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Pythius

(131 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πύθιος/ Pýthios). Rich Lydian, son of Atys, probably from an old-Lydian dynastic family. According to Herodotus' version, P. invited Xerxes [1] to be his guest in Celaenae (in Phrygia) and mentioned the sum value of his wealth with the intention of giving it to him. Xerxes refused it, increasing instead P.' wealth to a round sum. When P. asked for his eldest son to be released from military service, Xerxes had the son cut in two and the two halves laid to the left and the right of…

Jariri

(128 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] Prince regent of Karchemish, at the beginning of the 8th cent. BC, tutor of Kamani, the son of Astiruwa. Pictorial representation of J. with Kamani: CARCAMIS bk. 7. In his inscription in Luwian hieroglyphs (CARCAMIS A 6,2-3) ( Hieroglyphic scripts (Asia Minor)), he boasts of being well known in foreign countries: in Egypt, Urartu, among the Lydians, Phrygians and Phoenicians, countries in which J. probably travelled. For in his second inscription (CARCAMIS A 15b, 4), in which he maintains that he can write four scripts ( SCRIBA-lalija): hieroglyphic Luvian, Phoeni…

Sadyattes

(361 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Σαδυάττης/ Sadyáttēs). Luwian name: prefix * sādu- 'efficient', final part - atta either 'father' as in Hittite, then 'stalwart father', or - more likely (- atta is a suffix) - 'a person who possesses stalwartness [1. 450]. The occurrence of the name after 1200 BC is proof of the survival of Luwian culture in West Anatolia until the Achaemenids in c. 550 BC. [German version] [1] Last king of Lydia from the house of the Heraclidae, murdered in c. 680 BC Last king of Lydia from the house of the Heraclidae, murdered by Gyges [1] in c. 680 BC. His epithet Candaules probably alludes to Hermes…

Ardys

(204 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Ἄρδυς; Árdys). [German version] [1] Lydian king of the Heraclid dynasty Lydian king of the Heraclid dynasty. The Heraclid list in Herodotus (1,7) and FGrH 90 Nicolaus (of Xanthus) is a construct from the time of Croesus, when Sparta's support was sought. A. supposedly was temporarily a cartwright and head of a caravan station ( kapeleion) in Cyme (FGrH 90 F 44). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Lydian king about 645 BC Lydian king about 645 BC. Son and successor of  Gyges, the founder of the Mermnad dynasty. Cimmerian raids -- now in conjunction with …

Alyattes

(117 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀλυάττης; Alyáttēs). Lydian king ( c. 600-561 BC), son of  Sadyattes, father of  Croesus. New founder of the empire, which he led to great power (list of peoples: Hdt. 1,28): he conquered  Smyrna (Hdt. 1,16) and undertook yearly campaigns against  Miletus (Hdt. 1,18). These aimed for the collection of tribute. Miletus received a special position as a foreign trade port (cf. Hdt. 1,141). In the east A. extended the kingdom to the upper  Halys (Mazaka). There it came to battles with the…

Mermnadae

(110 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μερμνάδαι; Mermnádai). Lydian lineage, presumably originating in the Mysian-Bithynian region (see Dascyleion [2]). According to Andronius (apud Glossarium Oxy. 1802, Z. 46 [POxy book 15]), the name derives from the word for ‘buzzard’ (Indo-European root. * merh, ‘to grab, rob’). In c. 680 BC, the M. under Gyges gained power in Sardis where it is said they deposed the Heracleidae, who may have been of Luwian origin (Maeones; Maeonia [1]). The last ruler of the house of M. was Croesus (Hdt. 1,6-7; 27-92). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) Bibliography S. Mazzarino, Fra orien…

Ctesias

(572 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Κτησίας, Ktēsías) of Cnidus [German version] A. Life Historian in terms of literary genre, but in modern terms a novelist. C. came from an old family of doctors and lived as personal physician at the court of Artaxerxes [2]II for several years (405-398/7 BC). On his behalf he made contact with  Evagoras [1], the Athenian  Conon [1], as well as with Sparta. Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) [German version] B. Works C. composed a Períodos (a geographical treatise) and an Indiká with a range of factual reports. C. became famous, however, for his large, 23-volume Persiká written in lonic dialec…

Phradasmanes

(49 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Φραδασμάνης; Phradasmánēs). Son of Phrataphernes, satrap of Parthia and Hyrcania. P. and his brothers were accepted into a Macedonian-Iranian cavalry unit in Susa in 324 BC (Arr. Anab. 7,6,4f.). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) Bibliography A.B. Bosworth, Alexander and the Iranians, in: JHS 100, 1980, 1-21, esp. 13.

