2. 91]. Sources: Str. 9,2,17; Plin. HN 4,26; Dionysius Kalliphontos 90; EM s.v. Εἰρέσιον; Suda s.v. Ἐρέσιον; Steph. Byz. s.v. Εἰλέσιον. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey 2 P. W. Wallace, St…

Hippotae

(94 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱππόται; Hippótai). Boeotian settlement (κώμη; kṓmē) between Thisbe and Coronea, probably identifiable with ancient remains near modern Koukoura on a high plateau on the eastern slope of the southern peak of Helicon, known as Paliaovouna. Thebes besieged and destroyed H. at an indeterminate time and divided the land between Thisbe and Coronea. Named in Plut. Mor. 775 A-B. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography A. R. Burn, Helikon in History, in: ABSA 44, 1949, 317f., 321 Fossey, 339 Pritchett 5, 156 A. Schachter, Reconstructing Thespiai, in: A. Hurst, A. Schachter…

Chaeronea

(522 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Χαιρώνεια, Χηρώνια; Chairṓneia, Chērṓnia). Westernmost town of  Boeotia on the border to Phocis, located in the northern foothills of the Thurion range in the Cephissus valley near the modern C. (formerly Kapraina). Sources: Paus. 9,40,5-41,7; Str. 9,2,37. A prehistoric settlement has been found to the north-east on the banks of the Cephissus [2. 382f.], a Mycenaean chamber tomb close t…

Eleon

(130 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἐλεών , Ἑλεών; Eleṓn, Heleṓn). Boeotian town (Plin. HN 4,26), already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,500, between Thebes and Tanagra near the mod. Harma (formerly: Dritsa). The town, which was fortified anew during the Middle Ages, was settled from the Early Helladic to the Roman period. Still independent in the classical period (Paus. 1,29,6), later E. together with Harma, Mycalessus, and Pharae formed a synoecism dependent on Tanagra (…

Potniae

(129 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Πότνιαι/ Pótniai, Ποτνιαί/ Potniaí). Boeotian town c. 2 km south of Thebes on the road to Plataeae (Xen. Hell. 5,4,51) at the modern Tachi, with sanctuaries of Demeter, Kore and Dionysus Aigobolos, and a spring whose waters were said to madden horses (Paus. 9,8,1; Str. 9,2,24; Verg. G. 3,266 ff.; Ael. NA 15,25). It was identified with the Hypothebae mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,505 (Str. 9,2,32). At the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the population of the unfortified town, which belonge…

Hyle

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ὕλη; Hýlē). [German version] [1] Place in Boeotia This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Place in Boeotia (Hom. Il. 2,500; cf. Str. 9,2,26; Steph. Byz. s.v.). According to Hom. Il. 5,707ff. (with Paus. 9,38,7; Str. 9,2,27), H. is on the Copais, according to Str. 9,2,20, on the  Hylice (see also Stat. Theb. 7,267f.). Attempts by Wallace and Knauss [3. 82f.; 2. 243-278] to identify it with one of the prehistoric settlement locations between the former Copais and the modern Hylike equate H.…

Ocalea

(93 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὠκαλέη/ Ōkaléē, Ὠκαλέα/ Ōkaléa, Ὠκάλεια/ Ōkáleia). City in western Boeotia, mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,501 and Hom. H. ad Apollinem 242, located at the southern edge of the former Lake Copais; later ancient authors gave varying accounts of O.'s location; cf. Str. 9,2,26f.; Plin. HN 4,26; Dionysius Kalliphontos 99; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 314-318  S. Lauffer, Kopais, vol. 1, 1986, 63-65  E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 266f.  P.W. Wallace, Strabo's Des…

Cytenium

(230 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κυτίνιον, Κύτινον, Κυτένιον; Kytínion, Kýtinon, Kyténion). Along with Boium, Erineus and Acyphas/Pindus one of the cities of central Greek Doris supposedly founded by  Dorus (Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6; Conon, FGrH 26 F 1,27; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Aristid. 12,40; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κύτινα; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121; 126). Aeschin. Leg. 116 with schol. emphasizes the special status of C. among the Dorian cities; for Hsch. s.v. Λιμοδωριεῖς (‘hungry Dorians’) see  Doris [II 1]. C. is to be located on the southern slope…

