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Cynoscephalae

(112 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κυνὸς Κεφαλαί; Kynòs Kephalaí, ‘heads of dogs’). Part of the central Thessalian mountain range Chalcodonion (modern Mavrovuni, formerly Karadağ) between Pherae and Scotussa with many limestone rounded hilltops (hence the name). At C. in 364 BC the Thebans under Pelopidas defeated Alexander of Pherae (Plut. Pelopidas 32). In 197 Philip V suffered decisive defeat here against T. Quinctius Flamininus (Pol. 18,20ff.). Antiochus III had the bones of the fallen Macedonians buried in 191 (…

Cierium

(189 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κιέριον; Kiérion). City in the Thessalian tetras Thessaliotis in the valley of the Cuarius (modern Sophaditikos or Onochonos), founded by invading Thessalians as their main town, north-east of the Boeotian founded town of  Arne [2]; in the following period, they drove the Boeotians back south to their historical seats (Thuc. 1,12,3; Str. 9,5,14). Arne is equated with Makria-Magoula, C. with the ruins on a nearby hill near the modern Pyrgos Kieriou. Near C. was the Thessalian tribal san…

Nelia

(157 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Νήλεια; Nḗleia). A town in Magnesia [1], incorporated into Demetrias [1], mentioned only in Str.  9,5,15. Owing to the rare ancient cult of Aphrodite Neleia, evidenced in Iolcus,  the place name, in the sense of ‘City of the Dead (of Iolcus)’ ([2] et al.) has been equated with Pefkakia Magoula, which is situated in the territory of Demetrias (continuously inhabited from the late neolithic period; the classical and more recent layers of settlements were removed as part of the levelling of Demetrias). The place name N. is, …

Spercheius

(174 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σπερχειός/ Spercheiós). River that has formed the basin between Othris and Oete in the south of Thessaly; it rises in the Tymphrestus, and nowadays, after a course of some 75 km, enters the Gulf of Malis south-east of Lamia. In its upper and middle course a typical mountain river, its meandering lower course (up to 50 m wide) has changed frequently since Antiquity, and its mouth become displaced some 14 km to the east (Hdt. 7,198,2; Str. 1,3,20). Its tributaries, some of them stil…

Armenium

(180 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀρμένιον; Arménion). Town in  Thessaly, according to Homer's catalogue of ships located near  Pherae on  L. Boebe (Hom. Il. 2,734: Ὀρμένιον; Orménion); in the Hellenistic period, it was a kome, belonging to  Demetrias (Str. 9,5,15; 18). Its eponymous hero was Armenus, who went to Colchis with  Jason (Str. 11,4,8; 14,12). The ancient settlement is localized north of Pherae (modern Velestino) near the modern villages of Neon Perivalion and Armenion, where a hill (Petra) bearing the remains of Cyclopean…

Celaetha

(108 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κελαίθα; Kelaítha). Town, according to a list of theorodokoi from Delphi from the 2nd cent. BC, located near  Cierium and Metropolis in south-western Thessaly. Probably not identical with the vicus Celathara which the Aetolians seized and plundered in the course of their raid into Dolopia and southern Thessaly in 198 BC (Liv. 32,13,12f.). In contrast, Kelaíthra is documented as a Boeotian town ‘near Arne’ (presumably more likely Cierium in Thessaly) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Κελαίθρα). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolop…

Antron

(169 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἄντρων; Ántrōn). City in  Achaea Phthiotis, on the Malian Gulf opposite  Euboea, on a cliff c. 25 m above the sea, near the modern Fano. Remains of the very old city wall and necropoleis from the Mycenaean to the Roman periods have survived. Homer (Il. 2,697; Hymn. Dem. 491 [1. 181-183]) mentions A. and its  cult of Demeter. In 342 BC  Philippus II made A. a Macedonian possession by means of bribery. In 302 BC A. was captured by  Demetrius. A. evidently remained a Macedonian possession until th…

Tempe

(365 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (τὰ Τέμπη/ tà Témpē, Latin Tempe, Stenae). A gorge, ca. 8 km long, up to 45 m wide and 500 m deep, between Olympus [1] to the north and Ossa [1] to the south, traversed by the Peneius from the Thessalian interior (Thessalians, Thessalia) east to the Aegean Sea; known today as Koiláda Tempón. In Classical Antiquity, the valley, actually formed by erosion, was held to be the result of an earthquake (Hdt. 7,129,4; Plin. HN 4,31). Myth has it that, in this valley, the nymph Daphne [2], while f…

Casthanaea

(97 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κασθαναία; Kasthanaía). Near C. (‘village’, Str. 9,5,22) on the Magnesian east coast, the Persian fleet foundered in a storm in 480 BC (Hdt. 7,188;  Persian War). In around 290 BC, C. was included in the synoikismós following the foundation of  Demetrias [1]. Coins were minted at the time Constantine (coin finds). C. is equated with the as yet hardly investigated ruins near the modern Keramidion. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography H. Kramolisch, s.v. K., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 310 W. K. Pritchett, Xerxes' Fleet at the ‘Ovens’, in: AJA 47, 1963, 1ff. F. …

Tisaeum

(72 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τίσαιον; Tísaion). Mountain in the south of Magnesia [1] (modern Bardzochia, 644 m elevation); today, the whole of the east-west part of the peninsula is called T. The Argonauts passed by this mountain (Apoll. Rhod. 1,568 ff.). There was a temple to Diana Tisaea there (Val. Fl. 2,7) and a station for signalling by fire to Demetrias [1] (Pol. 10,42,7; Liv. 28,5,17). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 1467.

Sycurium

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Συκύριον; Sykýrion). Place in the Dotium region at the western end of the Tempe valley, used by Perseus [2] as a permanent camp for actions against the Roman army in the third of the Macedonian Wars, in 171 BC (Liv. 42,54; 62; 64; 67). The location is uncertain, the assignment of the name to modern S. (formerly Makrokeserli) is arbitrary. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography H. Kramolisch, s.v. Sykyrion, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 644f.