Otys

(68 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ὄτυς; Ótys). King of the Paphlagonians (Paphlagonia) and vassal of the king of the Persians. It is very likely that he bears an Iranian name (cf. Otanes, Old Persian Utāna-), whose etymology, as is often the case with abbreviated names, cannot be determined. In 395 BC, O. entered into an alliance against the great king together with Agesilaus [2] of Sparta. Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)

Gyges

(420 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Γύγης; Gýgēs). [German version] [1] Lyd. king, 7th cent BC Lydian king ( c. 680-644 BC) and founder of the Mermnade Dynasty, is said, according to Herodotus (1,12), to have married the wife of his predecessor  Candaules, murdered by him, and (in this way) to have won rule in Sardis. It is uncertain from where the Lydian-speaking Mermnades came (from Maionia/Mysia?). In any case they were probably not in Sardis until the 1st millennium. Their relationship with the Luvian-speaking ([1. 384,10]  Luvian,  Lydia…

Tomyris

(193 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόμυρις/ Tómyris), 'the heroic' (?). Queen of the Massagetes, to the southeast of the Aral Sea, c. 530 BC. The exclusively Greek and Latin accounts are presumably legendary, with the earliest surviving being from Herodotus [1], also the most believable (Hdt. 1,205-214). In order to gain power over the Massagetae Cyrus [2] wooed T. but she spurned him. Cyrus decided on a military campaign and at the river Araxes [2] at the border received a message from T.: he may either continue three days' marc…

Tithraustes

(160 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Τιθραύστης/ Tithraústēs, 'the best by origin'). [German version] [1] Chiliarch of Artaxerxes [2] II, c. 400 BC Chiliarch (Medean hazarapati, 'master of a thousand') of Artaxerxes [2] II, defeated Tissaphernes at Colossae in 395 BC and then in the name of the Great King offered the victor of Sardis, Agesilaus [2], autonomy for the Ionian cities, provided that the Spartans vacated Asia Minor and the Ionians again paid tribute to the Great King (Xen. Hell. 3,4,25 f.; Plut. Agesilaus 10,6-8; Diod. 14,80,7 f.). Betwee…

Zarina

(33 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζαρίνα; Zarína). Queen of the Sacae, supposed to have waged war with the Medes ( c. 600 BC) (Ctesias F 7-8 FGrH 688; Nicolaus F 5 FGrH 90). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)

Maussolus

(369 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μαύσσωλος; Maússōlos, in inscriptions also Μαύσσωλλος; Maússōllos). Satrap of Caria (377-353 BC), son of Hecatomnus. The name M. is Carian, the word formation points to Indo-European and Ancient Anatolian origins, although the etymology is not clear. M. is to be considered a preserver and supporter of ancient Anatolian and Carian culture, esp. in the area of religion (cf. [1. 57-64; 591-644); there is little evidence for affinity with Greek cults. Nevertheless he opened himself to Gree…

Adramys

(25 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἄδραμυς; Ádramys). Lydian, son of the king  Sadyattes, unequal half-brother of  Alyattes (Nic. Damas. FGrH 90 F 63). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)

Evagoras

(527 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Εὐαγόρας; Euagóras). [German version] [1] E. I. City king of Salamis on Cyprus since approximately 411 BC ( c. 435-374/3 BC), from c. 411 Greek king of Salamis in Cyprus. Apart from Greeks, Salamis was from the 9th/8th cents. also inhabited by Phoenicians. Other cities were even ruled by Phoenician kings, such as Citium, Amathus and Soli. However, there were no ethnic tensions. The cultural differences themselves began to blur in the early 4th cent. BC. Both Greek and Phoenician kings were equally receptive to the …

Harpagus

(123 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Ἅρπαγος; Hárpagos). [German version] [1] Marshal under Cyrus, about 550 BC Median who, from c. 550 BC, fought as a field marshal in Cyrus' service against the Lydians, Ionians, Carians and Lycians (Hdt. 1,80; 162-169; 171-176). Against the Ionian cities, he built earth walls (Hdt. 1,162) and employed the first catapults in history during their conquest; this is documented for Phocaea. Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Persian field marshal, beginning 5th cent. BC Persian field marshal who, during the  Ionian Revolt (499-497 BC), captured Histiaeus in Mi…

Damasithymus

(83 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Δαμασίθυμος; Damasíthymos). Dynast of Calynda in Caria. His father, Candaules, bore a name attested for Lydia. In 480 BC as taxiarch of a Carian fleet contingent, D. took part in Xerxes' campaign against Greece (Hdt. 7,98). He died in the sea battle of Salamis when Artemisia [1] of Halicarnassus sank his ship in order to avoid being pursued by an Athenian ship (Hdt. 8,87; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,53,2). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) Bibliography J. Melber, in: Jahrbuch für Philologische Studien 14, 1885, 480-484.

Labynetus

(114 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λαβύνητος; Labýnētos; Hellenized form of Akkadian Nabû-na'id/Nabonid). The Hellenized form of the name occurs only in Herodotus [1]. By L., he is probably referring to the kings of the Neo-Babylonian Dynasty (625-539 BC)in general. Two Neo-Babylonian kings play a part in Herodotus: Nebuchadnezzar [2] II (604-562), together with a Cilician ruler ( Syennesis), he negotiated the truce of 585 BC between the Lydians and the Medes (Hdt. 1,74). Nabonid (555-539), was a confederate of Croes…

Hecatomnos

(123 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἑκατόμνως; Hekatómnōs). Carian dynast from Mylasa (Syll.3 167; 168). Son of Hyssaldomos. Appointed satrap of the newly founded satrapy of Caria by Artaxerxes II in 392/1 BC (Diod. 14,98,3). H. was supposed to lead the war against the renegade  Evagoras [1] I of Salamis on Cyprus together with the satrap Autophradates of Lydia (115 Theopompus FGrH F 103). The war at sea started unsuccessfully in 391 because H. secretly supported Evagoras with money (Diod. Sic. 14,98,3 with 15,2,3). H. p…
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