Mycalessus

(226 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Μυκαλησσός; Mykalēssós). Town named in Hom. Il. 2,498 and Hom. H. Apollo 222-224 in northeast Boeotia on the road from Thebae to Chalcis [1] and to the south of the Aniforitis pass near present-day Rhitsona. References: Str. 9,2,11; 26; Stat. Theb. 7,272; 9,281; Nonnus. Dion. 13,77f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. A few wall remains [1] and a large necropolis used from the Geometric to the Hellenistic periods [2] testify to its heyday in…

Permessus

(169 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Περμησσός/ Permēssós; for different forms of the name [1. 869]). River mentioned as early as in Hes. Theog. 5, rising in the Helicon [1]; located variously by later ancient authors. Whereas according to Strabo (9,2,19; 9,2,30) the P. flowed into Lake Copais near Haliartus and hence - with reference to [2. 212f.] - is identified e.g. by [1] with the stream Zagora (modern Evangelistria), the rest of the ancient literary tradition (e.g. Nic. Ther. 12; Orph. A. 124; Prop. 2,10,26; Ver…

Hylice

(66 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὑλικὴ λίμνη; Hylikḕ límnē). Boeotian lake west of the Copais, north of Thebes (Str. 9,2,20). Probably the lake formerly called Likeri, and H. again today [2. 494f.; 3. 81f.]. Referring to Nicander (Theriaka 887ff.), Fossey [1. 225-229] identifies H. with the more northerly modern Lake Paralimni, usually equated with the ancient Trephia. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey 2 Philippson/Kirsten 1,2 3 P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979.

Chalia

(65 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Χαλία; Chalía). Town on the east coast of Boeotia, to be localized either north-west of Chalcis near the modern Drosia (into the 20th cent. known as τὰ Χαλία) [1. 78], or in the vicinity of Aulis [2. 215]. Involved in a territorial dispute with Chalcis: Theopompus, FGrH 115 F 211f.; dating uncertain. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey, 77-78. 2 C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862.

Peteon

(108 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Πετεών; Peteṓn). Boeotian city mentioned in the Homeric Catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,500; after this, all later mentions compiled in [1. 1128; 3. 265]); a settlement belonging to Thebes from the Classical period onwards, situated on the road from Thebes to Anthedon (Str. 9,2,26); its location has been pinpointed as being on the western slope of Messapium near modern Muriki [1. 1129f.] or somewhat further north near Platanakia [2. 233f.] or near Skala Paralimnis on the south-eastern bank of Lake Paralimni [4. 107]. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Kirs…

Acyphas

(89 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀκύφας; Akýphas). Town of the Dorian  Metropolis, also called  Pindus, on the Pindus river above  Erineus, possibly about 5 km west of Kastelli, c. 3 km south of Oinochori near Ano Kastelli on the upper reaches of the Kananitis, where numerous traces of ancient settlements still exist (partly used as building material in a Frankish fortress), especially dating from the Hellenistic period (Str. 9,4,10. 5,10; Steph. Byz. s. v.; SEG 27,123,12. 39,476).  Doris Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography D. Rousset, Les Doriens de la Métropole, in: BCH 113, 1989, 199-239.

Cnopus

(105 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κνῶπος; Knôpos). River in Boeotia; according to Nic. Ther. 889 it flowed into Lake Copais; schol. Nic. Ther. 889 also mentions an otherwise unknown polis C. that lay on the river  Ismenus (=C.?); it is from an area named Cnopia near Thebes (Str. 9,2,10: ἐκ τῆς Κνωπίας Θηβαϊκῆς) that the sanctuary of  Amphiaraus is said to have been transplanted to Oropus. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862, 200 T. K. Hubbard, Remaking Myth and Rewriting History: Cult Tradition in Pindar's Ninth Nemean, in: HSPh 94, 1992, 102-107 Schachter, …

