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Neleus

(637 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Νηλεύς; Nēleús). [German version] [1] King of the Messenian Pylos King of Messenian Pylos, son of Poseidon and Tyro, the daughter of Salmoneus. Tyro, wife of Cretheus, falls in love with the river god Enipeus. In his guise, Poeseidon sires with her N. and his twin brother Pelias (Hom. Od. 11,235-253; cf. also Hes. Cat. 30f.). After Cretheus' death, strife develops between N. and Pelias over who is to rule in Iolcus. N. is forced to repair to the Peloponnese, where he founds Pylos (Hom. Od. 11,254-259; He…

Metaneira

(182 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μετάνειρα; Metáneira). [German version] [1] Wife of the Eleusinian king Keleos Wife of the Eleusinian king Celeus (according to schol. Eur. Or. 964 of Hippothoon), mother of Demophon [1] and of several daughters. Metaneira takes Demeter, who is looking for Persephone, into her house and entrusts her little son, Demophon, to her care. However she unwittingly disturbs the goddess who is trying to make the child immortal in the fire, and Demeter pulls away from him (Hom. h. 2,185-291; Ov. fast. 4,507ff., in …

Minos

(824 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μίνως, Mínōs). Mythical king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europe [2]; Asterius (Asterion [1]) is said to be his mortal father (Apollod. 3,1,2). M. is the brother of Rhadamanthys (Hom. Il. 14,321f.) and already in Hes. Cat. 140 also of Sarpedon; as Pasiphae's husband, he is the father of Deucalion, Ariadne, Phaedra and other children, from other liaisons as well (their names are listed in Apollod. 3,1,2). Diod. 4,60,3 distinguishes between two rulers named M., grandfather and grandson. M. is particularly well known for his role as a judge and as the first law-m…

Patroclus

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
(Πάτροκλος/ Pátroklos, also Πατροκλῆς/ Patroklês; Lat. Patroclus). [German version] [1] Companion to Achilleus Son of Menoetius [1] from Opus (Hom. Il. 11,814; his mother's name is not given in Homer, alternative suggestions in Apollod. 3,176), best friend of Achilleus [1]. In his childhood, P. kills a fellow-player out of anger during a game of dice and then flees to Phthia to Peleus, who gives him to Achilleus as a companion (Hom. Il. 23,85-90; Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 145; Apollod. 3,176). According to Pind. O…

Menoetius

(182 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μενοίτιος; Menoítios). [German version] [1] Son of Actor and Aegina Son of Actor [1] and Aegina, who settled in Opus (Pind. Ol. 9,69f.); husband of Sthenele (or Periopis or Polymele), father of Patroclus and Myrto (Apollod. 3,13,8; Plut. Aristeides 20,7). In the Ilias M. is designated as hḗrōs (Hom. Il. 11,771; 18,325). When Patroclus killed Cleitonymus, son of Aphidamas, in battle, M. fled with him to Peleus in Phthia. From there, he sent his son to Troy, in support of Achilles [1] (Hom. Il. 23,83ff.; 11,765ff.). M. himself remained in Pht…

Philoctetes

(460 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Φιλοκτήτης/ Philoktḗtēs; Lat. Philoctetes). Thessalian hero, son of Poeas (Hom. Od. 3,190) and Demonassa (Hyg. Fab. 97,8); outstanding archer and companion of Heracles [1]. P. is distinguished by his bow, a token of thanks from Heracles for igniting his funeral pyre on Mt. Oeta (Soph. Phil. 801-803). In Apollod. 3,131 and Hyg. Fab. 81, P. is counted among the suitors of Helena [1]. Party, with seven ships, to the Greek campaign against Troy (Hom. Il. 2,716-725), he is bitten by a sn…

Mantichoras

(127 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (μαντιχώρας; mantichṓras, also martichoras, μαρτιχώρας; martichṓras). According to Ctesias (in Aristot. Hist. an. 2,1, 501a 24ff.), an Indian animal with the body of a lion and the face of a human, with three rows of teeth. The fur was vermilion and the tail was shaped like a scorpion's so that the mantichoras could shoot deadly spines like arrows. The voice sounded like a mixture of a shepherd's pipe and trumpet. The mantichoras is described as fast, wild and man-eating (the meaning of the name, which is of Persian origin; cf. Ael. NA 4,21). Accordi…