Dolopes

(387 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Δόλοπες; Dólopes). The D. were the south-western neighbours of the Thessalians, possibly split off from them during their immigration and driven out of the plains. Their area of settlement ─ without access to the coast ─ lay between Achaea Phthiotis in the east, Spercheus valley in the south, Epirus in the west and the central Pindus, a mountainous country, very sparsely settled then as now and, since the southern Pindus has a strong north-south folding, passable only in that dire…

Tricca

(162 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Τρίκκα/ Tríkka). Capital of Hestiaeotis in western Thessaly, on the Lethaeus (modern Trikkalinos), which flows from the Chasia Mountains. T. is mentioned in the Iliad as the place of origin of the Asclepius cult (Hom. Il. 2,729-733). In the Classical period T. was already minting its own coins (HN 310). T. became Macedonian after 352 BC (Diod. Sic. 18,56,5; Pelinna), was Aetolian for a time at the end of the 3rd cent. and was won back by Thessaly in 186/5…

Ormenium, Orminium

(247 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀρμένιον/ Orménion, Ὀρμίνιον/ Ormínion). According to the context in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.), Orménion was the residence of Eurypylus [1] and was situated in western Thessaliotis, but it was already abandoned in historic times and has not been located up to the present day. The historic township of Ormínion was in Magnesia [1] and, around 290 BC, it was incorporated into the newly established Demetrias [1], but it continued to exist as a kṓmē (Str. 9,5,15; 18: Ὀρμίνιον/ Ormínion; Plin. HN 4,32). Despite the geographic difference to t…

Nessonis limne

(62 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Νεσσωνὶς λίμνη; Ness ōnìs límnē). Silted-up lake, to the north-east of Larisa [3] in Thessalian Pelasgiotis, formerly fed primarily by the Peneius, today dried out. Ancient authors were interested in the fluctuations in its water level and its connection with the Boibe to the south (Str. 9,5,20). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. N., RE 17, 79f.

Condylum

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κόνδυλον; Kóndylon). Fortification in the southern Olympus on a bypass around the valley of the Tempe that runs through  Gonnus, probably to be equated with Gonnocondylus, and located near modern Tsurba-Mandria. When Philip V released Perrhaebia in 196 BC, he kept C. with the place name Olympias until 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). A garrison of Perseus was stationed in C. in 169 BC during the Third Macedonian War. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Gonnoi, 1973, Index F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 8f.

Amphanae

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀμφαναί; Amphanaí). Town on the narrow coastal strip of the Pelasgiotis ( Pelasgians) near Cape Pyrrha, modern Angistri. According to its foundation myth already existing in the pre-Thessalian period, A. was later outstripped by the Thessalian town of  Pagasae. Most recent reference from the middle of the 4th cent. BC (FGrH 115 Theopompus fr. 54); its cultic tradition continued in  Demetrias. In contrast with older studies it is no longer localized on Mount Soros, but to the south of it in the ru…

Menelais

(72 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μενελαΐς; Menelaḯs). Town in Dolopia ( Dolopes) reclaimed as formerly Macedonian by Philip V in 185 BC (Liv. 39,26,1). M. may have been on the northern slopes of Mount Itamos, where there is a ruin near Kasthanaia. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 60, 81f. F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 15, 806.

Gyrton(e)

(205 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γυρτών[η]; Gyrtṓn[ē]). Lapithae from G. appear both in the Argonaut legend ( Argonautae; Apoll. Rhod. 1,57) and in The Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,738). The town originally belonged to Perrhaebia, but in historical times was an important place of the Thessalian Pelasgiotis. In 431 BC among the Thessalian reinforcement troops for Athens there was also a contingent from G. (Thuc. 2,22). In 215 at the behest of Philip V at least 60 Gyrtonians became citizens of the neighbouring  Larisa (IG IX 2, 517). In 191 a…

Olizon

(108 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀλιζών; Olizṓn) is mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad as belonging to Philoctetes (Hom. Il. 2,717). Demetrius [2] incorporated O. into the newly founded Demetrias [1] in about 290 BC (Strab. 9,5,15). O. was in the southern part of Magnesia [1], opposite Artemisium in Euboea (Plut. Themistocles 8,2). O. is identified with Paliokastro to the east of the village of Lavko on the Trikkeri peninsula and was probably populated until the late Imperial period (IG IX 2, 1217-1221, unnamed). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Lenk, s.v. O., RE 17, 2484  TI…

Scotussa

(125 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σκοτοῦσσα/ Skotoûssa). City in Pelasgiotis in Thessaly, about 20 km to the west of Pherae at modern Skotoússa. (earlier Supli; Cynoscephalae). Attested by finds, remains and myth as very ancient, its first period of prosperity came to an end when the population was massacred by Alexander [15] of Pherae in 367 BC (Diod. 15,75,1; Paus. 6,5,2 f.). S. was not insignificant under Macedonian rule (Pol. 18,20,2-6; Liv. 33,6,8), and in the Thessalian League after 197 (Liv. 36,9,3). After …

Sesklo

(171 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] Village, about 10 km to the north of the Pagasetic Gulf on the threshold of the Plain of Thessaly. The place of settlement, which has been excavated there since 1905, gave its name to a long prehistoric epoch of Greece (6th-4th millennia BC). It had been settled since the pre-ceramic Neolithic, and flourished with up to 3000 inhabitants in the middle Neolithic. Typical of the culture of S. are rectangular houses, a central megaron building and a special pottery (finds in the archa…

Galates

(56 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ Γαλάτης; Galátēs). Plut. Phocion 33,4 mentions G. as the then current name for the Acrurium mountains, part of the  Callidromus range, on whose southern slopes Phocion and Polyperchon met in 318 BC. The change of name is perhaps linked to the invasion by the Celts in 279 BC. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)

Mopsium

(77 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μόψιον; Mópsion). Town and hill in the Thessalian territory of Pelasgiotis. In 171 BC, it served Perseus for a time as an advance base out of the Tempe Valley for attacks on the Romans in the Plain of Larisa [3] (Liv. 42,61,11; 65,1; 67,1: Mopselus). M. may possibly be equated with the town ruins at Makrichori, approx. 25 km north west of Larisa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. M. (1), RE 16, 236-240.

Phalara

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (τὰ Φάλαρα; tà Phálara). Town of the Malieis, port serving Lamia [2] on the Malian Gulf, probably present-day Stilida. Destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20); after its reconstruction, it was again an important harbour town (cf. Str. 9,5,13). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 19, 1647  F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 217f.  K. Braun, R. Scheer, s.v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 533.