Erineus

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἐρινεός, Ἐρινεόν; Erineós, Erineón). Apart from Boium, Cytenium and Acyphas/Pindus, one of the towns, reportedly founded by  Dorus, of the middle Greek Doris. Reference passages: Tyrateus fr. 2 West; Hdt. 8,43; Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6; Conon, FGrH 26 F 1,27; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Aristid. 12,40; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121; schol. Aristoph. Plut. 385; schol. Lycoph. Alex. 980). As the only historical event, a raid by …

Harma

(167 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἅρμα; Hárma). Boeotian settlement on the Thebae - Chalcis [1] road between Teumessus and Mycalessus, already listed in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,499; Str. 9,2,26); mentioned in connection with the disappearance of  Amphiaraus or the rescue of  Adrastus [1] (Str. 9,2,11; Paus. 1,34,2; 9,19,4). For some time, H. together with Eleon, Mycalessus and Pharae formed an association of villages subordinate to Tanagra; i…

Acraephia

(608 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἀκραίφια, Ἀκραιφία, Ἀκραιφίαι, Ἀκραίφιον, Ἀκραίφνιον, Ἀκραίφνια; Akraíphia, Akraiphía, Akraiphíai, Akraíphion, Akraíphnion, Akraíphnia. On the name: [5. 125]). Boeotian town on the eastern edge of the former Lake Copais on the western foothills of Mount  Ptoon, north of a deep bay, which, from about the 6th cent. BC to the 1st cent. AD, was separated from the lake by a frequently renewed dam a…

Aspledon

(131 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἀσπληδών, Σπληδών; Asplēdṓn, Splēdṓn). Boeotian town, 20 stades north of  Orchomenus on the other side of the Melas; because of their climate, A. and its surrounding area were renamed Εὐδείελος (‘the sunlit’, Str. 9,2,41); the settlement was abandoned because of water shortage (Paus. 9,38,9). A. has been localized near Pyrgus (formerly: Xeropyrgos) (Hom. Il. 2,511; Plin. HN 4,26; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀ. and s.v. Ὑηττός; Nonnus, Dion. 13,94). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 360-363 J. Knauss,…

Hercyna

(84 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἕρκυνα; Hérkyna). River in Boeotia, whose powerful, in part lukewarm springs originate in  Lebadea at the mouth of a rock canyon (cave sanctuary and temple) and were closely connected to the cult of the neighbouring oracle of  Trophonius. References: Paus. 9,39,2-8; Plin. HN 31,15; Plut. Mor. 771f; Philostr. VA 8,19. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. H., RE 8, 690f. H. G. Lolling, Reisenotizen aus Griechenland (1876 und 1877), 1989, 609-614 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις 5, 21981, 244-250 Philippson/Kirsten 1, 445-448.

Hyria

(140 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὑρία; Hyría). Boeotian town on the  Euripus near Aulis and Chalia, mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships. Hometown of Lycus, Nycteus, Orion, Euphemus and Antiope. Dependent on Thebes in the classical period, from the Hellenistic period on Tanagra; the localization north of modern Paralia Avlidas (formerly Dhramesi) or on a hill called Tseloneri (also Glypha) on the west side of the Euripus Bay across from Chalcis remains …

Eteonus

(132 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἐτεωνός; Eteōnós). Boeotian city on the northern slope of Cithaeron, described in Hom. Il. 2,497 as πολύκνημος ( polýknēmos, ‘with many mountain forests’); renamed in the classical period as Σκαφ(λ)αί/Σκάρφη ( Skaph(l)ai/ Skárphē); References: Str. 7,3,6; 9,2,24; Plin. HN 4,26; Stat. Theb. 7,266; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; inscriptions in [2. 84f.]. E. belonged to one of the regions in the Boeotian League under the control of Thebes (Hell. Oxy. 19,3,387; 20,3,438). The tomb of Oedipus was visible in the Demeter sanct…

Hadylium

(80 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἁδύλιον, Ἡδύλε[ι]ον; Hadýlion, Hēdyle[i]on). Mountain range (modern Vetritza) with an average ridge height of 300-400 m (highest point: 543 m) on the northern border of Phocis and Boeotia. In the west at Parapotamioi separated from  Parnassus by the Kephisos. In the east and southeast bordering on the mountains Palaiovouna (ancient Hyphanteion?) and Akontion. Evidence: Dem. Or. 19,148 (with schol.); Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 157; Str. 9,3,16; Plin. HN 4,25; Plut. Sulla 16f. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, I,2, 425.

