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Andriscus

(174 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀνδρίσκος; Andrískos). [German version] [1] (Pseudophilippos) the Macedonian; king Philippus VI (149-148 BC) (Pseudo-Philippus) from Adramyttium, incited 153 BC a rebellion in Syria as alleged son of  Perseus and was handed over by  Demetrius I to the Romans, but he fled and 151 arrived at Pergamum, where he came into possession of a diadem, in an ominous way, before he sought restoration of the Antigonid throne from Thrace with the help of his ‘relative’ Teres; 149 in Pella he was named king (Philip VI), 1…

Autaritus

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Αὐτάριτος; Autáritos). Celtic mercenary in  Hamilcar Barca's army in Sicily; leader in Libya from 241 BC of the largest contingent (2,000 Celts) in the Mercenaries' War against Carthage; he escaped the defeat at Bagradas, urged the massacre of  Gescon and other captured Carthaginians and was the negotiator of the surrender at the foot of the Prion, in a hopeless position. As guarantor of the treaty, he was executed in Tunes with  Spendius and  Zarzas following the breaking of the treaty by the insurgents in 238 (Pol. 1,77-86). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliograph…

Teuta

(355 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τεύτα/ Teúta, also Teutana, cf. Flor. Epit. 1,21; Illyrian title: 'queen' [1. 93]). From 232/1 BC ruler, as the widow of Agron [3] and regent for her step-son Pinnes, of a confederation of Illyrian tribes (Cass. Dio fr. 49,3; [2. 41, 68]). T.'s pirate-like attacks on the coasts of Epirus, Acarnania and even the western Peloponnesus unsettled the Greek cities there as well as Italic merchants in the Adriatic. In 231/0 T. (with the help of Scerdilaedas) raided Phoenice, Corcyra [1] an…

Polycratia

(60 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Πολυκράτεια/ Polykráteia). P. from Argos, first wife of Philippus [7] V, who had abducted her from her marriage to Aratus [3] (Liv. 27,31,8; 32,21,24; Plut. Aratus 49,2). They had a son Perseus [2], whose name speaks of his Argive descent (see Perseus [1]) [1. 3949]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967.

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Adherbal

(236 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
(drbl; Greek Ἀτάρβας; Atárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian general, 307 BC Successful general at the defence of Carthage against  Agathocles in 307 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,59; 61) [1. 9]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 [1. 9-10], successful in battle against the Romans in 250 at  Lilybaeum and in 249 at the defence of Drepana (Pol. 1,46; 49-51). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Carthaginian ship commander under  Mago Carthaginian ship commander und…

Morcus

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μόρκος/ Mórkos). Illyrian. In 169 BC, he and Parmenion were sent to Dion as envoys from Genthius to Perseus to conclude the Illyrian-Macedonian alliance against Rome. In 168 BC, he took part in Metrodorus's [4] negotiations on Rhodes (Pol. 29,3,9; 29,11,1-6; Liv. 44,23,4f.). Macedonian Wars Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, 1974, 281f.

Carthalo

(395 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Punic *Qrthls = ‘(Ml)qrt has saved’; Greek Καρθάλων; Karthálōn). [German version] [1] Son of Malchus (6th cent. BC), Carthaginian priest of Melqart Son of  Malchus (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC?). As the Carthaginian priest of  Melqart he was entrusted with presenting the tithe of the booty to the god in  Tyrus but on his return refused to support his father's rebellion and was executed by him (Just. Epit. 18,7,7-15) [1. 23f.]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian nauarch in 1st Punic War in 256/5-248/7 BC In the First Punic War the Carthaginian nauarc…

Onomastus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαστος/ Onómastos). Confidant and official of Philippus V [1. 109f.], as governor in Thrace in 185/4 BC he and Cassander actuated a bloody raid by the Thracians on pro-Roman Maronea [1] (Pol. 22,13,3-7; Liv. 39,34,2), which, however, Philippus protected from being handed over to Rome (Pol. 22,14,1-5; Liv. 39,34,6-10). In the Demetrius [5] high treason affair O. probably advised rigour (Liv. 40,8,4-6; cf. 16,1-3). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 S. Le Bohec, Les 'philoi' des rois Antigonides, in: REG 98, 1985, 93-124.