Thetideion

(86 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Θετίδειον; Thetídeion). Sanctuary to Thetis in the territory of Pharsalus. Shortly before the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC the Roman and Macedonian armies camped near there (Pol. 18,20; Liv. 33,6,10). The location is problematic: the area near Dasolophos (formerly Bekides), on the basis of the route of the march, and the lands around modern Thetidion (formerly Alchami), because of ancient remains, are possibilities. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J.-C. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 205-207  F. Stählin, s. v. Th., RE…

Glaphyrae

(127 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γλαφύραι; Glaphýrai). The catalogue of ships of the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,711ff.) mentions the town together with  Boebe and  Iolcus. Its mythological founder was Glaphyros, son of Magnes and father of Boibos. In historical time, the ethnic term Γλαφυρεύς ( Glaphyreús) is documented for officials from  Demetrias [1]. Therefore, it can be assumed that G. existed until the Hellenistic period, although Str. 9,15,5 does not mention G. at the Synoikismos for Demetrias. The exact location of G. at the southern bank of the former Boebe Lake is not certain. Kramolisch, Herwig (E…

Iton

(378 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ Ἴτων; ho/hē Ítōn, Ἴτωνος; Ítōnos). One of the oldest Greek cities, within the Thessalian core territory of Tetras Thessaliotis (Str. 9,5,14) in the valley of the Curalios/Cuarius, a right tributary of the  Peneius. Within its territory was the Thessalian tribal sanctuary of Athena Itonia (Str. 9,5,17). Because of an erroneous distance given by Strabo (9,5,8), the city and its sanctuary were thought to be near  Halus (Achaea Phthiotis) [1; 2; 3], but excavations near modern Philia have verified their location c. 16 km south-east of Karditsa and c. 10 km upriver o…

Ctimenae

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κτιμεναί; Ktimenaí). Capital of the  Dolopes in the vicinity of Lake Xynias, probably near today's Cydonia and not today's Ktimenai (formerly Anodranitsa). Conquered in 198 BC by the Aetolians allied with Rome (Liv. 32,13,10); thereafter Angeia was the capital of the Dolopes. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48ff. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 148f.

Oetaei

(179 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Οἰταῖοι/ Oitaîoi). A tribe which originally lived in the low sandstone, flisch and neogene zone to the south and east of the main ridge of the Oete in the direction of the central Greek regions of Doris and Locris. From there the O. gradually annexed the northern neighbouring regions; Heraclea [1], which was primarily founded to repulse them, was annexed in the 4th cent. BC, followed by the entire former Malian region as far as the Spercheus and Thermopylae. The O. were linked pol…

Xyniae

(149 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνίαι; Xyníai). City in Achaea Phthiotis in western Othrys, about 4 km southwest of modern X. (formerly Dauklí). X. lay 74 m above the southeastern shore of Lake Xynias and controlled the pass on the road from Lamia [2] to Thaumaci. X. was Aetolian from the middle of the 3rd cent. BC (at this time there was a definition of borders with the neighbouring city of Melitaea: IG IX 2, p. XI, no. 3), but at the end of the 3rd cent., X. was Macedonian. In 198 BC, after a massacre of its …

Acharrae

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀχάρραι; Achárrai). Town in north-western  Achaea Phthiotis, at the border with Dolopia ( Dolopes) and Thessaliotis ( Thessaly). A. was the mint for 4th/3rd-cents. BC bronze coins bearing the inscription Ἐκκαρρεων (HN 294); its exact location remains unclear. In the Second Macedonian War, A. surrendered in 198 BC to the  Aetolians during their advance into south-western Thessaly (Liv. 32,13,13; further sources in [1. 154 f.]). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography 1 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924.

Phthiotis

(216 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φθιῶτις/ Phthiôtis). Name of two regions which were not distinguished even in early ancient literature: 1) Thessalian P., the southern part of Thessaly, the area of Pharsalus (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 52; Aristot. fr. 497; Str. 9,5,3); 2) Achaea P., bordering on 1) to the south and south-east, the area of the Othrys, the plain of Halmyrus and the northern bank of the Thermaikos Kolpos, including several cities (Scyl. 63; Hdt. 1,56; 7,132; Thuc. 1,3; Heracleides Creticus fr. 3,2; Scymn. 605; Str. 1,2,38; 9,5,1; 5,8-11; Pol. 18,20,5; Ptol. 3,13,46). As a region of períoikoi

Callithera

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Καλλιθήρα; Kallithḗra). Southern Thessalian town, the target of an Aetolian raid in 198 BC; they drove the inhabitants of C. back inside their walls, but were unable to capture the town (Liv. 32,13,11f.). Judging by the itinerary of the Aetolians, C. is not to be located near the modern Kallithira (formerly Seklitsa), but about 10 km south-east of it near Paliuri. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48-91, especially 77ff. F. Stählin…

Iolcus

(355 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine (Ἰωλκός; Iōlkós). Already named in the most ancient legends (Aeson, Alcestis, Argonautae, Jason, Neleus, Peleus, Pelias). Residence city at the northern exit of the Gulf of  Pagasae on the Anaurus (modern Xerias). A large settlement mound in the old city of Volos (Kastro Volo) bears witness to continuity of settlement at the latest since the early Bronze Age - many Mycena…

Thaumaci

(168 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Θαυμακοί/ Thaumakoí). City in Achaea Phthiotis on the northern slopes of the Othrys mountains, on one of the most important routes to Thessaly. Remains of walls and ceramic finds suggest an origin in the 4th cent. BC; the first literary sources refer to events in the 3rd cent. BC, when T. was part of the Aetolian League. T. is mentioned several times in the military conflicts between the Romans, the Aetolians and Philippus [7] V shortly after 200 BC (Liv. 32,4,1-7; 32,4,13; 36,14,…

Angeae

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀγγείαι; Angeíai). Town in south-east  Pindus within the settlement area of the  Dolopes, probably close to the modern Rentina. From the 2nd cent. BC, A. outmatched the main town of  Ctimenae in importance. In the course of the Second Macedonian War, it was captured by the  Aetolians in 198 BC (Liv. 32,13,10), but continued to exist (cf. Syll.3 692,10 of 130 BC). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La retraite de Philippe V. en 198 et l'incursion étolienne en Thessalie, in: BCH 52, 1928, 445 f. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, …

Peirasia

(147 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Πειρασία; Peirasía). A city in the northeast of Thessaliotis (Thessalians, Thessalia), with ruins on the isolated 313 m high limestone mountain of Strongylovuno south of the modern Vlochós on the left bank of the Enipeus [2]. It was identified with the Homeric Astérion (Hom. Il. 2,735) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀστέριον), and was allied with Athens in 431 BC (Thuc. 2,22,3 with schol.). Its contributions for the Delphic temple in 359/7 BC are attested in inscriptions (Syll.3 240 H, col. II 6ff.). Ancient remains: three concentric polygonal city walls with more …

Aenianes

(603 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Αἰνιᾶνες; Ainiânes). Small tribe, related to the  Myrmidones and the Achaeans of  Phthia, originally settled in the vicinity of the  Perrhaebi at the river Titaresius and in the surrounding plains, then driven south by the Thessalians advancing from the north; in historical times, they settled in the Aenis region in the upper valley of the Spercheus between the Dolopes, the Achaeans of Phthiotis, the  Malieis and the  Oetaei (Hom. Il. 2,749; Hdt. 7,198; further sources [1; 2]). Th…

Myrae

(53 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μύραι/ Mýrai, Scyl. 65; or to be corrected to Εὐρέα[ι]/ Euréa[i]? Cf. [1]). Town in the north of the peninsula of Magnesia [1], south of Homole, location unknown. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography     1 J.A.W. Warren, Two Notes on Thessalian Coins, in: NC 7,1, 1961, 1-8. F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 16, 1089.