Deluge, legend of the

(716 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In Mesopotamia, the legend of the deluge is preserved in a Sumerian as well as an Akkadian version; the Akkadian one is transmitted in 17th-cent. BC copies of the  Atraḫasīs myth[3. 612-645]. Extensive passages reappear verbatim on the 11th tablet of the recension of the Epic of  Gilgamesh from Niniveh [3. 728-738], and the myth is later also transmitted by  Berosus [1. 20 f.]. The gods perceive the noisy behaviour of the humans as hubris, causing them to eliminate …

Melite

(761 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(Μελίτη; Melítē). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, playmate of Persephone's (Hom. H. 2, 419). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nereid Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,42; Hes. Theog. 247; Verg. Aen. 5,825). She is present on Attic vases at the struggle between Peleus and Thetis [1]. Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [3] Naiad Naiad ( Nymphs), daughter of the river-god Aegaeus. When Hercules comes to the land of the Phaeacians to atone for the murder of his children, he fathers a son, Hyllus [2], by M. (Apoll. Rhod. 4,537ff.). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [4] Lover of Hercules Dau…

Metion

(81 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μητίων; Mētíōn). Son of Erechtheus and Praxithea, brother of Cecrops (Apollod. 3,15,1). His sons, the Metionids, drive Pandion, the son and heir of Cecrops, from power in Attica, but are in turn overthrown by his sons (Paus. 1,5,3f.; Apollod. 3,15,5). Daedalus [1] was both M.'s grandson, as the son of Eupalamus (Apollod. 3,15,8), and M.'s son (Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 146; Diod. 4,76,1 with M. as the son of Eupalamus and grandson of Erechtheus). Stenger, Jan (Kiel)

Menestheus

(437 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μενεσθεύς; Menestheús). [German version] [1] Athenian leader at Troy Son of Peteus, great-grandson of Erechtheus. M. led the contingent of Athenians with fifty ships at Troy. Only Nestor was his equal in marshalling horses and warriors for battle (Hom. Il. 2,552ff.). While Theseus was detained in Hades, the Dioscuri conquered Aphidna and installed M. as king of Athens. Theseus's sons fled to Euboea. Because M. gained the favour of the Athenians, they ousted Theseus on his return (Paus. 1,17,5f.). Accord…

Troy

(5,308 words)

Author(s): D.MAN. | M.KO. | Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Caesar | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Dark Ages | Ḫattusa | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources I. History [German version] A. Name In Homer (Homerus [1]), the forms ἡ Τροίη/ Troíē and ἡ Ἴλιος/ Ílios (for Ilion/Ilium see below I. C.) appear alongside one another. Therefore, there has been discussion of a 'double name' for the settlement, for which the two terms πόλις ( pólis ) and ἄστυ ( ásty

Somnus

(509 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (also Sopor, Greek  ῞Υπνος/ Hýpnos). As a god personifying sleep, Hypnos (= H.) is already mentioned in the Iliad, where Hera visits him on Lemnos and asks him to lull Zeus to sleep (Hom. Il. 14,230-360). In return she promises him Pasithea [2], one of the Graces (cf. Catull. 63,42 f.). Once he had done this, so that Hera could inflict harm on Heracles after the first destruction of Troy, H. had to flee from Zeus's anger to Nyx (Night). He then hides from Zeus in the form of a night b…

Minotaurus

(461 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μινώταυρος; Minṓtauros). Hybrid of man and bull (probably as early as in Hes. Cat. 145), with the animal half generally more prominent. The Minotaur is the product of the union of Pasiphae, the wife of Minos, with the bull that Poseidon sends Minos to consolidate his rule. Daedalus [1] prepares Pasiphae a hollow wooden cow as a disguise to enable congress with the bull (Bakchyl. 26). Minos shuts the resulting Minotaur up in the Labyrinth, where either it is generally fed with huma…

