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Nicochares

(86 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νικοχάρης; Nikochárēs). Comic poet of the 5th/4th cents. BC, from the Attic Cydathenaeum demos. Son of the comedian Philonides [1. test. 1 and 2]. 28 fragments and 9 titles are preserved, of…

Archippus

(192 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Poet of the Old Comedy Poet of the Old Comedy, one-time winner at the Diony…

Stratagus

(38 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Στράταγος; Strátagos). Greek comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC, known only from an honorary inscription by Dionysus technitai found in Ptolemais in Egypt ( c. 273-246 BC). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttinge…

Aropus

(30 words)

Perseus

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Περσεύς; Perseús). [1] Son of Danae and Zeus, Argive hero [German version] I. Mythology Son of Danae and Zeus, who impregnates her in the form of a shower of gold; grandson of Acrisius, the king of Argos, and Eurydice. Because of an oracle predicting that the son of his daughter will kill him, Acrisius sets Danae and P. adrift at sea in a chest. Mother and son are washed ashore in Seriphus and found and taken in by Dictys [1]. When Polydectes, the brother of Dictys and king of Seriphus, wishes to marry Danae…

Theopompus

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Et al.
(Θεόπομπος/ Theópompos). [German version] [1] Spartan king, around 700 BC Among the early Spartan kings, the Eurypontid T. (Eurypontids), son of Nicander [1] (Hdt. 8,131), is the only one sec…

Laenes

(46 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Λαίνης; Laínēs). Comic poet of the 2nd cent. BC, attested only in inscriptions; he won three victories at the Dionysia (1. test. 2), one of which is dated to 185 BC (1. test. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography

Archedicus

(85 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Poet of the New Comedy, from whom four fragments and two titles ( Diamartanon, Thesauros, where a cook speaks) are extant. Worthy of note is his attack on the politician  Demochares, nephew of Demosthenes [1 test.2 and fr. 4]. A. could be identical with the anagrapheus of the year 320/19 and may have been politically active as ally of the Macedonian royal administrator  Antipater [2]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 533-536 2 Chr. Habicht, The comic poet A., in: Hesperia 62, 1993, 253-256.

Odysseus

(2,574 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ὀδυσσεύς, Latin Ulixes, Etruscan utuze). [German version] I. Mythology Son of Laertes and Anticlea, husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus. One of the central figures of Greek mythology; in Homer's Odyssey, the focus of a major Archaic epic. This fact alone indicates the significance of the figure of  O., which contrasts with the other figures of Greek heroic myth through the emphasis on special intellectual abilities. Thus, he represents an archetype in the history of European thought; his presence in later literature a…

Dioxippus

(73 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Διώξιππος; Diṓxippos). Poet of the Middle Comedy; titles of five plays have survived [1. test. 1]: Antipornoboskós [2], Diadikazómenoi, Thēsaurós, Historiográphos (possibly mocking the oligarchic, pro-Macedonian politician Callimedon, fr. 3Dioxippos fr. 3), and P…

Athenion

(484 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνίων; Athēníōn). [German version] [1] Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens (different from  Aristion [1. 341-343]), only known from the polemic party of  Posidonius (FGrH 87 fr. 36). Sent from Athens to  Mithridates VI in 88 BC, taken up by him among his φίλοι ( phíloi, friends), he won the support of the people with Mithridates' support and had as στρατηγὸς ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα ( strategòs epì tà hópla) a decisive influence on Athenian politics (‘tyrant’). A failed raid on Delos seems to have ended his political career. Olshausen, Ec…

Lycis

(42 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Writer of the Old Comedy, victorious at the Dionysia at the earliest in 411 BC [1. test. 1]; ridiculed in Aristoph. Ran. 12-15 [1. test. 2] because of his bad jokes. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1PCG V, 1986, 615.

Straton

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Wildberg, Christian (Princeton) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Στράτων; Strátōn). [German version] [1] Attic comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Attic comedy writer of the 4th cent. BC, according to the Suda belonging to the Middle Comedy [1. test. 1], but on the basis of fr. 1,43 (mentioning Philitas [1] of Cos) certainly to the New Comedy [2.62 f.]. At the Dionysia of 302, S. attained the fourth place [1. test. 2]. Of the comedy Phoinikídes (fr. 1 PCG) a rhesis survives on papyrus (fr. 1,4-8; 11; 13-15; 17-21; 23-25; 34-50; cf. [3]) and in a divergent version in Athenaeus (fr. 1,1-47; cf. [1.621 f.]); the spe…

Dioscorides

(1,511 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Διοσκουρίδης; Dioskourídēs). [German version] [1] Son of Polemaeus, naval commander in 314-313 BC Son of Polemaeus, nephew of  Antigonus [1] Monophthalmus. Led the fleet to a few victories as naval commander in 314-13 BC. Nothing further is known about his life. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography R. A. Billows, Antigonus the One-Eyed, 1990, 381f. [German version] [2] Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, pupil of Isocrates (Ath. 1,18,11 A). Of his works, the following titles are known (cf. FGrH 3 B 594): 1.

Heraclitus I (Gk)

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλειτος; Hērákleitos). [German version] [1] H. of Ephesus Ionian philosopher, c. 500 BC Son of Bloson, outstanding personality within Ionian philosophy. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] A. The person H.'s main period of activity is estimated to have been about 503-500 BC (Diog. Laert. 9,1). He belonged to a leading family in the public life of Ephesus. The doxographic tradition records several anecdotes of H.'s arrogance and contempt for his fellow citizens and humanity in general, which are mostly based on fragments of H. …

Strattis

(244 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Στράττις/ Stráttis). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Chios, 6th cent. BC Tyrant of Chios, who took part in the Scythian campaign in 513 BC as an adviser of Darius [1] (Hdt. 4,138). It can not be…

Ecphantides

(64 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἐκφαντίδης; Ekphantídēs). Early playwright of the Old Comedy [1. test. 4]. After 458 BC, he won four times in the Dionysia [1. test. 1]. Two titles of his plays are known: Peírai and Sátyroi. An unknown play is the origin of fr. 3Ekphantides fr. 3, in which E. criticizes the Megarian Comedy. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 126-129.

Epochs, concept of

(9,873 words)

Author(s): Demandt, Alexander (Berlin RWG) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Kuhlmann, Peter (Düsseldorf/Gießen RWG)
Demandt, Alexander (Berlin RWG) I. Ancient History (CT) [German version] A. Definitions and Scope (CT) …

Satyr

(1,533 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros, pl. Σάτυροι/ Sátyroi, Latin Satur, Satyrus), also Silenus (Σι-, Σειληνός/ Si-, Seilēnós, pl. Σι-, Σειληνοί/ Si-, Seilēnoí, Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós, Latin Silenus, Silanus). [German version] I. Mythology, art and cult A satyr/Silenus was a member of a group of demons who, since their relatively late emergence at the end of the 7th/beginning of the 6th cent. BC, have formed part of the mythical entourage of the god Dionysus; Silens, as a more or less distinctive and independent figure, emerged from that retinue. Like the older centaurs, the satyrs and Silenoi belong to the hybrids, creatures with combined human and animal characteristics visualized by the Greeks: Mostly snu…
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