Limnaeum

(88 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λιμναῖον; Limnaîon, Latin Limnaeum). In 191 BC, the Romans and Philip V marched through eastern Thessaly to drive out Antiochus III and the Athamanians. During the siege of Pelinna, Philip also attacked L. which did not surrender until the Roman cavalry appeared (Liv. 36,13,9ff.). There is a lack of other information. L. has recently been localized near Vlochos above the swampy confluence region of the rivers Enipeus [2] and Peneius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J. Cl. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 120f.

Othrys

(166 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὄθρυς/ Óthrys). Range of mountains, c. 85 km long and 45 km wide, between the Malian Gulf and the Spercheus valley on one side and Thessalia on the other. The O. consists of several chains of mountains (slate, lime) and predominantly has the character of a low mountain range. To the south it falls of steeply in a straight edge, but to the north it is more structured. The greatest elevation is Yerakovouni (1726 m). Politically the region was part of Achaea Phthiotis (Achaei). The great…

Hypata

(352 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Ὑπάτα; Hypáta). Capital of the Aenianes (HN 296), not shown to have existed before the 5th or beginning of the 4th cent. BC, situated on a terrace cut off by ravines above the Spercheus valley on the northern slope of Mount Oete ( Oetaei, Oete), modern Hypate. The fates of city and tribe largely coincide (references [1; 2; 3]), Macedonian rule began around 344, and following the interlude of the Lamian War, the rule was replaced by the Aetolian League from c. 273. In the year 191  Acilius [I 10] ravaged t…

Ortha, Orthe

(181 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὄρθα/ Órtha, Ὄρθη/ Órthē). There were possibly two places with this name in Thessalia. [German version] [1] Place in Perrhaibia According to the Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,739), O., with Elone and Olosson, was part of the region of the Polypoetes and therefore situated in Perrhaibia (Perrhaebi). Various ruins at Elasson are identified as O. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [2] Town in southern Thessalia There are Hellenistic coins with the legend ΟΡΘ(Ι)ΕΩΝ/ ORTH(I)EŌN (HN 303), and a list of theorodoci in Delphi from the beginning of the 2nd…

Homole, Homolium

(210 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὁμόλη, Ὁμόλιον; Homólē, Homólion). Mountain at the northern end of the Thessalian  Ossa. At the outflow of the Peneius from the  Tempe Valley lay a town of the same name on the slope (not by the sea, Str. 9,5,22), attested to be above modern Omolion (formerly Laspochori). H. was the northernmost town of  Magnesia and so of Greece. H. overlooked the river crossing to lower Macedonia (Liv. 42,38,10; remains of a bridge about 1 km north of Omolion). Finds attest to settlement since anc…

Methylium

(67 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μεθύλιον; Methýlion). Town in western Thessaly, mentioned on coins and in a Delphic list of theorodókoi. Its location can only be approximately identified, between Cierium and Metropolis [4] in the region of Karditsa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 85ff. F. Stählin, s.v. Methylion, RE 15, 1391.

Argissa

(156 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἄργισσα; Árgissa). Listed in the ships' catalogue of the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,738) as the city of the Lapith  Polypoetes, it was equated even in ancient times with the town of Argura (Str. 9,5,19). This was situated about 40 stades ( c. 7 km) east of  Atrax on the river  Peneus. Following the discovery of coins bearing the name of Argura, A. is now localized (as opposed to [1. 99 f.]) on the Gremnos-Magula, c. 7 km west of  Larisa, where traces of settlements have been found, dating back to the Dimini culture ( c. 6000 BC). Following a forcible occupation towards the end o…

Mal(l)oea

(128 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] City in the Thessalian country of Perrhaebia ( Perrhaebi) in the valley of the Titaresius, identified with the ruin Paliokastro near Sykia. It is mentioned as the neighbouring town of Chyretiae only during the wars at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC and only by Livy: in 199 and 191 M. went over to the Aetolian side and was won back by Philip V (Liv. 31,41,5; 36,10,5; 13,4) who had to give it back to Perrhaebia in 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). In 171 BC M. surrendered to king Perseus (Liv. 42,53,8) and soon afterwards was conquered by the Roman army and plundered (Liv. 42,67,7). Kramolisch,…

Narthacium

(147 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ναρθάκιον; Narthákion). Mountain and city in the Othrys mountain range located in the Thessalian region of Achaea Phthiotis. It was at Mount N. , the Xerovouni Avaritsis (1022 m), that, in 394 BC, Agesilaus [2] defeated the Thessalians, who were pursuing him as he retreated from Persia (Xen. Hell. 4,3,9; Plut. Agesilaus 16,5). The city of N. has been localized by inscriptions (middle of the 2nd cent. BC: IG IX 2, 89-91; ArchE 1927/8, 122f.) in the remains of a city (approx. 880 m)…

Trachis

(132 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τραχίς/ Trachís). One of the oldest cities in the valley of the Spercheius, on the northern slopes of the Oete, at the end of the Asopus [1] gorge near the 'Trachinian Rocks' (Τραχίνιαι πέτραι/ Trachíniai pétrai, Hdt. 7,198). T. was the residence of Ceyx. In the Iliad T. is part of the territory of Peleus (Hom. Il. 2,682). In the 5th cent. BC, T. was the capital of the Malieis (Hdt. 7,199). In 426 BC, against the Oetaei who were advancing from the south, Sparta founded Heraclea [1] Trachinia only 6 stadia (about 1.2 km) away…

Dierum

(74 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Διερόν; Dierón). Fortification on Mt. Olympus, occupied by the troops of Q. Marcius Philippus during the invasion of Macedonia in 169 BC (Liv. 44,3). Located near the village Karia at c. 1,450 m altitude. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography A. Rhizakis, Une forteresse macédonienne dans l'Olympe, in: BCH 110, 1986, 331-346 G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 114 n. 243.