Xanthus

(1,334 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | W.T.
(Ξάνθος/ Xánthos). [German version] [1] Name of several figures in Greek mythology Name of several male figures in Greek mythology: 1) Son of Phaenops [2], who was killed by Diomedes [1] at the gates of Troy (Hom. Il. 5,152-158). 2) Son of Triopas and Oreasis. X. received a part of Lycia; from there, he settled the deserted island of Lesbos (Diod. Sic. 5,81,2; Hyg. Fab. 145). 3) One of the sons of Aegyptus, who is killed by Arcadia, daughter of Danaus (Hyg. Fab. 170). 4) A son of Niobe (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F …

Messeis

(96 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μεσσηίς; Messēís). A spring mentioned in Hom. Il. 6,457. Hector prophesies to Andromache, that one day she will fetch water from the springs Messeis and Hypereia in Argos. According to Strab. 9,5,6, the inhabitants of Pharsalus pointed out a town, Hellas (cf. Heraclides 3,2), entirely in ruins, which was 60 stadia from their own town and in whose vicinity the two springs were to be found. Plin. HN 4,8,30 locates a spring Messeis in Thessaly, whereas Paus. 3,20,1 claims to have seen a well Messeis at Therapne in Laconia. Stenger, Jan (Kiel)

Megareus

(108 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
(Μεγαρεύς; Megareús). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon Son of Poseidon (Hyg. fab. 157), father of Hippomenes (Ov. met. 10,605). M. brings an army to the aid of Nisus against Minos and falls in the battle. The city of Nisa is renamed after M. to Megara [2] (Paus. 1,39,5). According to others, M. is married to Nisus's daughter Iphinoe and succeeds him (ibid. 1,39,6; see also 1,41,3). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Creon [1] and Eurydice Son of Creon [1] and Eurydice. He saves Thebes by sacrificing his own life in war (Aeschyl. Sept. 474; Soph. Ant. 1303 with schol.). Stenger, J…

Xuthus

(309 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
(Ξοῦθος; Xoûthos). [German version] [1] Son of Hellen and Orseis/Othreis Son of Hellen and Orseis/Othreis, brother of Dorus and Aeolus [1] (Hes. fr. 9 MW; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 125; Apollod. 1,49); X. is the mythical ancestor of the tribe of the Ionians (Iones). With Creusa [2], the daughter of the Athenian king Erechtheus, he fathered Ion [1], Achaeus [1] and Diomede (Hes. fr. 10a,20-24 MW; Hdt. 7,94; 8,44; Apollod. 1,50). X. is sent away from Thessaly by his father and journeys to Attica, where he founds …

Peleus

(712 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[English version] (Πηλεύς). Sohn des Aiakos (Hom. Il. 21,189) und der Chiron-Tochter Endeis, Bruder des Telamon (Ov. met. 7,476f.; vgl. Pind. P. 8,100; bei Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 60 sind sie nur Freunde), Gemahl der Nereide Thetis, Vater des Achilleus [1]. Da P. und Telamon ihren Halbbruder Phokos absichtlich töten (Alkmaionis F 1 EpGF; Apollod. 3,160), werden sie von Aiakos aus ihrer Heimat Aigina verbannt. P. geht nach Phthia zu Eurytion [4], der ihn entsühnt und ihm seine Tochter Antigone [2] zur …

Metion

(83 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[English version] (Μητίων). Sohn des Erechtheus und der Praxithea, Bruder des Kekrops (Apollod. 3,15,1). Seine Söhne, die Metioniden, vertreiben Pandion, den Sohn und Nachfolger des Kekrops, aus der Herrschaft in Attika, doch werden sie ihrerseits von dessen Söhnen vertrieben (Paus. 1,5,3f.; Apollod. 3,15,5). Daidalos [1] ist teils als Sohn des Eupalamos der Enkel des M. (Apollod. 3,15,8), teils Sohn des M. (Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 146; Diod. 4,76,1 mit M. als Sohn des Eupalamos und Enkel des Erechtheus). Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
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