Celones

(80 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κέλωνες; Kélōnes). Tribe, only mentioned in Diod. Sic. 17,110,4, who during Xerxes' campaign were deported from Boeotia to Media, where Alexander the Great still found them in 326 BC. Probably a mix-up with the Euboean  Eretria [1] whose inhabitants were deported by Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC (Hdt. 6,119,1f.; Str. 16,1,25; Anth. Pal. 7,256; 259; cf. also the Gortuae, mentioned in Curt. 4,12,11, who supposedly followed the Persians from Euboea to Media). Funke, Peter (Münster)

Boium

(139 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Βοιόν, Βοῖον; Boión, Boîon). City in Doris, belonging, along with Erineus, Cytenium and Acyphas, to the Doric tetrapolis of cities allegedly founded by Doris (Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; schol. Pind. Pyth. 121; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6). B. is still mentioned in the 6th cent. AD in Hierocles, Synekdemos 643,9. The only attested historical event was the Phocian attack of 458/7 BC (Thuc. 1,107,2; Diod. Sic. 11,79,4). Probab…

Cyrtones

(144 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κύρτωνες; Kýrtōnes). Small Boeotian city (πόλισμα) on the border with eastern Locris, north-west of Hyettus on a pass to Korseia leading across the Chlomon mountains; probably to be identified with the sparse ancient remains near modern Kolaka. The old name was Cyrtone (Κυρτώνη; Kyrtṓnē, Paus. 9,24,4). In the Roman period there was a temple and grove of Apollo and Artemis in C., as well as a spring sacred to the nymphs. References: Paus. 9,24,4; cf. also Hdn. De prosodia catholica 3,1,293; 337; Hdn. De paronymis 3,2,861; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kyrtones. Funke, Peter (Münste…

Pharae

(247 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] City in southern Messenia This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Φαραί/ Pharaí, Φηραί/ Phēraí). City in southern Messenia (Str. 8,4,4f.; 5,8; 7,5; Paus. 4,30,2-31,1; Ptol. 3,16,8 (Φεραί/ Pheraí); Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; [1. 181]), modern Kalamata. In Homer (Hom. Il. 5,543; 9,151; 293) one of the seven cities Agamemnon promised Achilles [2], Spartan perioikoi city. In 394 BC its territory was devastated by Conon [1] (Xen. Hell. 4,8,7; Nep. Conon 1), made a part of the territory of Messana [2] by Philip [4] II at …

Boeotia, Boeotians

(1,481 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Βοιωτία, Βοιωτοί; Boiōtía, Boiōtoi). [German version] A. Topography Region and people in south-eastern Central Greece; with c. 2,500 km2 almost as large as  Attica. Bounded in the south-west by the Corinthian Gulf and in the north-east and east by the Euboean Gulf, B. is the only land bridge between northern and southern Greece and was thus a battleground over and over again ( Chaeronea,  Coronea,  Plataeae). In the south the  Parnes and the  Cithaeron formed a natural border with Attica and Megaris, while in t…

Dirce

(224 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δίρκη; Dírkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ismenus Daughter of Ismenus (Callim. H. 4,75ff.), wife of king  Lycus. Both are hostile to Lycus' niece  Antiope [2]; after Antiope had failed in her attempt to escape, D. and Lycus handed her over to her twin sons  Amphion and Zethus, whom she had abandoned at birth, to have her dragged to death by a bull. However, the sons recognize their mother just in time and then proceed to make D. suffer that very punishment (Eur. in Hyg. Fab. 7f.; Plaut. Pseud. 19…

Medeon

(495 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Phocian city in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra (Μεδεών/ Medeṓn; ethnicon Μεδεώνιος). Phocian town in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra [2] (Str. 9,2,26; Paus. 10,36,6; Hdt. 1,38,21; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.), localized in the fortified centre of which the considerable remains can be found on the hill-top of the modern Hagioi Theodoroi (the acropolis of M.) and in the surrounding area. These remains include a section of the surrounding wall, with three towers; outside the wall, on…