Melitaea

(273 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μελιταία, Μελιτεία; Melitaía, Meliteía). Town of Achaea Phthiotis on the northern slopes of Mount Othrys, its location near Avaritsa (officially modern M.) is confirmed epigraphically. The migrating Thessalians moved the earlier town of Pyrrha from the valley of the Enipeus to its historical location as M. (Strab. 9,5,6). Brasidas stayed there in 426 BC (Thucyd. 4,78,1). One of the two hieromnḗmones of Achaea Phthiotis generally came from M. (Syll.3 314,5; 444,5). M. was a stronghold of the Greeks in the Lamian War (Diod. 18,15,1). From approx. 2…

Titarus

(102 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τίταρος/ Títaros). A mountain chain (Eust. in Hom. Il. 1,192,20; Str. 7a,1,14 f.; 9,5,20: Titárion; modern Sapkas, up to 1890 m elevation) between Mount Olympus [1] in the east and Mount Cambunia in the west, forming a natural boundary between Macedonia and Thessaly. The T. was the northern border of Perrhaebic Tripolis [1] and gave its name to one of the main rivers of the small region, Titaresius (Hom. Il. 2,751-755; location uncertain); today the name is officially applied to the whole river (in Antiquity also Europus/Xerias) up to the Peneius. Kramolisch, Herwi…

Pagasae

(531 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles | Education / Culture (Παγασαί/ Pasagaí). City in Thessaly on the northern coast of the bay named after it, modern Neai Pagasai. Tradition maintains that before P. was founded, the site was dedicated to Apollo Pagasaeus, and the wharf and was the place of departure and arrival for the Argonauts. P. was founded in c. 600 BC by the Thessali, who took possession of a 5,3 km wide coastal strip (Str. 9,5,15; Scyl. 64). Dependent on Pherae, P. was the most significant place on the 'Pagasite Gulf' (Παγασιτικὸς κόλπος/ Pagasitikòs …

Myrmidones

(153 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μυρμιδόνες/ Myrmidónes). People who lived in the old Thessalian region of Phthia (the future Achaea Phthiotis). According to Homer they were the subjects of king Peleus (Hom. Il. 21,188f.), and then of king Neoptolemos (Hom. Od. 3,188); as followers of Achilles [1] they took part in the Trojan War with 50 ships (Hom. Il. 2, 683ff.). Their neighbours were the  Hellenes of Hellas (Hom. Il. 9,382; Hom. Od. 11,496). A doubt has recently been raised whether their capital city (on the s…

Lapathus

(49 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λαπαθοῦς; Lapathoûs). Small fortress in southern Olympus [1] above the Tempe valley near Condylum, near modern Hagios Elias, also called Charax. L. is mentioned because of the Roman troop movements in 169 BC (Liv. 44,2,11). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 10f.

Xynias

(58 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνιάς; Xynías). Lake in a caldera of the Othrys (approximately 5  km × 7 km in size, up to 5 m in depth), named after the city of Xyniae on its southeastern shore, drained to the north, called Ezeros in the Middle Ages, and today dried up. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 159 f.

Cypaera

(104 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κύπαιρα; Kýpaira). Neighbouring town of Xyniae in south-western Achaea Phthiotis on the border with Dolopia, near modern Palaia Giannitsu (not near modern Makryrrachi, formerly Kaitsa). For 363 BC a temple donation from C. is noted in Delphi (Syll.3 239 B 12). From the end of the 3rd cent. C. belonged to the League of the Aetolians who conquered it back in 198 BC from its short-term possession by the Macedonians (Liv. 32,13,14). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géograph…

Phalanna

(105 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (ἡ Φάλαννα; hē Phálanna). City in Perrhaebia in Thessaly (Perrhaebi) in a fertile area, scanty remains on the flat Magula Kastri, 3 km to the east of Tirnavos. Own coin minting in the 4th century BC (HN 305). P. provided Delphi with hieromnḗmones and treasurers several times. In 171 BC P. was a site of battles between Romans and Macedonians (Liv. 42,54,6; 65,1). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography R. Scheer, s.v. Ph., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 532  B. Lenk, s.v. Ph., RE 19, 1617-1620  F. Stählin, Da…

Crannon

(181 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Κραννών). City in the Thessalian Tetras Pelasgiotis, located through findings on inscriptions at c. 22 km south-west of  Larisa [2]. Settled since Neolithic times, it bore the place name of Ephyra since the Mycenaean period (Str. 8,3,5). From no later than the 6th cent. BC on, C., home of the Scopadae family, belonged to the eight most important Thessalian cities. In the early 4th cent., it was ruled by the tyrant Deinias of Pherae, and in…

Apidanus

(195 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀπιδανός; Apidanós). One of the major rivers of the western Thessalian plain, the modern Pharsalitis. Rising from streams near  Pharsalus (the originally abundant basin in front of the ancient city wall has been dry since an earthquake in 1954), it flows in a northerly direction through  Phthiotis and Thessaliotis ( Thessalians), receiving from the west the Cuarius, present-day Sophatidikos, the Onochonus, present-day Karabalis/Kallentsis, as well as the Pamisus, present-day Bliur…

Pherae

(464 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Φέραι; Phérai). City east of Thessalian Pelasgiotis (Thessalians) at a place that was continually settled from the Neolithic period onwards because of its favourable position on the south-western bank of the Boebe and on the abundant spring, of Hypereia (Plin. HN 4,20). The oldest known sanctuary of P. to date, dedicated to the principal goddess, Artemis Enodia, da…

Oete

(205 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Οἴτη/ Oítē, Lat. Oeta, Oete). In a more narrow sense, O. is the central section of the mountain wall to the south of the Spercheus valley which is dominated by this mighty limestone wall (15 km in length) and its gigantic escarpment. The 'funeral pyre' ( pyrá) of Hercules, on which he is supposed to have been burnt, a great altar of ashes, and a small, 3rd cent. BC Doric temple and adjacent buildings are found in the present-day village of Pavliani (1800m high). Cult lasted from the Archaic period to the Imperial period. In a broader sense, the western continuation of Mt.…

Makra Kome

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μακρὰ κώμη; Makrà kṓmē). Town in the upper valley of the Spercheius, in 198 BC conquered by the Aetolians during a plundering raid on Thessalia (Liv. 32,13,10). Makra Kome (MK) is localized near the ruins of the modern village of MK (formerly Varibopi) on the northern bank of the Spercheius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La vallée du Spercheios, 1937, 316ff. B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 67 F. Stählin, s.v. M.k., RE 14, 808f.