Hannibal

(1,492 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Ḥnbl = ‘grace of Bl’; Ἀννίβας; Anníbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian general end of 5th cent. BC Successful Carthaginian commander, son of  Gescon [1], the Magonid. Having grown up in exile in Selinunt among other places, he established the Punic ‘province’ in western Sicily (‘epicracy’) through military campaigns in 410/9 and 406/5 BC. The politics of Carthaginian intervention which H. inaugurated were initially occasioned by a call for help from Segesta but the true cause lies in Syracuse's hegemonic …

Hasdrubal

(991 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( zrbl = ‘Help is Bl’; Ἀσδρούβας/ Asdroúbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian field marshal in the 1st Punic War, 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian field marshal in the First Punic War. Together with  Bostar [1] he was defeated near Adys by the Roman invasion troops of consul M.  Atilius [I 21] Regulus in 256 BC, under  Xanthippus he probably took part in the victory near Tynes in 255 (Pol. 1,30; 32; Diod. Sic. 23,11) [1. 48, 264 and 132, 751] and from 251 he was active i.a. in Sicily with 140 elephants, until he suffer…

Balari

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαλαροί; Balaroí). Rapacious mountain people in Sardinia (Str. 5,225; Plin. HN 3,85). The B. were supposedly descendants of Iberian and Libyan mercenaries, who had deserted from Carthaginian service (Paus. 10,17,9); participated in the rebellion of the neighbouring  Ilienses against the Romans in 178 BC and defeated the consul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Liv. 41,6,12) in 177.   Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Theophiliscus

(44 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεοφιλίσκος; Theophilískos). Rhodean admiral, who won a victory for a Rhodean-Pergamene alliance against Philippus [7] V at Chios in 201 BC, in which he was mortally wounded (Pol. 16,2-9; [1. 118-120]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984.

Brachylles

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βραχύλλης; Brachýllēs). From Thebes, son of  Neon, firm supporter of the pro-Macedonian party in Boeotia; in 222 BC royal commissioner of  Antigonus Doson in Sparta, ally and confidant of Philip V in the 2nd Macedonian War (Pol. 18,1,2; 20,5,12) [1. 50-51]; when released from captivity by  Flamininus, B. was elected  boeotarch in 197/6, and that so unsettled the pro-Romans in  Zeuxippus' entourage that they had him murdered with the acquiescence of Flamininus and help from  Alexamenus (Pol. 18,43; Liv. 33,27,8-28,3) [1. 54-57]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bib…

Lydiadas

(204 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυδιάδας; Lydiádas). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Megalopolis, 3rd cent. BC Son of Eudamus from Caphyae (?, cf. Syll.3 504) [1. 401] or from Megalopolis; as tyrant of the latter, L. joined the city in 235 BC to the Achaean League ( Achaeans with map) (Pol. 2,44,5; Plut. Aratus 30; [1. 158; 3. 71f.; 87]), he served as its stratēgós in 234/3, 232/1 and again in 230/229. L.'s rivalry with Aratus [2] escalated when Argus joined the League under Aristomachus [4]; in the war against Cleomenes [6] III of Sparta, which L. pursued vigourously, he died in the …

Deinocrates

(705 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt)
(Δεινοκράτης; Deinokrátēs). [German version] [1] Of Syracuse. Took part in the battle against Agathocles [2] shortly after 316 BC Of Syracuse. Spared as a friend of  Agathocles [2] at the latter's seizure of power in 316 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,8,6), he soon became the leader of the exiles and of all opponents of Agathocles, took many towns in Sicily and fought with the Carthaginians against the tyrant (19,103f.). In 309 he marched with Hamilcar against Syracuse (20,29,5), and after the death of Hamilcar he was elected strategos by the exiles and the rest of the Greeks (20,31,2); when …

Architectural theory/Vitruvianism

(2,793 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Günther, Hubertus (Zürich RWG)
Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] A. Characterization (CT) Architectural Theory (AT) was an essential component of the architectonic culture of the 15th-18th cents. It was a result of the striving for greater scientific input and systematization that is generally characteristic of the Renaissance. Moreover it followed the ancient idea that lived on in the Middle Ages that the architect, much more than the artist, should also be well-versed in theory. In post-Medieval architecture, most of …

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Menalcidas

(135 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεναλκίδας/ Menalkídas). Spartan, of radically pro-Roman disposition. He had been taken into custody in 168 BC at Alexandria for property offences, but was pardoned because he was a favourite of C. Popillius Laenas (Pol. 30,16,2). In 151/0, as strategos of the Achaean League ( Achaeans with map), during the corruption case concerning the Achaean commitment to Oropus, he betrayed Callicrates [11], bribed Diaeus and, condemned to death in the escalating Achaean-Spartan conflict, fle…

Thoas

(739 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Θόας/ Thóas). [German version] [1] Mythical ruler of Lemnos Mythical ruler of Lemnos (Hom. Il. 14,230; 23,745), son of Dionysus and Ariadne, brother of Oenopion and Staphylus [1] (Apollod. Epit. 1,9). Through his daughter Hypsipyle (Ov. Ep. 6,114), T. is connected with the legend of the Argonauts, because she saved him from the murder of the men by the Lemnian women (Apollod. 1,114 f.); nevertheless, he was killed later (ibid. 3,65) or, according to another version, escaped to Oinoie (= Sicinos) or Chio…
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