Lebadea

(917 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεβάδεια, Λεπάδεια; Lebádeia, Lepádeia). Boeotian city on the south-west end of a bay in a plain which spreads out towards the north-east to the western shore of the former Lake Copais and which encroaches on the northern side of the Helicon [1]. L. lay immediately at the exit of a narrow rock canyon from which the river Hercyna emerges, which is fed by additional rich springs, some of them warm, nea…

Doris

(518 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δωρίς; Dōrís). [German version] I. Personal names Feminine shortened version of the name Eúdōros and similar, likely often understood as ‘the giver’ (cf. dōron, ‘Gift’). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 1] One of the Oceanids, mother of the Nereids One of the  Oceanids, the daughters of Oceanus and of Tethys (Hes. Theog. 350); cf. Polydore and Eudore in Hes. Theog. 354; 360 and the ‘Dorids’ in Goethe's ‘Faust’. Wife of Nereus, mother of the 50  Nereids (Hes. Theog. 241; Apollod. 1,11; Ov. Met. 2,11; 269). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Nereus, one of th…

Halae

(855 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἁλαί; Halaí). ‘Salt pans’, name of several settlements, in Attica of two demes. [German version] [1] Att. deme of the phyle Cecropis H. Aixonides (Ἁλαὶ Αἰξωνίδες; Halaì Aixōnídes), Attic deme, which constituted together with Aexone the paralia trittys of the phyle Cecropis. Therefore, (only administratively? [3. 148476]) distinguished by ‘Aixonides’ from H. [2] on the east coast of Attica. H. provided six (ten)   bouleutaí . H. (modern Voula and Vouliagmeni [7. 466 fig. 588]) bordered in the north on Aexone (modern Glyphada) and in the…

Hoplites

(101 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ὁπλίτης; Hoplítēs). [German version] [1] Town north-east of Sparta Town north-east of Sparta (Pol. 16,16,2), possibly named (‘warrior’) after the archaic cult statue of Apollo in nearby Thornax. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius 2, 1967, 521. [German version] [2] Small river in Boeotia Small river in Boeotia, whose localization near Haliartus or Coronea was already disputed in antiquity; associated with an oracle on the death of Lysander (Plut. Lysander 29,3ff.; Mor. 408A-B). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.…

Alalcomenae

(256 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀλαλκομεναί; Alalkomenaí). [German version] [1] Small Boeotian city Small Boeotian city on the southern edge of the former Lake  Copais, between  Haliartus and  Coronea at the foot of a low mountain, with the famous  Athena sanctuary on the plain by the Triton stream (birthplace of Athena), in direct proximity to the sanctuary of Athena Itonia. A. likely lay to the north below what is today Solinarion; the Athena sanctuary was either north-east near the church Agios Ioannis or north-west near Ajia Para…

Haemon

(380 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Αἵμων; Haímōn, ‘skilful’), name of heroes. [German version] [1] Eponym of the Thess. Haemones Eponym of the Thessalian Haemones, son of  Pelasgus, father of  Thessalus (Rhianus of Bene, FGrH 265 F 30), or son of Zeus and Melia (IG IX 2, 582: 1st cent. BC, Larisa [1]), or son of Ares (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,527e). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Founder of Haemoniae in Arcadia Son of  Lycaon, founder of Haemoniae in Arcadia (Paus. 8,44,1; Apollod. 3,97). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [3] Companion of Nestor Leader of the Pylians, companion of  Nestor (Hom. Il. 4,296). Dräg…

Coronea

(908 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Boeotian city (Κορώνεια; Korṓneia). Boeotian city 2 km east of modern Agios Georgios, c. 4 km north of modern C. (formerly Kutumala) on a low promontory (244 m) on the south-eastern edge of a very fertile plain stretching northwards as far as the southern shore of the former Lake  Copais, then south of C., narrowing to a valley, reaching deep into the northern side of the  Helicon [1] and opening up access to an important pass crossing to Thisbe in Boeotia. In the north-eastern part of the…

Onchestus

(316 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀγχηστός/ Onchēstós). [German version] [1] Site, mentioned in Homer, of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Site, already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 2,506; H. Hom. ad Apollinem 229-238; H. Hom. ad Mercurium 185-188), of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon, whose origins may stretch back as far as the Mycenaean period [3]. Initially O. probably belonged to Thebes and from the 5th cent. BC to Haliartus; in the Hellenistic period O. was the political…