Sosthenis

(82 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σωσθενίς; Sōsthenís). City in the  Spercheus valley, its location at modern Vardates is not without dispute. S. originally belonged to the Oetaei and probably went into decline with the end of Aetolian rule over this region (Syll.3 421 Z. 22; 636 Z. 13) after 168 BC. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La vallée du Spercheios, 1937, 306 f.  A. Kontogiannis, Σ., in: La Thessalie (Actes du colloque international Lyon 1990), 1994, vol. 2, 239-244  F. Stählin, s. v. S., RE 3 A, 1198 f.

Pharsalus

(631 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture (ἡ Φάρσαλος/ hē Phársalos). Peleus, king of the Myrmidons, father of Achilles, rules in the city of Phthia,which in Antiquity had been identified with the city of P. located on the southwestern edge of the Thessalian plain. Hom. Il. 1,155 knows only Phthia. The Thessali founded P. when they took over the land at the source of the Apidanus. They called this part of the plain Phthiôtis, while the subjected territory of the indigenous population that had been pushed ba…

Callidromus

(115 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ Καλλίδρομος; ho/hē Kallídromos; τὸ Καλλίδρομον; tò Kallídromon; Lat. Callidromus). Name of the massif above  Thermopylae (Str. 9,4,13), modern Saromata, up to 1374 m in height, its spatial extent variously defined. Generally it is seen as part of the Oete ( Oetaei). The C. massif consists of Mount Acrurium (later known as Galate, Plut. Phocion 33), Mount C. itself, Mount Phricion (summit with the fortress of C., Liv. 16-18; App. Syr. 77; 81; 85). By going across Mount C., both the Persians in 480 BC ( Persian War) and the Romans in 191 BC bypassed Thermopylae. Kramol…

Mondaea

(69 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μονδαία/ Mondáia). A city, mentioned only in inscriptions, in the neighbourhood of Perrhaebian Azorus in north-western Thessaly. It is identified with the ruin at Lutron Elassonos, c. 25 km north-west of Elasson. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographique antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 93ff., 109f.  F. Stählin, s.v. Mondaia, RE 16, 106f. (sources).

Sepias

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Σηπιάς/ Sēpiás). [German version] [1] Coastal strip of the Magnesia Peninsula Strip of the coast of the southeastern Magnesia [1] Peninsula, where a Persian fleet moored in 480 BC and suffered great losses due to a storm (Hdt. 7,183-191). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [2] City in the south of the Magnesia Peninsula City in the south of the Magnesia [1] Peninsula (Hdt. 7,183), which was incorporated into the synoikismós of Demetrias [1] in about 290 BC (Str. 9,5,15). Its ruins are near modern Puri. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [3] Cape on the sout…

Boebe

(197 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Βοιβή, Βοιβηὶς λίμνη; Boibḗ, Boibēìs límnē). City on the steep, southern bank of the eponymous lake that stretched, north-west to south-east, along the Pelion and that was mentioned as early as the Iliad, in the Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,711f.). B. belonged to Magnesia and, in 293 BC, became part of  Demetrias. In the Byzantine Period it was transferred to the edge of the lake. Of that locale (the medieval Karla) there still exists a church, Hagios Nikolaos between Glafira and Ka…

Gomphi

(239 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γόμφοι; Gómphoi). Settlement created by synoecism in the 4th cent. BC; its location close to the modern G. (formerly Mouzaki) is verified. Together with  Metropolis, Pelinnaion, and  Tricca, G. formed the belt of fortifications of the Thessalian Hestiaeotis on the Pindus passes to Dolopia, Athamania, and Epirus. On coins from the 4th and 2nd cents., G. bears the name of Philippopolis (HN 295). Towards the end of the 3rd cent., G. was under Aetolian rule; during the wars of the ear…

Melambium

(65 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μελάμβιον/ Melambion). Philip V reached the region of Scotussa at M. on the day before the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC. The town, mentioned only in Pol. 18,20,6 and Liv. 33,6,11, is thought to have been to the east of Scotussa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J.-Cl. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 109ff. F. Stählin, s.v. Melambion, RE 15, 390f.

Laceria

(80 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λακέρεια; Lakéreia). Settlement on the northern shore of Lake Boebe in Magnesia, only attested in archaic times (Pind. Pyth. 3,58f.); its location - like that of its neighbouring settlement Amyrus - has yet to be established. L. was said to be the home of Coronis, the mother of Asclepius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Le ‘Dotion Pedion’, Lakereia et les origines de Larisa, in: Journal des Savants 1987, 127ff. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 58f.

Halus

(411 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ἅλος; Hálos). The remains of H. lie at the south end of the Κρόκιον πεδίον (Krokion plain) and on the north foot of a foothill of Othrys, where the passage from the Malian Gulf to the Gulf of Pagasae was easy to block, because the coasts were only a few hundred metres apart (today c. 2 km). H. owes its name to the rich saline spring of Amphrysus at the foot of the town hill. Already named in the catalogue of ships in the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,682), it was an important Thessalian harbour du…

Pharcadon

(81 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φαρκαδών, Φαρκηδών; Pharkadṓn, Pharkēdṓn). Town in Histiaeotis, a region of Thessaly on the river Peneius, once again named P. (formerly Klokoto or Tsioti). Philippus [7] V. defeated the Aetolians in 199 BC at P. (Liv. 31,41f.). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography L. Darmezin, Sites archéologiques et territoires du massif des Chassia, in: Top. antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 139-155  E. Kirsten, s.v. Pharkadon, RE 19, 1835-1838  H. Kramolisch, s.v. Pharkadon, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 535  Koder/Hild, 238.

Olosson

(137 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀλοσσών/ Olossṓn). City of the Perrhaebi (Str. 9,5,19: Ὀλοόσσων/ Oloóssōn), their original capital city, on the northern edge of a plain on the south-western slope of Lower Olympus (cf. Olympus [1]). Continuously settled from the Mycenaean period; according to the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,739: Ὀλοόσσων), it belonged to the territory of Polypoetes [1]. An inscription establishing the boundary with Dion [II 2] (CIL III 591; 101 n.Chr.) has been preserved. The fort (Procop. Aed…

Dotium

(127 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Δώτιον πεδίον; Dôtion pedíon). The northern part of the eastern Thessalian plain between river Peneius in the north, the Ossa and Pelion range in the east, Lake Boebe in the south and Lake Nessonis as well as Erimon mountain-range in the west was designated as Dotium. An old road to the  Tempe valley led through the initially densely forested, fertile alluvial land. D. was considered the birthplace of Asclepius (Hom. h. 16). Most of the places known from literature, i.a. a Demeter s…

Atrax

(221 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Apollo (Ἄτραξ; Átrax). City in the Thessalian Pelasgiotis, c. 20 km west of Larisa on the Peneius. Settled since the Mycenaean era (finds of pottery sherds), coins since the 4th cent. BC. A fortress under Macedonian rulership (from 344), played a significant role in the wars from 198 on (Liv. 32,15,8). Since 196 A. often provided strategoi for the new Thessalian Federation as well as its cult envoys to Delphi. Under Justinian the fortification of the upper city was restored, …

Anticyra

(374 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Ἀντίκυρα; Antíkyra). [German version] [1] Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus, in 480 BC still the location of its mouth into the sea (Hdt. 7,198), near the modern village of Komma. Originally, A. was part of the  Achaean Phthiotis, then fell to the  Malians in the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 BC), and from about 280 BC, it was a member of the  Oeteaen league.  Ephialtes, who in 480 BC had betrayed to the Persians the way around The…

Malieis

(434 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μαλιεῖς; Malieîs). Tribe of the estuary plain of the Spercheius, whose territory bordered on the gulf named after them, and in the west, in the Spercheius Valley, on that of the Aenianes. Homer makes no mention of them. They were among the original members of the Pylaeic-Delphic amphictyony ( amphiktyonía), whose first centre, the sanctuary of Demeter at Anthele, lay in their territory (Aeschin. or. 2,116; Paus. 10,8,2; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 63). Their archaic customs are often men…

Pythium

(243 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Πύθιον/ Pýthion). [German version] [1] Term for Attic sanctuaries to Apollo A term rarely used in modern archaeology but common in Antiquity for various Athenian and Attic sanctuaries to Apollo: 1. in southeast Athens on the right bank of the Ilissus (inscriptions, tripod bases extant); 2. cave sanctuary in the cliff on the northwest side of the Acropolis (numerous finds; however, often denoted in ancient literature with the cult name of Apóllōn Hypakraîos); 3. near the Daphni monastery on the sacred way to Eleusis (of undetermined location but presumably the sourc…

Eretria

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Ducrey, Pierre (Lausanne) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐρέτρια; Erétria). [German version] [1] City on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Ionic | Colonization | Apollo | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians City on Euboea Ducrey, Pierre (Lausanne) [German version] A. Location E. lies on the SW coast of  Euboea, at a distance of c. 20 km from the main town of Chalcis, across from Oropus on the mainland. First mentioned by Hom. Il. 2,536 (for the origin of the name E. cf. Str. 10,1,8). Aegilia belonged to the territory of E. (Hdt. 6,107; IG I2 376). Ducrey, Pierre …

Pelium

(176 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πήλιον; Pḗlion). A mountain range, extending on a north-west to south-east axis and consisting of various slates and chalks, demarcating Thessaly (Thessalians, Thessalia) in the east and, in Antiquity, forming the peninsula of Magnesia [1] from the Ossa [1] to the foothills of Sepia. In Antiquity, P. referred in a narrower sense to the highest peak (Pliassidi; 1624 m). The easterly slope to the sea is precipitous and entirely without harbours, and was feared by ancient navigators…

Onchestus

(316 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀγχηστός/ Onchēstós). [German version] [1] Site, mentioned in Homer, of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Site, already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 2,506; H. Hom. ad Apollinem 229-238; H. Hom. ad Mercurium 185-188), of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon, whose origins may stretch back as far as the Mycenaean period [3]. Initially O. probably belonged to Thebes and from the 5th cent. BC to Haliartus; in the Hellenistic period O. was the political…

Pindus

(412 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Mountain range (ὁ/ἡ Πίνδος; ho/hē Píndos). In antiquity, P. denoted only the central part of the huge, almost inaccessible wall of mountains traversing the whole of north and central Greece from north to south in a series of chains, most of which are over 2000 m in elevation, south of the Zygos Pass (Metsovo Pass, el. 1650 m) and west of Thessaly (Thessalians), dividing the river basins of the Peneius in the east and the Achelous [1] in the west. The mountain ranges to the north of …

Pyrasus

(104 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πύρασος; Pýrasos). City in Achaea Phthiotis (Hom. Il. 2,695) on the northeastern edge of the Halmyrus plain, today's Nea Anchialos. Settled from prehistoric times until the present; in the historical era it belonged to Thebes (Str. 9,5,14). Archaeology: large Christian basilica and other buildings. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography F. Hild, E. Hanschmann, s. v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 578 f.  P. Lazaridis, Βυζαντινὰ καὶ μεσαιωνικὰ μνημεῖα Θεσσαλίας: Νέα Ἀγχίαλος Φθιώτιδες Θῆβαι, in: AD 25, 1970, 286 f.  TIB 1, 271  E. Viss…

Meliboea

(423 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Μελίβοια/ Melíboia, Latin Meliboea). [German version] [1] Heroine Heroine, known within the Leto cult of Argos as Chloris [2] (on the aition: Paus. 2,21,9f.). In the Demeter cult of Hermion(e), Kore ( Persephone) bears the byname M. (Ath. 14,624e, the passage is textually disputed). M. first appears in Hom. Od. 11,281-287 as the daughter of Amphion [1], later also as the daughter of Niobe (Apollod. 3,47) and spouse of Neleus (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 117). Ath. 13,557a mentions her as the spouse of Theseus. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography R. Carden, The Papyrus Fragments of …

Arne

(215 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἄρνη; Árnē). [German version] [1] Boeotian settlement Boeotian settlement (Hom. Il. 2,507). According to Str. 1,3,18; 9,2,34-35, A. was either equated with  Acraephia, or believed to have been drowned by  L. Copais. According to other sources, A. was the ancient name of  Chaeronea (Paus. 9,40,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Χαιρώνεια). It is probably not identical with the fortress of Gla which had been abandoned in the late Mycenaean period [1].  Boeotia Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Noack, A., in: MDAI (A) 19, 1894, 405-485. J. M. Fossey, Papers in Boiotian Topography and H…

Pelethronium

(84 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πελεθρόνιον; Pelethrónion). Valley or region on the western slopes of the peak of  Pelium in Thessalia, where Chiron is supposed to have grown up and where the herb chironion or centaurion, used for healing snake bites, grew. Hence poetically the epithet 'Pelethronian' is used for Chiron, but also generally for 'Thessalian'. Documentation: Nic. Ther. 438ff.; 505; Strab. 7,3,6; Verg. G. 3,115. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 43f.  Id., s.v. Pelethronion, RE 19, 269f.