Pindus

(412 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Mountain range (ὁ/ἡ Πίνδος; ho/hē Píndos). In antiquity, P. denoted only the central part of the huge, almost inaccessible wall of mountains traversing the whole of north and central Greece from north to south in a series of chains, most of which are over 2000 m in elevation, south of the Zygos Pass (Metsovo Pass, el. 1650 m) and west of Thessaly (Thessalians), dividing the river basins of the Peneius in the east and the Achelous [1] in the west. The mountain ranges to the north of …

Eleusis

(1,171 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Attic Paralia deme of the phyle Hippothontis This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Linear B | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Peloponnesian War | Attica | Attica | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ἐλευσίς; Eleusís, mod. Elefsina). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) [German version] A. Location Attic Paralia deme of the phyle Hippothontis with urban character, 11 (?) bouleutai, c. 21 km west of  Athens [1] on a low coastal hill range west of Thriasia, whose north-western summit with Hellenistic fortress and…

Erythrae

(596 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Engelmann, Helmut (Cologne)
(Ἐρυθραί; Erythraí). [German version] [1] Boeot. city This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Boeotian city mentioned as early as Hom. Il. 2,499 (Plin. HN 4,26; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.) on the northern slope of the  Cithaeron range east of Plataeae and Hysiae. Other references: Eur. Bacch. 751; Thuc. 3,24,2; Xen. Hell. 5,4,49; Paus. 9,2,1. According to Str. 9,2,12 mother city of the Ionian E. [2]. Before the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) the Persian camp stretched along the Asopus from E. over …

Midea

(306 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Μίδεια; Mídeia or Μιδέα; Midéa). [German version] [1] City in Argolis This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Mineral Resources City in Argolis, in mythology (cf. Paus. 2,16; 25) one of the most important cities in the region. It had a Mycenaean citadel and palace on a steep hill about 1 km from modern Dendra in the northeast of the Argolian plain. Already abandoned in the Mycenaean period. Tholos tombs with rich finds, several burial chambers. New excavations started in 1983. Th…

Pteleum

(300 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Πτελεόν; Pteleón). [German version] [1] Place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae Fortified place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae [2], not located with certainty (Plin. HN 5,117; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). As a member of the Delian League (ATL 1,390 f.; 486; 2,82) P. was at times formally independent, but in fact it was dependent on Erythrae. P. is mentioned by Thuc. (8,24,2; 8,31,2) in connexion with the naval war in the waters around Miletus [2] and Chios in the winter of 412/1 BC (Peloponnesian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. Keil, P.…

Asopus

(479 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἀσωπός; Asōpós). [German version] [1] Small river, flowing to the north out of the Oete range Small river, flowing to the north out of the  Oete range. Before flowing into the plains of Heraclea and Trachis, it forms a deep gorge, passable only in summer ( c. 2.5 km in length, up to 200 m deep, with a width of 6 m at the entrance, and about 30 m at the exit). At the time of the Persian Wars, the A. still had its own delta into the sea (Hdt. 7,200), today it flows under the name of Karvunarja into the  Spercheus. In 480 BC, the Persians by…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Athens

(11,799 words)

Author(s): Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἀθῆναι; Athênai; Lat. Athenae). [German version] [1] Capital of Attica This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Celts | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Athletes | Attica | Attica | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) [German version] I. Geography A. is the primary location …

Arethusa

(416 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Ἀρέθουσα; Aréthousa). Frequent name for springs. [German version] [1] Spring on Homer's Ithaca Spring on Homer's  Ithaca, where the swine of  Eumaeus graze (Hom. Od. 13,408; Plut. Mor. 776 E; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.). To identify A. with the spring of Perapigadi on the modern Ithaka, 5 km south-east of Vathy, is speculative. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A commentary on Homer's Odyssey, 1992, 189 f. A. J. Wace, F. H. Stubbings, A companion to Homer, 1963, 414-416. [German version] [2] Name for the main spring of Chalkis on Euboia The name handed down by numerou…
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