Pelinna

(191 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πελίννα; Pelínna). A city in Thessalian Hestiaeotis (Pind. Pyth. 10,4 and Str. 9,5,17: Πελινναῖον/ Pelinna ȋon; erroneously located in Phthiotis in Steph. Byz. s.v. Π., as in Plin. HN 4,32: Magnesia), the modern Paliogardiki east of Taxiarches (15 km east of Trikala); it features a well-preserved 3.2 km long wall round an area of 59 ha. P. gained independent significance only in the 4th cent. BC; from this time on, therefore, Pelinnaei appear more often in Delphic inscriptions as naopoioí (Temple economy) or hieromnemones (cf. Syll.3 p. 340f. and 444f.). P. wa…

Peneius

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πηνειός; Pēneiós). The large main river of Thessaly, copious in flow throughout the year. With its many tributaries - in Pelasgiotis flowing from the north and in Thessaliotis primarily from the south - it irrigates almost all of Thessaly (Thessalia). Rising in the Pindus [1] some 5 km to the east of Metsovo, the P. flows through the two great plains of Thessaly in the north and, after a stretch of 227 km through the  Tempe Valley, into the Thermaic Gulf. References: Hom. Il. 2,755; Hdt. 7,128f. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography L. Darmez…

Elatea

(685 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐλάτεια; Eláteia). [German version] [1] Phocian town This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In antiquity together with  Delphi (Str. 9,3,2) the largest (Paus. 10,34,1-2; Str. 9,2,19; Harpocr., Suda s.v. E.) and most famous Phocian town. Located in the farthest north of the Cephissus valley near modern Elatia (Leftà), E. dominated the road that led south from Thessaly and Locris through the passes of Thermopylae and Hyampolis. This location made E. a lively c…

Oeniadae

(493 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] [1] Acarnian town This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Οἰνιάδαι/ Oiniádai, occasionally Οἰνειάδαι/ Oineiádai). Acarnanian city near the mouth of the Achelous [1] (Thuc. 2,102,2f.; Str. 10,2,21). The city area, located near what is now Katochi, is located on a hill measuring 3 km in length and 2 km in width. Remains of the six-kilometer long city wall have been preserved, along with gate and tower installat…

Doliche

(319 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen)
[German version] Doliche [1] (Δολίχη; Dolíchē). City of the Perrhaebic Tripolis (with Azorus and Pythium) in western Olympus on the border of Macedonian Elimiotis. D. is now identified not with today's village of Duklista but with the ruins at the village of Sarantaporo. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 93-137 F. Stählin, Das hellen. Thessalien, 1924, 21 Th. Tzaphalias, in: Thessaliko Himerologio 8, 1985, 140-144 (exploration). …

Mylae

(512 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] [1] Town in southern Perrhaebia (Μύλαι; Mýlai). Town in southern Perrhaebia ( Perrhaebi) between Chyretiae und Phalanna, mentioned in literature only about the year 171 BC, when it was captured and plundered by Perseus after a long resistance (Liv. 42,54,1ff.). Starting from the evidence in Livy, M. has been located in a citadel's ruins - the walls had been restored during the Byzantine period - on a steep hill above the Xerias (= Titaresius) near present Damasion, where also inscriptions attributed to M. have been discovered (IG IX 2, 332-337; [1]). Kramolisch, Herwig …

Lethaeus

(131 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ληθαῖος; Lēthaîos). [German version] [1] Tributary of the Peneius Left-hand tributary of the Peneius in north-west Thessalia, flows through Tricca (Paus. 14,139), modern Trikkalinos. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 121. [German version] [2] River in southern Crete River in southern Crete, which flows through Gortyn from north to south (Str. 10,4,11), modern Mitropolianos. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [3] Tributary of the Maiander Right-hand tributary of the Maeander (river god: coins o…

Enipeus

(227 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐνιπεύς; Enipeús). [German version] [1] Tributary to the right of the Alpheius [1] in Elis A tributary to the right of the  Alpheius [1] in Elis, also Βαρνίχιος ( Barníchios, ‘River of Lambs’) [1], modern Lestenitsa west of Olympia (Str. 8,3,32; Hom. Od. 11,238ff.). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Curtius, Peloponnesos 2, 1852, 71f. [German version] [2] Main river of the West Thessalian plain Main river of the West Thessalian plain, modern Tsanarlis. Its source is in the Othrys range near Melitaea under the name Elipeus (IG IX 2, 205 and add.…

Phthia

(341 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] [1] Kingdom of Peleus and Achilles (Φθία/ Phthía, Φθίη/ Phthíē). The kingdom of Peleus and Achilles [1], home of the Myrmidones (Hom. Il. 1,155; 2,683f.; 762-767; 19,323; Hom. Od. 11,496), extending over the valley of the Spercheius and the adjacent north shore of the Thermaios Kolpos (Str. 9,5,8). The Spercheius was regarded as the home river of Achilles (Hom. Il. 23,140-144) and Phthios as the son of Spercheus (schol. Hom. Il. 23,142). The Dolopes lived 'in the most remote part of P.' (H…

Oechalia

(347 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Οἰχαλία; Oichalía). [German version] [1] Mythical place in Homer, Catalogue of the Pylians Mythical place in Homer, in the Catalogue of the Pylians (Hom. Il. 2,594ff.). According to the narrative context, O. must be located in north western Messenia. It was from O. that the Thracian singer Thamyris came to Dorium, where the Muses robbed him of his gift of song. Homer's interpreters equate O. with Andania (Str. 8,3,6; 8,4,5; Plin. HN 4,15; Paus. 4,2,2f.). Pherecydes (FGrH 3 F 82a) assumed that O. was 'somewh…

Pamisus

(240 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Παμισός; Pamisós). [German version] [1] Main River of the Region of Messana [2] Main river of the region of Messana [2], fed by three source rivers in the upper Messenian plain. In Antiquity the strong springs of Hagios Floros in the lower Messenian plain were considered to be the starting-point of the P., whence the river was called P. only from that point on. It is the river with most constantly abundant flow in the Peloponnese, and is navigable by boat a short distance from the mouth. At the Hagios Floros springs there was a sanctuary to P. with a small Doric templum in antis from the 6th cent…
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